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Using Ground Penetrating Radar
for Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Detection
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
UXO are a hazard and need to be safely located
and removed
CNN, 2018 The Guardian, 2017
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• UXOs exist in regions that have encountered
substantial bombing during past wars, such as Europe,
Asia and the US.
• UXOs deteriorate over time making them more
sensitive and more likely to explode if disturbed.
• UXOs prevent civil land use, are a danger to public
safety and are a significant environmental concern.
• Locating UXO prior to excavation is required to prevent
serious consequences.
The need for UXO Detection
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• Magnetometers find buried ferrous
(iron-rich) metallic objects, including
UXO
• Easy & quick locates
• Less effective when:
– Other metallic objects are nearby
(utilities, fences, vehicles, etc.)
– Geophysical noise
– Magnetic contamination
Magnetics is the most common Detection Method
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-invasive technique
for locating subsurface features
• GPR works by emitting radio waves into the ground &
measuring the reflected responses
• GPR can detect bombs and artillery shells
Ground Penetrating Radar can also be used for
UXO detection
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• GPR can detect all subsurface objects, including
non-metallic items
• The signal is directed into the ground so surface
metal objects do not interfere with GPR data
acquisition
• GPR can help identify linear (utilities) versus
point targets (UXO)
• GPR provides depth information of targets
GPR can overcome the limitations of
magnetics
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
GPR lines can locate possible UXO
UXO
• As GPR data is
collected, the results
are shown in a “cross-
section” view
• A hyperbola indicates
a possible point target
• By examining the
results, GPR can help
locate areas where
UXO could be buried.
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
GPR Grids can help detect UXO on large and
complex sites
• GPR lines can be
processed into
depth slices of
the surveyed
area
• As you slice
through at
varying depths,
point targets &
linear utilities
become visible
Large targets
of interest
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
GPR Grids can help detect UXO on large and
complex sites
• Depth Slices
generated from
the GPR survey
can highlight
point targets
and linear utility
features
Small targets
of interest
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: WWII BMW fabrication plant
• New construction was planned at a WWII BMW
fabrication plant
• 1st ½ meter of soil was littered with metallic debris
from the prior building demolition making a magnetic
survey not possible
• A GPR survey was conducted
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Aerial photo - June 7th 1945, Munich
BMW plant was amidst heavily bombed area
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: WWII BMW fabrication plant
• GPR results showed an anomalous response just
below the surface
• A 1000 lb US Demolition Bomb was uncovered
and successfully defused
• Construction at the site proceeded without
incident
UXO
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North
of Munich
• Over 100 bombs were suspected to be buried throughout the
airport site and needed to be found
• An area of 10,000m2 was surveyed
– Magnetic survey conducted over entire area and suspect areas identified
– GPR lines were collected over the suspected targets to pin point location and
depth of the UXO
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North
of Munich
Excavation of Line 2 based on GPR Results
BOMB
PIPE
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North
of Munich
Excavation of Line 6 based on GPR Results
BOMB
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• 5 bombs of type GP
150lb T1 (General
Purpose) were found
Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North
of Munich
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: GPR used to confirm magnetometer
and EMI located UXO
• GPR was used to
determine the
exact location &
depth of the
suspected UXO
Depth = 30cm
Depth Slice Results in EKKO_ProjectTM:
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: GPR used to confirm magnetometer
and EMI located UXO
Depth Slice Results in EKKO_ProjectTM:
Depth = 50cm
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: GPR used to confirm magnetometer
and EMI located UXO
Depth Slice Results in EKKO_ProjectTM:
Depth = 60cm
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Example: GPR used to detect artillery shells of
various sizes, weight, depths and compositions
A GPR line was collected over a test pit containing various
artillery shells
5 kg artillery shells
1 kg
artillery
shell Plastic
shell
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
GPR can be deployed in many ways… depending
on your project needs
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Use GPR to make Informed Decisions
• Determine where the UXOs are
• Get an idea of the depth of
UXOs
• Provides an overall picture of
what is in the ground
• Complements other Magnetic
and EMI surveys
• Identify key areas of interest
for further investigation
• Offers a variety of deliverables
Subsurface
Data
Interpretation
Knowledge
Informed
Decisions
VALUE
INFORMATION
Subsurface
Data
Interpretation
Knowledge
Informed
Decisions
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• GPR provides a detailed picture of what is in the ground
• GPR is cost-effective
• GPR is easy to learn and implement in your workflow
Use GPR for your UXO detection projects
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
• Customized training at your facility
• Regular courses at Sensors & Software Inc.
• Personalized webinars for your team
• Free On-Demand training
Training Available from Sensors & Software
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Online Resources
Newsletters
Case Studies
EKKO_Project software tutorials
© Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc.
Want to learn more?
We would be happy to discuss how you can incorporate GPR into your
UXO detection projects.
Schedule a lunch & learn session today!
Sensors & Software Inc.
1040 Stacey Court
Mississauga, Ontario Canada
L4W 2X8
Office: +1 905 624 8909
http://www.sensoft.ca/
Contact Us
Sensors & Software Europe GmbH
Auf der Haide 8
D-56203 Höhr-Grenzhausen
Germany
Office: +49 (2624) 915 9353
europe.sensoft.ca

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Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) | Military | UXO

