SlideShare a Scribd company logo
An Introduction to Grid Computing

                                        Prashanth Chengi

                                         NPSF, C-DAC Pune


                                           July 09, 2012




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   1 / 35
Plan of Talk
 1    What is ‘Grid Computing’ ?
 2    History of Grid Computing
 3    Milestones in Grid Computing
 4    Grid Checklist
 5    Need for Grid Computing
 6    Advantanges of Grid Computing
 7    Applications which can run on the grid
 8    Architecture of the Grid
 9    Virtual Organizations
 10   Grid software components
 11   Grid Computing: A user’s perspective
 12   Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective
 13   Challenges of Grid Computing
 14   Questions?
 15   References
Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   2 / 35
What is Grid Computing?



        Grid computing is enabling, sharing, selection, and aggregation of
        distributed resources and presenting them as a single, unified resource.
        Grand vision: Analogous to power grids.
               Users can use resources without needing to know source.
               An abstraction of implementation specifics from users.
               ‘The whole is bigger than the part’.
               Allows users to use more resources than they independently own.
        Related terms: Collaborative computing, cooperative computing,
        shared computing.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   3 / 35
History of Grid Computing



        Born at a workshop called “Building a Computational Grid” held at
        Argonne National Laboratory in September 1997.
        Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, and Steve Tuecker are regarded as
        ‘Fathers of grid computing’.
        Immediate ancestor: Metacomputing, Circa 1990
        FAFNER (Factoring via Network-Enabled Recursion) and I-WAY
        (Information Widea Area Year) were early adopters of metacomputing.
        SETI@Home, Folding@Home, BOINC, GIMPS




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   4 / 35
Milestones in GridComputing [4]

        Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)
               Specifies security policies.
               Uses Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) protocol.
               Uses Web Services Description Language (WSDL) and Simple Object
               Access Protocol (SOAP) for grid services.
        Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI)
               Specifies communication protocols.
        Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF)
               Refactoring of OSGI to exploit web services.
        Globus Toolkit
               Toolkit for developing grid software.
               Includes authentication framework, message-level and transport-level
               security.
               Provides Java classes and libraries for certificate-based authentication
               support, access controls and credential management

Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   5 / 35
Foster’s Three point grid checklist [1]




        Coordinates resources that are not subjected to centralized control...
        ...using standard, open, general-purpose protocols and interfaces...
        ...to deliver nontrivial qualities of service.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   6 / 35
Need for Grid Computing



        Millions of computer instruction cycles are wasted when not in use.
        Users‘ programs are constrained by limited amount of available
        resources.
        If CPU cycle scavenging could be done, and the saved cycles shared,
        resources could be better utilized.
        Mutual resource sharing would mean users are no longer constrained
        to use only resources actually owned/operated by themselves.
        Enter grid computing.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   7 / 35
Advantages of Grid Computing



        Exploitation of under utilized resources
               In most organizations, desktop machines are busy less than 5% of the
               time.
               Often, even servers are idle.
               Resources such as storage may also be under utilized.
               These resources can be shared over the grid.
        Parallel CPU capacity
               In addition to pure scientific needs, industries such as bio-medical field,
               finance, oil exploration and motion picture animation require massive
               parallel CPU capacity.
               These applications can easily tap into resources available over the grid.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   8 / 35
Advantages of Grid Computing


        Data grids
               Files and databases can span many systems and thus have larger
               capacities than on any single system.
               Such spanning can improve data transfer rates through use of striping
               techniques.
               Data can be duplicated throughout the grid to serve as backup.
        Resource balancing
               For applications that are grid-enabled, scheduling can be done on
               machines with low utilization thereby achieving a resource balancing
               effect.
               An unexpected peak can be routed to relatively idle machines on the
               grid.
               If the grid is already fully utilized, lowest priority tasks can be
               suspended or even cancelled and taken up later.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   9 / 35
Advantages of Grid Computing




                                 Representation of data grid.             Diag courtesy [3, IBM Redbook]




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing                  July 09, 2012     10 / 35
Advantages of Grid Computing


        Reliability
               High-end conventional computing systems use expensive hardware to
               increase reliability.
               Grid allows for machine redundancy and instant failover to other
               resources.
               Resources can be taken down for maintainance/upgrades withoun
               crippling projects involved.
        Communication
               When machines on a grid are connected to the internet and don’t share
               the same communication paths, they add to the total available
               bandwidth.
               It makes it possible to have redundant communication paths, as
               communication can quickly be rerouted through other paths.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   11 / 35
Applications which can run on the grid


        The nature of the grid restricts usage of the grid.
        The grid cannot be used for all applications, but it is extremely
        practical for certain types of applications.
        High Throughput problems
               Computing grids can be used to schedule these tasks across resources.
               As soon as a processor finishes one task, the next task arrives. In this
               way, hundreds of tasks can be performed in a very short time.
        Embarrassingly parallel problems
               These are problems which can be broken down into parts which are
               completely independent of each other.
               Example: Fingerprint matching in an extremely large database. The
               images are unique and not dependent on each other.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   12 / 35
Applications which can run on the grid


        Course-grained calculations
               These are often embarrassingly parallel “Monte Carlo simulations”,
               where parameters are varied and results observed.
        High-performance problems
               These are problems which require supercomputing resources.
               Supercomputers generally deal with computer-centric problems; the
               secret to solving these probems is “teraflops”: as many as possible.
               HPC grids require extremely low-latency/high-throughput networks.
               TeraGrid in US and DEISA in Europe are examples of supercomputing
               grids.
        In general, HPC applications are not suitable for running on grids
        where network connectivity is not excellent or bandwidth is a
        constraint.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   13 / 35
Architecture of the Grid



