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GREEK GODS & GODDESSES

  THE MAJOR DEITIES OF ANCIENT GREEK
              RELIGION




                                        Pilar Torres
                               INS Narcís Monturiol
                                          Barcelona
ZEUS (Ζεύς) / Jupiter

 Son of Cronos and Rhea.
 God of storm and daylight, justice and authority. He
  is the supreme god of Greek pantheon.
 His attributes are the lightning bolt, the aegis, the
  sceptre and the throne.
 His sacred animal and plant are the eagle and the
  oak.
 His main sanctuary is located at Olympia
  (Peloponnese, Greece), where the Olympian Games
  took place each forth year.
Zeus’ iconography



                    aegis



                lightning bolt



                   sceptre



                    eagle


   Sculpture representing Zeus, Archaeological
            Museum, Cyrene (Libya)
HERA (Ἥρα) / Juno

 Daughter of Cronos and Rhea. Zeus’ sister and wife.
 Goddess of marriage and married women. Queen of
  the gods.
 Her attributes are the crown, the sceptre and the
  throne.
 Her sacred animal and plant were the peacock and
  the lily.
 Among many others places in Greece, she was
  worshipped at Olympia, along with Zeus.
Hera’s iconography


                            Crown




                            Throne




                     Terracotta representing Hera seating on
                       a throne. British Museum, London
POSEIDON (Ποζειδῶν) / Neptune

 Son of Cronos and Rhea. Brother of Zeus. Married to
    Amphitrite.
   God of the sea, springs and earthquakes.
   His attributes are the trident and the chariot.
   Sea creatures were sacred to him, as well as horses
    and bulls.
   His main sanctuaries were at Cape Sunion (near
    Athens) and at Isthmia (near Corinth), where
    athletic competitions took place to honour him.
Poseidon’s iconography



                                               Trident




  Triton                                      Amphitrite


Chariot and
  horses




              Mosaic representing Poseidon.
              Bardo Museum, Tunis (Tunisia)
DEMETER (Δημήηηρ)/ Ceres

 Daughter of Cronos and Rhea. Sister of Zeus and
    Persephone’s mother (by Zeus).
   Goddess of agriculture and corn (especially of
    wheat). She also represents the community laws.
   Her attributes are the crown, the wheatears the
    poppies and the torches.
   Her sacred animal is the piglet.
   Her main sanctuary was at Eleusis (near
    Athens), where she was worshipped along with her
    daughter Persephone and Hades (aka Pluto).
Demeter’s iconography



  Torch
                                                          Crown


Poppy fruit


Wheatear
                                                          Throne




              Dish representing Demeter, Archaeological
                      Museum of Athens, Greece
HADES (Ἅιδης)/ Pluto

 Son of Cronos and Rhea. Brother of Zeus. Married to
    Persephone, Demeter’s daughter. They had no
    children.
   God of the underworld and dead, he also represented
    the wealth that came from the ground.
   His attribute was the horn of plenty (cornucopia)
    and the two pointed fork.
    Dogs were related to him.
   His main sanctuary was at Eleusis, where he was
    worshipped along with Demeter and his wife
    Persephone.
Hades’s iconography



                                                    Demeter

  Horn of
  plenty



                                                    Plough
  Hades




            Red figure Attic vase, Archaeological
                Museum of Athens, Greece
ATHENA (Ἀθηνᾶ)/ Minerva

 Daughter of Zeus (by Metis).
 Virgin goddess of wisdom, arts and crafts and war
  (strategy).
 Her attributes were the helmet, the spear, the shield
  and the aegis.
 Her sacred animal and plant were the owl and the
  olive tree.
 She was especially worshipped in Athens, called so
  after the goddess. The Parthenon, her main
  temple, was at the Acropolis.
Athena’s iconography
   Helmet


                                     Spear




    Owl




  Olive tree
   branch
                                      Shield




                       Statue of Athena, Archaeological
                           Museum of Tripoli, Libya
APOLLO (Ἀπόλλων)