  • 1. Using Ground Penetrating Radar for Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Detection
  • 2. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. UXO are a hazard and need to be safely located and removed CNN, 2018 The Guardian, 2017
  • 3. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • UXOs exist in regions that have encountered substantial bombing during past wars, such as Europe, Asia and the US. • UXOs deteriorate over time making them more sensitive and more likely to explode if disturbed. • UXOs prevent civil land use, are a danger to public safety and are a significant environmental concern. • Locating UXO prior to excavation is required to prevent serious consequences. The need for UXO Detection
  • 4. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • Magnetometers find buried ferrous (iron-rich) metallic objects, including UXO • Easy & quick locates • Less effective when: – Other metallic objects are nearby (utilities, fences, vehicles, etc.) – Geophysical noise – Magnetic contamination Magnetics is the most common Detection Method
  • 5. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-invasive technique for locating subsurface features • GPR works by emitting radio waves into the ground & measuring the reflected responses • GPR can detect bombs and artillery shells Ground Penetrating Radar can also be used for UXO detection
  • 6. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • GPR can detect all subsurface objects, including non-metallic items • The signal is directed into the ground so surface metal objects do not interfere with GPR data acquisition • GPR can help identify linear (utilities) versus point targets (UXO) • GPR provides depth information of targets GPR can overcome the limitations of magnetics
  • 7. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. GPR lines can locate possible UXO UXO • As GPR data is collected, the results are shown in a “cross- section” view • A hyperbola indicates a possible point target • By examining the results, GPR can help locate areas where UXO could be buried.
  • 8. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. GPR Grids can help detect UXO on large and complex sites • GPR lines can be processed into depth slices of the surveyed area • As you slice through at varying depths, point targets & linear utilities become visible Large targets of interest
  • 9. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. GPR Grids can help detect UXO on large and complex sites • Depth Slices generated from the GPR survey can highlight point targets and linear utility features Small targets of interest
  • 10. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: WWII BMW fabrication plant • New construction was planned at a WWII BMW fabrication plant • 1st ½ meter of soil was littered with metallic debris from the prior building demolition making a magnetic survey not possible • A GPR survey was conducted
  • 11. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Aerial photo - June 7th 1945, Munich BMW plant was amidst heavily bombed area
  • 12. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: WWII BMW fabrication plant • GPR results showed an anomalous response just below the surface • A 1000 lb US Demolition Bomb was uncovered and successfully defused • Construction at the site proceeded without incident UXO
  • 13. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North of Munich • Over 100 bombs were suspected to be buried throughout the airport site and needed to be found • An area of 10,000m2 was surveyed – Magnetic survey conducted over entire area and suspect areas identified – GPR lines were collected over the suspected targets to pin point location and depth of the UXO
  • 14. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North of Munich Excavation of Line 2 based on GPR Results BOMB PIPE
  • 15. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North of Munich Excavation of Line 6 based on GPR Results BOMB
  • 16. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • 5 bombs of type GP 150lb T1 (General Purpose) were found Example: 5 UXO located at a 1945 Airport North of Munich
  • 17. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: GPR used to confirm magnetometer and EMI located UXO • GPR was used to determine the exact location & depth of the suspected UXO Depth = 30cm Depth Slice Results in EKKO_ProjectTM:
  • 18. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: GPR used to confirm magnetometer and EMI located UXO Depth Slice Results in EKKO_ProjectTM: Depth = 50cm
  • 19. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: GPR used to confirm magnetometer and EMI located UXO Depth Slice Results in EKKO_ProjectTM: Depth = 60cm
  • 20. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Example: GPR used to detect artillery shells of various sizes, weight, depths and compositions A GPR line was collected over a test pit containing various artillery shells 5 kg artillery shells 1 kg artillery shell Plastic shell
  • 21. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. GPR can be deployed in many ways… depending on your project needs
  • 22. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Use GPR to make Informed Decisions • Determine where the UXOs are • Get an idea of the depth of UXOs • Provides an overall picture of what is in the ground • Complements other Magnetic and EMI surveys • Identify key areas of interest for further investigation • Offers a variety of deliverables Subsurface Data Interpretation Knowledge Informed Decisions VALUE INFORMATION Subsurface Data Interpretation Knowledge Informed Decisions
  • 23. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • GPR provides a detailed picture of what is in the ground • GPR is cost-effective • GPR is easy to learn and implement in your workflow Use GPR for your UXO detection projects
  • 24. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. • Customized training at your facility • Regular courses at Sensors & Software Inc. • Personalized webinars for your team • Free On-Demand training Training Available from Sensors & Software
  • 25. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Online Resources Newsletters Case Studies EKKO_Project software tutorials
  • 26. © Copyright 2018, Sensors & Software Inc. Want to learn more? We would be happy to discuss how you can incorporate GPR into your UXO detection projects. Schedule a lunch & learn session today! Sensors & Software Inc. 1040 Stacey Court Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4W 2X8 Office: +1 905 624 8909 http://www.sensoft.ca/ Contact Us Sensors & Software Europe GmbH Auf der Haide 8 D-56203 Höhr-Grenzhausen Germany Office: +49 (2624) 915 9353 europe.sensoft.ca

Editor's Notes

  1. Geophysical noise - Ferrous objects in made ground, ferrous geological materials, surface structures and infrastructure and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field Ground obstructions - reworded to Magnetic contamination - eletronics, power lines, man made magnetic fields - some could apply to GPR as well