        Network layer: The lowest layer, connecting the grid resources.
        Resource layer: Resources may be computers, storage systems,
        electronic catalogues, sensors etc connected to the network.
        Middleware layer: Tools that enable various elements of the grid to
        participate in a grid.
        Application layer: The highest layer, it includes applications in
        science, engineering, business, finance and more, as well as portals
        and development toolkit to support applications.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   14 / 35
Virtual Organizations




        Virtual Organinizations (VOs) are groups of people who share a
        common goal.
        To achieve their mutual goal, VO members share access to each
        other’s computers, programs, files, data and networks in a controlled,
        secure and flexible manner.
        For example, the Earth sciences VO unites scientists and researchers
        working in the domain of Earth sciences.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   15 / 35
Grid software components



        Management components
               All grids have some management components to keep track of resource
               availability, membership information etc.
               Grid software also needs to track capacities and current utilization of
               nodes in realtime.
               It’s also responsible for monitoring node health, usage patterns and
               statistics.
               Some grid systems provide their own login to the grid while others
               depend on the native operating systems for user authentication.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   16 / 35
Grid software components



        Distributed grid management
               Often, grid software are hierarchical, thereby allowing for decentralized
               management.
               Clusters of clusters approach.
               For example, a top-level scheduler only submits tasks to the
               cluster-level scheduler, instead of trying to schedule the actual run of
               the job.
               Lower level schedulers handle the assignment of the task to the
               individual machines and gathering of output to be passed to the
               higher-level job manager.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   17 / 35
Grid software components


        Donor software
               Each machine on the grid needs to install some software which is
               required by other members of the VO.
               These software may be scientific libraries, compilers and other software
               packages.
               The machines need to have the necessary binaries to execute the users’
               jobs.
        Submission software
               Usually any member machine of a grid can be used to submit jobs to
               the grid and initiate grid queries.
               However, on some grid systems, this function is implemented as a
               separate component installed on submission nodes or submission
               clients.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   18 / 35
Grid software components



        Schedulers
               Most grid systems include some sort of job scheduling software.
               The scheduler locates a machine on which to run a grid job that has
               been submitted by a user.
               Simplest of schedulers are round-robin schedulers, which cyclically
               assign jobs to machines matching the job requirements.
               Other schedulers have complex scheduling logic and manage multiple
               queues of jobs.
               Schedulers measure current utilization of machines or depend on
               cluster management software to provide it relevant figures.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   19 / 35
Grid software components




        Schedulers (contd)
               Schedulers may also be hierarchical, i.e. top-level scheduler submitting
               jobs to cluster schedulers.
               Schedulers generally maintain job state information and are responsible
               for resubmitting jobs in the event of failures.
               Schedulers also offer resource reservation, thereby eliminating the need
               for the users to manually monitor resource availability.
               Schedulers also often offer opportunistic job migration.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   20 / 35
Grid software components




        Communications
               Jobs submitted on the grid may need to communicate with each other.
               For example, a job may split itself into a large number of subjobs which
               need to exchange information amongst themselves.
               The subjobs would need to be able to locate other subjobs and send
               appropriate data.
               As a result, the open standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) and its
               variations are a often included as part of the grid system.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   21 / 35
Grid software components


        Monitoring and measurement
               Donor software often includes tools that measure current load and
               activity on given machine using either OS tools or by direct
               measurement.
               Some grid systems provide means for implementing custom load
               sensors for other than CPU or storage resources.
               Schedulers often depend on these tools to make scheduling decisions.
               These statistics are also useful for discovering usage patters in the grid.
               Usage pattern analysis is used to better predict resource requirements
               of the job for its next run.
               The measurement information can be saved for accounting purposes or
               as the basis for grid resource brokering.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   22 / 35
Grid Computing: A user’s perspective


 In this section, we will see the the grid from a user’s perspective.
      Enrolling and installing grid software
               While there may be testbed grid setups with free and unrestricted
               access to all, production grids require users to first sign up for VO
               membership.
               In order to obtain VO membership, it is mandatory to obtain a digital
               certificate vouching for his/her identity.
               The identity certificate will have to be obtained from a certification
               authority (CA) trusted by the VO which the user wishes to subscribe to.
               Upon verifying the identity of the user, the CA will issue a digital
               certificate to the user, which the user has to safeguard and take
               responsibility for.
               Upon installing identity credentials, the user then has to install client
               software for accessing the grid.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   23 / 35
Grid Computing: A user’s perspective



        Logging onto the grid.
               Many grid systems require the user to log on to a system using an id
               enrolled in the grid.
               Often, the digital certificate itself forms the user’s id for logging onto
               the grid.
               In case of the former, the user’s login information must be replicated
               all over the grid in the exact fashion.
               In case of the latter, the user’s credentials may be mapped to any local
               account and it is completely opaque to the user.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   24 / 35
Grid Computing: A user’s perspective



        Querying and submitting jobs
               The user usually performs queries to check to the resource availability
               on the grid.
               The user may specify custom requirements in his submit script.
               Grid systems usually provide command-line tools, if not graphical, to
               check the status of jobs already submitted by the user and to query
               status of the grid.
               This allows users to write custom scripts to check the status of the grid
               and automatically fire jobs, if conditions are favorable.
               Scripts can also be used to submit pipeline jobs: a series of jobs in
               which each job depends on the output of of it’s predecessor.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   25 / 35
Grid Computing: A user’s perspective



        The job submit process
               Firstly, the job input data and possibly the executable program/script is
               staged in. Alternatively, the data and/or executable may already be on
               the grid machine.
               The job is the executed on the grid machine, either using a common
               user credential or the user’s own grid identity.
               The results of the job are sent back to the submitter in a process called
               staging out.
               In some cases, intermediate output is made available to the user
               through console/GUI.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   26 / 35
Grid Computing: A user’s perspective




        Data configuration
               The data accessed by grid jobs may simply be staged in and out by the
               grid system.
               However, in case of pipe-line jobs and other subjobs, repeated staging
               in can be avoided by using a networked file system instead.
               Many grid sites also offer storage resource manager services which can
               be used to store input data for repeated retrieval.
               A user should always respect the grid site’s file storage policies.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   27 / 35
Grid Computing: A user’s perspective