 Son of Zeus and Leto. Twin brother of Artemis.
 God of prophecy and
  oracles, music, poetry, healing, purification and
  measure.
 His attributes are the bow and arrows and the lyre.
 the laurel tree was his sacred plant and the crow his
  animal.
 His main sanctuary was at Delphi, where Greeks
  went to ask his oracle for advice. Athletic games and
  poetical contests were carried there each seventh
  year to honour him.
Apollo’s iconography

                         Laurel
                         wreath
 Crow




                                  Lyre




                         Cylix representing
                        Apollo, Archaeological
                       Museum, Delphi, Greece
ARTEMIS (Ἄρηεμις)/ Diana

 Daughter of Zeus and Leto. Twin sister of Apollo.
 Goddess of wilderness, wild animals, hunting and
  youngsters.
 Her attributes were the bow and the arrows.
 Wild animals were sacred to her, specially deer and
  bears, as well as hunting dogs.
 She was worshipped at Brauron, near Athens, among
  other places.
Artemis’ iconography
  Arrows in a
    quiver




                                   Deer




                       Statue of Artemis, Musée du
                          Louvre. Paris, France
HERMES (Ἑρμής)/ Mercury

 Son of Zeus and Maia.
 God of shepherds, travellers, tradesmen and thieves.
  He guides the souls to the underworld. He also
  represents cunning and persuasive speech.
 His attributes were the traveller’s hat, the caduceus
  (a sort of magic wand), the winged sandals and a
  pouch to carry money.
 His sacred animals were cattle, sheep and rams.
 He was worshipped all around Greece, specially at
  public places (at the agora and the gymnasia).
Hermes’ Iconography
                                   Winged hat




                                   Caduceus
            Pouch of
             money




                                    Winged
                                    sandals
  Bronze statuette representing
Hermes, Archaeological museum of
          Trieste, Italy
APHRODITE (Ἀθροδίηη)/ Venus

 According to Hesiod, she was born from the sea
    foam after the castration of Uranus. According to
    Homer, she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione.
   Goddess of sex, love, seduction and beauty.
   Her attributes were the scallop shell, the mirror and
    nakedness.
   Her sacred animals and plant were the dove, the
    sparrow and the rose.
   She was worshipped all around Greece, and
    especially in Cyprus.
Aphrodite’s icongraphy


Scallop shell




                Terracotta representing Aphrodite’s birth.
                Archaeological Museum of Athens, Greece.
ARES (Ἄρης) / Mars

 Son of Zeus and Hera.
 God of brutal war and bloodlust.
 He was represented like a warrior, wearing a
  complete armour: helmet, shield, spear, cuirass and
  greaves.
 He was not much worshipped among the
  Greeks, who preferred Athena as goddess of war.
Ares’ iconography

                                                          Helmet



                                                           Spear
 Cuirass


                                                           Shield



                                                          Greaves




           Black figure Attic vase with fighting scene.
           Archaeological Museum of Athens, Greece
HEPHESTUS (Ἥθαιζηος) / Vulcan

 Son of Zeus and Hera or of Hera alone. Married to
  Aphrodite, she cheated him with Ares.
 God of fire and blacksmithing.
 His attributes were the axe, the smart, the anvil and
  the tongs.
 He was especially worshipped in Athens, where there
  was a temple dedicated to him in the agora, the
  Hephesteon.
Hephestus’ iconography
                                                Cup           Dionysus

   Hephestus
riding a donkey



   Tongs




                  Hephestus and Dionysus riding on donkies. Goulandris
                               collection, Athens, Greece.
DIONYSUS (Διόνσζος) / Bacchus

 Son of Zeus and Semele (a mortal woman, princess of
    Thebes).
   God of the vine and wine, theatre, madness and
    irrationality.
   His attributes are the vine or ivy wreath, the drinking
    cup, the panther hide and the thyrsus. He is usually
    represented along with satyrs and maenads and wild
    cats.
   His sacred animal and plant are the panther and the vine.
   He was especially worshipped in Athens, where theatrical
    contests of tragedies and comedies were carried to
    honour him.
Dionysus’ iconography
                                           Satyr            Maenad


Thyrsus


Panther’s
  hide


Dionysus



Panther




            Relief showing Dionysus with a satyr and a maenad. British
                                Museum, London
VOCABULARY

 Aegis: Goat hide, fringed with snakes and Medusa’s
 head in the middle, worn by Zeus and Athena as
 means of protection.
MAP OF ANCIENT GREECE
PICTURE CREDITS

 All the pictures in this presentation have been taken
 by Pilar Torres.