        Resource reservation
               Many grid site offer the service of advance job reservations.
               A user wanting to execute a job may apply for a slot in advance, in
               which case jobs submitted by him will await for unreserved resource
               availability or the commencement of reservation window, whichever
               comes first.
               Reservations fix the latest time a job may come into execution.
               Users have to be careful in estimating resource requirements as
               inaccurate estimations may adversely affect the job’s time spent in
               queued state.
               Sites offer reservations for not only compute resources but also other
               resources such as scanners, sensors and storage.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   28 / 35
Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective


        Planning
               The admin should understand the organization’s requirements and
               accordingly deploy resources.
               It is advisible to deploy a testbed grid to gain understanding of the
               system and to experiment with settings before deploying them onto the
               production environment.
        Security
               Admins must take care to prevent unauthorized access of data in a
               multi-user grid environment.
               The machines must be constantly monitored and updated to fix
               vulnerability issues as and when they are discovered.
               Public keys must be backed up and private keys must be carefully
               secured.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   29 / 35
Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective



        User and quota management
               Admins are required to ensure that VO members possess valid
               accounts/credential mapping on all grid resources.
               Admins must stay updated about user credential revokations and
               cancellations and remove access privileges to such users.
               They must plan and enforce restrictions on resources such as
               processors, storage etc to ensure fair usage opportunity to all users.
               They must actively monitor machines to ensure that all necessary
               services are up and running.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   30 / 35
Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective



        Certificate Authority (CA)
               It is critical to maintain highest levels of security in a grid because it
               allows multiple users to not only access data but also to execute code.
               The CA is responsible for positively identifying entities requesting for
               VO membership/credentials and ensure their bonafides.
               Issue certificates to users whose bonafides have been verified.
               The CA should take all measures to protect the CA server.
               He/she should ensure that members who have quit the VO are
               promptly removed and revocation lists are regularly published.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   31 / 35
Challenges of Grid Computing

        Security
               Access policy: What is shared? Who is allowed to share? When sharing
               can occur?
               Authentication: How do you identify a user or resource?
               Authorization: How to determine whether a certain operation is
               adhering to rules?
               These questions led to development of security infrastructure for the
               grid.
        User requirements
               Compute resources are often not general purpose. They are tuned for
               performance for certain classes of applications.
               Users often require installation of custom software to run their
               applications. This is problematic in shared access scenarios.
               A need was therefore felt for setting up ‘Virtual Organizations’ (VOs),
               in which people working on similar technologies/domains could share
               resources amongst each other.

Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   32 / 35
Challenges of Grid Computing


        Networking performance
               Grids by definition have to be allow geographic distribution.
               Networking becomes a major problem when resources are spread across
               a WAN, across cities or even contries.
               Grid middleware needs to have high degrees of fault tolerance, to allow
               for intermittent and transient network failures.
        Gridifying applications
               Not all applications can be transformed to run in parallel or on a grid.
               There are no practical tools for transforming arbitrary applications to
               exploit the parallel capabilities of a grid: applications need to often be
               rewritten.
               Parallelizing a non-parallel application requires mathematical and
               programming expertize.
               Scalability of the actual problem.



Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   33 / 35
Questions?




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   34 / 35
References




 [1] Ian Foster. What is the Grid? A Three Point Checklist. url:
     http://dlib.cs.odu.edu/WhatIsTheGrid.pdf.
 [2]      url: http://www.gridcafe.org/.
 [3] B. Jacob et al. Introduction to grid computing. 2005. url:
     http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg246778.pdf.
 [4] Ken North. Milestones in Grid Computing. url:
     http://www.gridsummit.com/Articles/Milestones.htm.




Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune)   An Introduction to Grid Computing   July 09, 2012   35 / 35

More Related Content

What's hot

50120130406035
5012013040603550120130406035
50120130406035
IAEME Publication
 
poster_fit_22
poster_fit_22poster_fit_22
poster_fit_22
Muhammad Afaq Ahmad
 
Energy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud Infrastructure
Energy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud InfrastructureEnergy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud Infrastructure
Energy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud Infrastructure
Mario Jose Villamizar Cano
 
A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...
A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...
A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...
ijasuc
 
CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...
CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...
CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...
ijcsit
 
Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...
Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...
Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...
IJECEIAES
 
High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...
High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...
High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...
EUDAT
 
Computer_Clustering_Technologies
Computer_Clustering_TechnologiesComputer_Clustering_Technologies
Computer_Clustering_Technologies
Manish Chopra
 
Dp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_final
Dp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_finalDp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_final
Dp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_final
Bikramjit Chowdhury
 
A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...
A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...
A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...
IJSTA
 
A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...
A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...
A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...
Tal Lavian Ph.D.
 
A Study of Protocols for Grid Computing Environment
A Study of Protocols for Grid Computing EnvironmentA Study of Protocols for Grid Computing Environment
A Study of Protocols for Grid Computing Environment
CSCJournals
 
Metacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGrid
Metacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGridMetacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGrid
Metacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGrid
Larry Smarr
 
Ieee projects 2012 for cse
Ieee projects 2012 for cseIeee projects 2012 for cse
Ieee projects 2012 for cse
SBGC
 
Review on Green Networking Solutions
Review on Green Networking SolutionsReview on Green Networking Solutions
Review on Green Networking Solutions
iosrjce
 
Algorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ Seabirdssolutions
Algorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ SeabirdssolutionsAlgorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ Seabirdssolutions
Algorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ Seabirdssolutions
SBGC
 
ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...
ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...
ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...
ijcsity
 
A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing
A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing
A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing
IJECEIAES
 
An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks
An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networksAn overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks
An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks
Khaleda Ali
 
Pronet Public Presentation v1 2
Pronet Public Presentation v1 2Pronet Public Presentation v1 2
Pronet Public Presentation v1 2
University of Texas at Dallas
 

What's hot (20)

50120130406035
5012013040603550120130406035
50120130406035
 
poster_fit_22
poster_fit_22poster_fit_22
poster_fit_22
 
Energy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud Infrastructure
Energy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud InfrastructureEnergy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud Infrastructure
Energy-aware VM Allocation on An Opportunistic Cloud Infrastructure
 
A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...
A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...
A COST EFFECTIVE COMPRESSIVE DATA AGGREGATION TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR N...
 
CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...
CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...
CYBER INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE TO EMPOWER MULTIDISCIPLINARY, DATA-DRIVEN S...
 
Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...
Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...
Comparative Study of Neural Networks Algorithms for Cloud Computing CPU Sched...
 
High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...
High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...
High Performance & High Throughput Computing - EUDAT Summer School (Giuseppe ...
 
Computer_Clustering_Technologies
Computer_Clustering_TechnologiesComputer_Clustering_Technologies
Computer_Clustering_Technologies
 
Dp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_final
Dp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_finalDp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_final
Dp2 ppt by_bikramjit_chowdhury_final
 
A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...
A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...
A Survey on Neural Network Based Minimization of Data Center in Power Consump...
 
A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...
A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...
A Platform for Large-Scale Grid Data Service on Dynamic High-Performance Netw...
 
A Study of Protocols for Grid Computing Environment
A Study of Protocols for Grid Computing EnvironmentA Study of Protocols for Grid Computing Environment
A Study of Protocols for Grid Computing Environment
 
Metacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGrid
Metacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGridMetacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGrid
Metacomputer Architecture of the Global LambdaGrid
 
Ieee projects 2012 for cse
Ieee projects 2012 for cseIeee projects 2012 for cse
Ieee projects 2012 for cse
 
Review on Green Networking Solutions
Review on Green Networking SolutionsReview on Green Networking Solutions
Review on Green Networking Solutions
 
Algorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ Seabirdssolutions
Algorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ SeabirdssolutionsAlgorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ Seabirdssolutions
Algorithm Solved IEEE Projects 2012 2013 Java @ Seabirdssolutions
 
ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...
ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...
ANALYSE THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE PEER TO PEER NETWORK USING ANT COLONY OPTIM...
 
A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing
A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing
A Comparison of Cloud Execution Mechanisms Fog, Edge, and Clone Cloud Computing
 
An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks
An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networksAn overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks
An overview on application of machine learning techniques in optical networks
 
Pronet Public Presentation v1 2
Pronet Public Presentation v1 2Pronet Public Presentation v1 2
Pronet Public Presentation v1 2
 

Viewers also liked

mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"
mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"
mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"
mediscript Team
 
Unbezahlte arbeitszeit in_Österreich
Unbezahlte arbeitszeit in_ÖsterreichUnbezahlte arbeitszeit in_Österreich
Unbezahlte arbeitszeit in_Österreich
FESD GKr
 
E Co C Bratislava 09 Persoenlichkeit
E Co C Bratislava 09 PersoenlichkeitE Co C Bratislava 09 Persoenlichkeit
E Co C Bratislava 09 Persoenlichkeit
thomasabauer
 
Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)
Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)
Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)
Martina Goehring
 
Kelantan
KelantanKelantan
Kelantan
wmzuri
 
Financial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on Twitter
Financial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on TwitterFinancial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on Twitter
Financial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on Twitter
Christophe Langlois
 
Plan de mejora jefatura de sector 06 21 fts4006o
Plan de mejora jefatura de sector 06  21 fts4006oPlan de mejora jefatura de sector 06  21 fts4006o
Plan de mejora jefatura de sector 06 21 fts4006o
Roberto Carlos Vega Monroy
 
EdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale Data
EdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale DataEdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale Data
EdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale Data
gu wendong
 
Uv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion Servicios
Uv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion ServiciosUv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion Servicios
Uv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion Servicios
Jordi Miro
 
Practical Object Oriented Models In Sql
Practical Object Oriented Models In SqlPractical Object Oriented Models In Sql
Practical Object Oriented Models In Sql
Karwin Software Solutions LLC
 
Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...
Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...
Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...
Mary Elizabeth Francisco
 
Analisis Grafico 3 Ejercicios
Analisis Grafico 3 EjerciciosAnalisis Grafico 3 Ejercicios
Analisis Grafico 3 Ejercicios
Marcos A. Fatela
 
Gestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketing
Gestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketingGestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketing
Gestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketing
Jordi Miro
 
Simce 2014
Simce 2014Simce 2014
Simce 2014
15511
 
Salesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 Conference
Salesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 ConferenceSalesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 Conference
Salesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 Conference
Steve Greene
 
Mini Project- Stepper Motor Control
Mini Project- Stepper Motor ControlMini Project- Stepper Motor Control
Science Interactive Notebook
Science Interactive NotebookScience Interactive Notebook
Science Interactive Notebook
Eboni DuBose
 
Sports MKT 2011 - Daniel Sá
Sports MKT 2011 - Daniel SáSports MKT 2011 - Daniel Sá
Sports MKT 2011 - Daniel Sá
IPAM - The Marketing School
 
Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09
Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C  - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C  - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09
Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09
guestbcb2a7
 
Your JavaScript Library
Your JavaScript LibraryYour JavaScript Library
Your JavaScript Library
Dmitry Baranovskiy
 

Viewers also liked (20)

mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"
mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"
mediscript Kalendar 2013 "Lernen heisst Entdecken"
 
Unbezahlte arbeitszeit in_Österreich
Unbezahlte arbeitszeit in_ÖsterreichUnbezahlte arbeitszeit in_Österreich
Unbezahlte arbeitszeit in_Österreich
 