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Greek gods

  • 1. GREEK GODS & GODDESSES THE MAJOR DEITIES OF ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION Pilar Torres INS Narcís Monturiol Barcelona
  • 2. ZEUS (Ζεύς) / Jupiter  Son of Cronos and Rhea.  God of storm and daylight, justice and authority. He is the supreme god of Greek pantheon.  His attributes are the lightning bolt, the aegis, the sceptre and the throne.  His sacred animal and plant are the eagle and the oak.  His main sanctuary is located at Olympia (Peloponnese, Greece), where the Olympian Games took place each forth year.
  • 3. Zeus’ iconography aegis lightning bolt sceptre eagle Sculpture representing Zeus, Archaeological Museum, Cyrene (Libya)
  • 4. HERA (Ἥρα) / Juno  Daughter of Cronos and Rhea. Zeus’ sister and wife.  Goddess of marriage and married women. Queen of the gods.  Her attributes are the crown, the sceptre and the throne.  Her sacred animal and plant were the peacock and the lily.  Among many others places in Greece, she was worshipped at Olympia, along with Zeus.
  • 5. Hera’s iconography Crown Throne Terracotta representing Hera seating on a throne. British Museum, London
  • 6. POSEIDON (Ποζειδῶν) / Neptune  Son of Cronos and Rhea. Brother of Zeus. Married to Amphitrite.  God of the sea, springs and earthquakes.  His attributes are the trident and the chariot.  Sea creatures were sacred to him, as well as horses and bulls.  His main sanctuaries were at Cape Sunion (near Athens) and at Isthmia (near Corinth), where athletic competitions took place to honour him.
  • 7. Poseidon’s iconography Trident Triton Amphitrite Chariot and horses Mosaic representing Poseidon. Bardo Museum, Tunis (Tunisia)
  • 8. DEMETER (Δημήηηρ)/ Ceres  Daughter of Cronos and Rhea. Sister of Zeus and Persephone’s mother (by Zeus).  Goddess of agriculture and corn (especially of wheat). She also represents the community laws.  Her attributes are the crown, the wheatears the poppies and the torches.  Her sacred animal is the piglet.  Her main sanctuary was at Eleusis (near Athens), where she was worshipped along with her daughter Persephone and Hades (aka Pluto).
  • 9. Demeter’s iconography Torch Crown Poppy fruit Wheatear Throne Dish representing Demeter, Archaeological Museum of Athens, Greece
  • 10. HADES (Ἅιδης)/ Pluto  Son of Cronos and Rhea. Brother of Zeus. Married to Persephone, Demeter’s daughter. They had no children.  God of the underworld and dead, he also represented the wealth that came from the ground.  His attribute was the horn of plenty (cornucopia) and the two pointed fork.  Dogs were related to him.  His main sanctuary was at Eleusis, where he was worshipped along with Demeter and his wife Persephone.
  • 11. Hades’s iconography Demeter Horn of plenty Plough Hades Red figure Attic vase, Archaeological Museum of Athens, Greece
  • 12. ATHENA (Ἀθηνᾶ)/ Minerva  Daughter of Zeus (by Metis).  Virgin goddess of wisdom, arts and crafts and war (strategy).  Her attributes were the helmet, the spear, the shield and the aegis.  Her sacred animal and plant were the owl and the olive tree.  She was especially worshipped in Athens, called so after the goddess. The Parthenon, her main temple, was at the Acropolis.
  • 13. Athena’s iconography Helmet Spear Owl Olive tree branch Shield Statue of Athena, Archaeological Museum of Tripoli, Libya
  • 14. APOLLO (Ἀπόλλων)  Son of Zeus and Leto. Twin brother of Artemis.  God of prophecy and oracles, music, poetry, healing, purification and measure.  His attributes are the bow and arrows and the lyre.  the laurel tree was his sacred plant and the crow his animal.  His main sanctuary was at Delphi, where Greeks went to ask his oracle for advice. Athletic games and poetical contests were carried there each seventh year to honour him.