E Co C Bratislava 09 Persoenlichkeit
E Co C Bratislava 09 PersoenlichkeitE Co C Bratislava 09 Persoenlichkeit
E Co C Bratislava 09 Persoenlichkeit
 
Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)
Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)
Lernen Mit Web 2.0 (IHK Stuttgart Juli 2009)
 
Kelantan
KelantanKelantan
Kelantan
 
Financial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on Twitter
Financial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on TwitterFinancial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on Twitter
Financial Institutions Must Support Their Clients on Twitter
 
Plan de mejora jefatura de sector 06 21 fts4006o
Plan de mejora jefatura de sector 06  21 fts4006oPlan de mejora jefatura de sector 06  21 fts4006o
Plan de mejora jefatura de sector 06 21 fts4006o
 
EdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale Data
EdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale DataEdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale Data
EdChang - Parallel Algorithms For Mining Large Scale Data
 
Uv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion Servicios
Uv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion ServiciosUv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion Servicios
Uv08 Dcii Tema 3 DiseñO Y Gestion Servicios
 
Practical Object Oriented Models In Sql
Practical Object Oriented Models In SqlPractical Object Oriented Models In Sql
Practical Object Oriented Models In Sql
 
Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...
Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...
Ati flash cards 09, medications affecting fluid, electrolytes, minerals, and ...
 
Analisis Grafico 3 Ejercicios
Analisis Grafico 3 EjerciciosAnalisis Grafico 3 Ejercicios
Analisis Grafico 3 Ejercicios
 
Gestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketing
Gestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketingGestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketing
Gestión y diseño de los instrumentos de comunicacion de marketing
 
Simce 2014
Simce 2014Simce 2014
Simce 2014
 
Salesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 Conference
Salesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 ConferenceSalesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 Conference
Salesforce.com Agile Transformation - Agile 2007 Conference
 
Mini Project- Stepper Motor Control
Mini Project- Stepper Motor ControlMini Project- Stepper Motor Control
Mini Project- Stepper Motor Control
 
Science Interactive Notebook
Science Interactive NotebookScience Interactive Notebook
Science Interactive Notebook
 
Sports MKT 2011 - Daniel Sá
Sports MKT 2011 - Daniel SáSports MKT 2011 - Daniel Sá
Sports MKT 2011 - Daniel Sá
 
Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09
Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C  - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C  - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09
Creating Tribal Ideas for Gen C - By Dan Pankraz for Nokia World '09
 
Your JavaScript Library
Your JavaScript LibraryYour JavaScript Library
Your JavaScript Library
 

Similar to Gridcomputing

Grid computing
Grid computingGrid computing
Grid computing
Tapas Palei
 
Grid computing ppt
Grid computing pptGrid computing ppt
Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...
Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...
Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...
KTN
 
grid computing
grid computinggrid computing
grid computing
elliando dias
 
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid SystemsA Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
Editor IJCATR
 
Ijcatr04071003
Ijcatr04071003Ijcatr04071003
Ijcatr04071003
Editor IJCATR
 
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid SystemsA Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
Editor IJCATR
 
Lecture_IIITD.pptx
Lecture_IIITD.pptxLecture_IIITD.pptx
Lecture_IIITD.pptx
achakracu
 
Survey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable Mechanism
Survey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable MechanismSurvey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable Mechanism
Survey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable Mechanism
IRJET Journal
 
A Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdf
A Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdfA Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdf
A Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdf
Wendy Belieu
 
AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...
AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...
AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...
ijcsit
 
A P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing Systems
A P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing SystemsA P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing Systems
A P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing Systems
Ashley Smith
 
Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...
Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...
Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...
IJCI JOURNAL
 
Challenges and advantages of grid computing
Challenges and advantages of grid computingChallenges and advantages of grid computing
Challenges and advantages of grid computing
Pooja Dixit
 
A01260104
A01260104A01260104
A01260104
IOSR Journals
 
A Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic Institution
A Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic InstitutionA Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic Institution
A Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic Institution
Arlene Smith
 
Grid computing
Grid computingGrid computing
Grid computing
Dikshita_Viradia
 
Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim
Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim
Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim
IJECEIAES
 
Computation grid as a connected world
Computation grid as a connected worldComputation grid as a connected world
Computation grid as a connected world
ijcsa
 
Grid computing notes
Grid computing notesGrid computing notes
Grid computing notes
Syed Mustafa
 

Similar to Gridcomputing (20)

Grid computing
Grid computingGrid computing
Grid computing
 
Grid computing ppt
Grid computing pptGrid computing ppt
Grid computing ppt
 
Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...
Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...
Implementing AI: Running AI at the Edge: Adapting AI to available resource in...
 
grid computing
grid computinggrid computing
grid computing
 
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid SystemsA Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
 
Ijcatr04071003
Ijcatr04071003Ijcatr04071003
Ijcatr04071003
 
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid SystemsA Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
A Survey of File Replication Techniques In Grid Systems
 
Lecture_IIITD.pptx
Lecture_IIITD.pptxLecture_IIITD.pptx
Lecture_IIITD.pptx
 
Survey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable Mechanism
Survey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable MechanismSurvey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable Mechanism
Survey on Synchronizing File Operations Along with Storage Scalable Mechanism
 
A Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdf
A Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdfA Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdf
A Survey of Past, Present and Future of Software Defined Networking.pdf
 
AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...
AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...
AN ENTROPIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN HETEROGENEOUS GRID COMPUTING USING BION...
 
A P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing Systems
A P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing SystemsA P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing Systems
A P2P Job Assignment Protocol For Volunteer Computing Systems
 
Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...
Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...
Analyse the performance of mobile peer to Peer network using ant colony optim...
 