  • 15. Apollo’s iconography Laurel wreath Crow Lyre Cylix representing Apollo, Archaeological Museum, Delphi, Greece
  • 16. ARTEMIS (Ἄρηεμις)/ Diana  Daughter of Zeus and Leto. Twin sister of Apollo.  Goddess of wilderness, wild animals, hunting and youngsters.  Her attributes were the bow and the arrows.  Wild animals were sacred to her, specially deer and bears, as well as hunting dogs.  She was worshipped at Brauron, near Athens, among other places.
  • 17. Artemis’ iconography Arrows in a quiver Deer Statue of Artemis, Musée du Louvre. Paris, France
  • 18. HERMES (Ἑρμής)/ Mercury  Son of Zeus and Maia.  God of shepherds, travellers, tradesmen and thieves. He guides the souls to the underworld. He also represents cunning and persuasive speech.  His attributes were the traveller’s hat, the caduceus (a sort of magic wand), the winged sandals and a pouch to carry money.  His sacred animals were cattle, sheep and rams.  He was worshipped all around Greece, specially at public places (at the agora and the gymnasia).
  • 19. Hermes’ Iconography Winged hat Caduceus Pouch of money Winged sandals Bronze statuette representing Hermes, Archaeological museum of Trieste, Italy
  • 20. APHRODITE (Ἀθροδίηη)/ Venus  According to Hesiod, she was born from the sea foam after the castration of Uranus. According to Homer, she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione.  Goddess of sex, love, seduction and beauty.  Her attributes were the scallop shell, the mirror and nakedness.  Her sacred animals and plant were the dove, the sparrow and the rose.  She was worshipped all around Greece, and especially in Cyprus.
  • 21. Aphrodite’s icongraphy Scallop shell Terracotta representing Aphrodite’s birth. Archaeological Museum of Athens, Greece.
  • 22. ARES (Ἄρης) / Mars  Son of Zeus and Hera.  God of brutal war and bloodlust.  He was represented like a warrior, wearing a complete armour: helmet, shield, spear, cuirass and greaves.  He was not much worshipped among the Greeks, who preferred Athena as goddess of war.
  • 23. Ares’ iconography Helmet Spear Cuirass Shield Greaves Black figure Attic vase with fighting scene. Archaeological Museum of Athens, Greece
  • 24. HEPHESTUS (Ἥθαιζηος) / Vulcan  Son of Zeus and Hera or of Hera alone. Married to Aphrodite, she cheated him with Ares.  God of fire and blacksmithing.  His attributes were the axe, the smart, the anvil and the tongs.  He was especially worshipped in Athens, where there was a temple dedicated to him in the agora, the Hephesteon.
  • 25. Hephestus’ iconography Cup Dionysus Hephestus riding a donkey Tongs Hephestus and Dionysus riding on donkies. Goulandris collection, Athens, Greece.
  • 26. DIONYSUS (Διόνσζος) / Bacchus  Son of Zeus and Semele (a mortal woman, princess of Thebes).  God of the vine and wine, theatre, madness and irrationality.  His attributes are the vine or ivy wreath, the drinking cup, the panther hide and the thyrsus. He is usually represented along with satyrs and maenads and wild cats.  His sacred animal and plant are the panther and the vine.  He was especially worshipped in Athens, where theatrical contests of tragedies and comedies were carried to honour him.
  • 27. Dionysus’ iconography Satyr Maenad Thyrsus Panther’s hide Dionysus Panther Relief showing Dionysus with a satyr and a maenad. British Museum, London
  • 28. VOCABULARY  Aegis: Goat hide, fringed with snakes and Medusa’s head in the middle, worn by Zeus and Athena as means of protection.
  • 29. MAP OF ANCIENT GREECE
  • 30. PICTURE CREDITS  All the pictures in this presentation have been taken by Pilar Torres.