Challenges and advantages of grid computing
Challenges and advantages of grid computingChallenges and advantages of grid computing
Challenges and advantages of grid computing
 
A01260104
A01260104A01260104
A01260104
 
A Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic Institution
A Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic InstitutionA Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic Institution
A Case Study On Implementation Of Grid Computing To Academic Institution
 
Grid computing
Grid computingGrid computing
Grid computing
 
Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim
Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim
Virtual Machine Allocation Policy in Cloud Computing Environment using CloudSim
 
Computation grid as a connected world
Computation grid as a connected worldComputation grid as a connected world
Computation grid as a connected world
 
Grid computing notes
Grid computing notesGrid computing notes
Grid computing notes
 

Recently uploaded

MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptxMAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
janagijoythi
 
Zaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdf
Zaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdfZaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdf
Zaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdf
AmandaCheung15
 
UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...
UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...
UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...
FIDO Alliance
 
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning ContentImproving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Enterprise Knowledge
 
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Nicolás Lopéz
 
Connector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision Making
Connector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision MakingConnector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision Making
Connector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision Making
DianaGray10
 
NVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space Exploration
NVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space ExplorationNVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space Exploration
NVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space Exploration
Alison B. Lowndes
 
Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3
Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3
Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3
DianaGray10
 
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecaseIntegrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
shyamraj55
 
Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...
Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...
Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...
OnBoard
 
UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...
UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...
UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...
FIDO Alliance
 
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
sunilverma7884
 
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
siddu769252
 
Accelerating Migrations = Recommendations
Accelerating Migrations = RecommendationsAccelerating Migrations = Recommendations
Accelerating Migrations = Recommendations
isBullShit
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
shanihomely
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptxAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
BrainSell Technologies
 
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
alexjohnson7307
 
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - CoatueThe Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
Razin Mustafiz
 
Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024
Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024
Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024
Michael Price
 
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in LibrariesUncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Brian Pichman
 

Recently uploaded (20)

MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptxMAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
MAKE MONEY ONLINE Unlock Your Income Potential Today.pptx
 
Zaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdf
Zaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdfZaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdf
Zaitechno Handheld Raman Spectrometer.pdf
 
UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...
UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...
UX Webinar Series: Essentials for Adopting Passkeys as the Foundation of your...
 
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning ContentImproving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
Improving Learning Content Efficiency with Reusable Learning Content
 
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
 
Connector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision Making
Connector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision MakingConnector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision Making
Connector Corner: Leveraging Snowflake Integration for Smarter Decision Making
 
NVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space Exploration
NVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space ExplorationNVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space Exploration
NVIDIA at Breakthrough Discuss for Space Exploration
 
Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3
Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3
Communications Mining Series - Zero to Hero - Session 3
 
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecaseIntegrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
 
Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...
Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...
Mastering Board Best Practices: Essential Skills for Effective Non-profit Lea...
 
UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...
UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...
UX Webinar Series: Drive Revenue and Decrease Costs with Passkeys for Consume...
 
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
Girls call Kolkata 👀 XXXXXXXXXXX 👀 Rs.9.5 K Cash Payment With Room Delivery
 
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
Generative AI Reasoning Tech Talk - July 2024
 
Accelerating Migrations = Recommendations
Accelerating Migrations = RecommendationsAccelerating Migrations = Recommendations
Accelerating Migrations = Recommendations
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptxAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
 
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
 
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - CoatueThe Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
The Path to General-Purpose Robots - Coatue
 
Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024
Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024
Perth MuleSoft Meetup July 2024
 
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in LibrariesUncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
 

Gridcomputing

  • 1. An Introduction to Grid Computing Prashanth Chengi NPSF, C-DAC Pune July 09, 2012 Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 1 / 35
  • 2. Plan of Talk 1 What is ‘Grid Computing’ ? 2 History of Grid Computing 3 Milestones in Grid Computing 4 Grid Checklist 5 Need for Grid Computing 6 Advantanges of Grid Computing 7 Applications which can run on the grid 8 Architecture of the Grid 9 Virtual Organizations 10 Grid software components 11 Grid Computing: A user’s perspective 12 Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective 13 Challenges of Grid Computing 14 Questions? 15 References Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 2 / 35
  • 3. What is Grid Computing? Grid computing is enabling, sharing, selection, and aggregation of distributed resources and presenting them as a single, unified resource. Grand vision: Analogous to power grids. Users can use resources without needing to know source. An abstraction of implementation specifics from users. ‘The whole is bigger than the part’. Allows users to use more resources than they independently own. Related terms: Collaborative computing, cooperative computing, shared computing. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 3 / 35
  • 4. History of Grid Computing Born at a workshop called “Building a Computational Grid” held at Argonne National Laboratory in September 1997. Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, and Steve Tuecker are regarded as ‘Fathers of grid computing’. Immediate ancestor: Metacomputing, Circa 1990 FAFNER (Factoring via Network-Enabled Recursion) and I-WAY (Information Widea Area Year) were early adopters of metacomputing. SETI@Home, Folding@Home, BOINC, GIMPS Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 4 / 35
  • 5. Milestones in GridComputing [4] Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) Specifies security policies. Uses Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) protocol. Uses Web Services Description Language (WSDL) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) for grid services. Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI) Specifies communication protocols. Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF) Refactoring of OSGI to exploit web services. Globus Toolkit Toolkit for developing grid software. Includes authentication framework, message-level and transport-level security. Provides Java classes and libraries for certificate-based authentication support, access controls and credential management Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 5 / 35
  • 6. Foster’s Three point grid checklist [1] Coordinates resources that are not subjected to centralized control... ...using standard, open, general-purpose protocols and interfaces... ...to deliver nontrivial qualities of service. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 6 / 35
  • 7. Need for Grid Computing Millions of computer instruction cycles are wasted when not in use. Users‘ programs are constrained by limited amount of available resources. If CPU cycle scavenging could be done, and the saved cycles shared, resources could be better utilized. Mutual resource sharing would mean users are no longer constrained to use only resources actually owned/operated by themselves. Enter grid computing. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 7 / 35
  • 8. Advantages of Grid Computing Exploitation of under utilized resources In most organizations, desktop machines are busy less than 5% of the time. Often, even servers are idle. Resources such as storage may also be under utilized. These resources can be shared over the grid. Parallel CPU capacity In addition to pure scientific needs, industries such as bio-medical field, finance, oil exploration and motion picture animation require massive parallel CPU capacity. These applications can easily tap into resources available over the grid. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 8 / 35
  • 9. Advantages of Grid Computing Data grids Files and databases can span many systems and thus have larger capacities than on any single system. Such spanning can improve data transfer rates through use of striping techniques. Data can be duplicated throughout the grid to serve as backup. Resource balancing For applications that are grid-enabled, scheduling can be done on machines with low utilization thereby achieving a resource balancing effect. An unexpected peak can be routed to relatively idle machines on the grid. If the grid is already fully utilized, lowest priority tasks can be suspended or even cancelled and taken up later. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 9 / 35
  • 10. Advantages of Grid Computing Representation of data grid. Diag courtesy [3, IBM Redbook] Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 10 / 35
  • 11. Advantages of Grid Computing Reliability High-end conventional computing systems use expensive hardware to increase reliability. Grid allows for machine redundancy and instant failover to other resources. Resources can be taken down for maintainance/upgrades withoun crippling projects involved. Communication When machines on a grid are connected to the internet and don’t share the same communication paths, they add to the total available bandwidth. It makes it possible to have redundant communication paths, as communication can quickly be rerouted through other paths. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 11 / 35
  • 12. Applications which can run on the grid The nature of the grid restricts usage of the grid. The grid cannot be used for all applications, but it is extremely practical for certain types of applications. High Throughput problems Computing grids can be used to schedule these tasks across resources. As soon as a processor finishes one task, the next task arrives. In this way, hundreds of tasks can be performed in a very short time. Embarrassingly parallel problems These are problems which can be broken down into parts which are completely independent of each other. Example: Fingerprint matching in an extremely large database. The images are unique and not dependent on each other. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 12 / 35
  • 13. Applications which can run on the grid Course-grained calculations These are often embarrassingly parallel “Monte Carlo simulations”, where parameters are varied and results observed. High-performance problems These are problems which require supercomputing resources. Supercomputers generally deal with computer-centric problems; the secret to solving these probems is “teraflops”: as many as possible. HPC grids require extremely low-latency/high-throughput networks. TeraGrid in US and DEISA in Europe are examples of supercomputing grids. In general, HPC applications are not suitable for running on grids where network connectivity is not excellent or bandwidth is a constraint. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 13 / 35
  • 14. Architecture of the Grid Network layer: The lowest layer, connecting the grid resources. Resource layer: Resources may be computers, storage systems, electronic catalogues, sensors etc connected to the network. Middleware layer: Tools that enable various elements of the grid to participate in a grid. Application layer: The highest layer, it includes applications in science, engineering, business, finance and more, as well as portals and development toolkit to support applications. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 14 / 35
  • 15. Virtual Organizations Virtual Organinizations (VOs) are groups of people who share a common goal. To achieve their mutual goal, VO members share access to each other’s computers, programs, files, data and networks in a controlled, secure and flexible manner. For example, the Earth sciences VO unites scientists and researchers working in the domain of Earth sciences. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 15 / 35
  • 16. Grid software components Management components All grids have some management components to keep track of resource availability, membership information etc. Grid software also needs to track capacities and current utilization of nodes in realtime. It’s also responsible for monitoring node health, usage patterns and statistics. Some grid systems provide their own login to the grid while others depend on the native operating systems for user authentication. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 16 / 35
  • 17. Grid software components Distributed grid management Often, grid software are hierarchical, thereby allowing for decentralized management. Clusters of clusters approach. For example, a top-level scheduler only submits tasks to the cluster-level scheduler, instead of trying to schedule the actual run of the job. Lower level schedulers handle the assignment of the task to the individual machines and gathering of output to be passed to the higher-level job manager. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 17 / 35
  • 18. Grid software components Donor software Each machine on the grid needs to install some software which is required by other members of the VO. These software may be scientific libraries, compilers and other software packages. The machines need to have the necessary binaries to execute the users’ jobs. Submission software Usually any member machine of a grid can be used to submit jobs to the grid and initiate grid queries. However, on some grid systems, this function is implemented as a separate component installed on submission nodes or submission clients. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 18 / 35
  • 19. Grid software components Schedulers Most grid systems include some sort of job scheduling software. The scheduler locates a machine on which to run a grid job that has been submitted by a user. Simplest of schedulers are round-robin schedulers, which cyclically assign jobs to machines matching the job requirements. Other schedulers have complex scheduling logic and manage multiple queues of jobs. Schedulers measure current utilization of machines or depend on cluster management software to provide it relevant figures. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 19 / 35
  • 20. Grid software components Schedulers (contd) Schedulers may also be hierarchical, i.e. top-level scheduler submitting jobs to cluster schedulers. Schedulers generally maintain job state information and are responsible for resubmitting jobs in the event of failures. Schedulers also offer resource reservation, thereby eliminating the need for the users to manually monitor resource availability. Schedulers also often offer opportunistic job migration. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 20 / 35
  • 21. Grid software components Communications Jobs submitted on the grid may need to communicate with each other. For example, a job may split itself into a large number of subjobs which need to exchange information amongst themselves. The subjobs would need to be able to locate other subjobs and send appropriate data. As a result, the open standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) and its variations are a often included as part of the grid system. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 21 / 35
  • 22. Grid software components Monitoring and measurement Donor software often includes tools that measure current load and activity on given machine using either OS tools or by direct measurement. Some grid systems provide means for implementing custom load sensors for other than CPU or storage resources. Schedulers often depend on these tools to make scheduling decisions. These statistics are also useful for discovering usage patters in the grid. Usage pattern analysis is used to better predict resource requirements of the job for its next run. The measurement information can be saved for accounting purposes or as the basis for grid resource brokering. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 22 / 35
  • 23. Grid Computing: A user’s perspective In this section, we will see the the grid from a user’s perspective. Enrolling and installing grid software While there may be testbed grid setups with free and unrestricted access to all, production grids require users to first sign up for VO membership. In order to obtain VO membership, it is mandatory to obtain a digital certificate vouching for his/her identity. The identity certificate will have to be obtained from a certification authority (CA) trusted by the VO which the user wishes to subscribe to. Upon verifying the identity of the user, the CA will issue a digital certificate to the user, which the user has to safeguard and take responsibility for. Upon installing identity credentials, the user then has to install client software for accessing the grid. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 23 / 35
  • 24. Grid Computing: A user’s perspective Logging onto the grid. Many grid systems require the user to log on to a system using an id enrolled in the grid. Often, the digital certificate itself forms the user’s id for logging onto the grid. In case of the former, the user’s login information must be replicated all over the grid in the exact fashion. In case of the latter, the user’s credentials may be mapped to any local account and it is completely opaque to the user. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 24 / 35
  • 25. Grid Computing: A user’s perspective Querying and submitting jobs The user usually performs queries to check to the resource availability on the grid. The user may specify custom requirements in his submit script. Grid systems usually provide command-line tools, if not graphical, to check the status of jobs already submitted by the user and to query status of the grid. This allows users to write custom scripts to check the status of the grid and automatically fire jobs, if conditions are favorable. Scripts can also be used to submit pipeline jobs: a series of jobs in which each job depends on the output of of it’s predecessor. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 25 / 35
  • 26. Grid Computing: A user’s perspective The job submit process Firstly, the job input data and possibly the executable program/script is staged in. Alternatively, the data and/or executable may already be on the grid machine. The job is the executed on the grid machine, either using a common user credential or the user’s own grid identity. The results of the job are sent back to the submitter in a process called staging out. In some cases, intermediate output is made available to the user through console/GUI. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 26 / 35
  • 27. Grid Computing: A user’s perspective Data configuration The data accessed by grid jobs may simply be staged in and out by the grid system. However, in case of pipe-line jobs and other subjobs, repeated staging in can be avoided by using a networked file system instead. Many grid sites also offer storage resource manager services which can be used to store input data for repeated retrieval. A user should always respect the grid site’s file storage policies. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 27 / 35
  • 28. Grid Computing: A user’s perspective Resource reservation Many grid site offer the service of advance job reservations. A user wanting to execute a job may apply for a slot in advance, in which case jobs submitted by him will await for unreserved resource availability or the commencement of reservation window, whichever comes first. Reservations fix the latest time a job may come into execution. Users have to be careful in estimating resource requirements as inaccurate estimations may adversely affect the job’s time spent in queued state. Sites offer reservations for not only compute resources but also other resources such as scanners, sensors and storage. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 28 / 35
  • 29. Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective Planning The admin should understand the organization’s requirements and accordingly deploy resources. It is advisible to deploy a testbed grid to gain understanding of the system and to experiment with settings before deploying them onto the production environment. Security Admins must take care to prevent unauthorized access of data in a multi-user grid environment. The machines must be constantly monitored and updated to fix vulnerability issues as and when they are discovered. Public keys must be backed up and private keys must be carefully secured. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 29 / 35
  • 30. Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective User and quota management Admins are required to ensure that VO members possess valid accounts/credential mapping on all grid resources. Admins must stay updated about user credential revokations and cancellations and remove access privileges to such users. They must plan and enforce restrictions on resources such as processors, storage etc to ensure fair usage opportunity to all users. They must actively monitor machines to ensure that all necessary services are up and running. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 30 / 35
  • 31. Grid Computing: An administrator’s perspective Certificate Authority (CA) It is critical to maintain highest levels of security in a grid because it allows multiple users to not only access data but also to execute code. The CA is responsible for positively identifying entities requesting for VO membership/credentials and ensure their bonafides. Issue certificates to users whose bonafides have been verified. The CA should take all measures to protect the CA server. He/she should ensure that members who have quit the VO are promptly removed and revocation lists are regularly published. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 31 / 35
  • 32. Challenges of Grid Computing Security Access policy: What is shared? Who is allowed to share? When sharing can occur? Authentication: How do you identify a user or resource? Authorization: How to determine whether a certain operation is adhering to rules? These questions led to development of security infrastructure for the grid. User requirements Compute resources are often not general purpose. They are tuned for performance for certain classes of applications. Users often require installation of custom software to run their applications. This is problematic in shared access scenarios. A need was therefore felt for setting up ‘Virtual Organizations’ (VOs), in which people working on similar technologies/domains could share resources amongst each other. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 32 / 35
  • 33. Challenges of Grid Computing Networking performance Grids by definition have to be allow geographic distribution. Networking becomes a major problem when resources are spread across a WAN, across cities or even contries. Grid middleware needs to have high degrees of fault tolerance, to allow for intermittent and transient network failures. Gridifying applications Not all applications can be transformed to run in parallel or on a grid. There are no practical tools for transforming arbitrary applications to exploit the parallel capabilities of a grid: applications need to often be rewritten. Parallelizing a non-parallel application requires mathematical and programming expertize. Scalability of the actual problem. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 33 / 35
  • 34. Questions? Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 34 / 35
  • 35. References [1] Ian Foster. What is the Grid? A Three Point Checklist. url: http://dlib.cs.odu.edu/WhatIsTheGrid.pdf. [2] url: http://www.gridcafe.org/. [3] B. Jacob et al. Introduction to grid computing. 2005. url: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg246778.pdf. [4] Ken North. Milestones in Grid Computing. url: http://www.gridsummit.com/Articles/Milestones.htm. Prashanth Chengi (NPSF, C-DAC Pune) An Introduction to Grid Computing July 09, 2012 35 / 35