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 Alumno:
 Andrés Aucatoma G.
 adjective
 Adjectives can be identified using a number
  of formal criteria. However, we may begin by
  saying that they typically describe an
  attribute of a noun:

 cold weather
  large windows
  violent storms
Some adjectives can be identified
      by their endings. Typical adjective
                endings include:
-able/-ible            achievable, capable, illegible, remarkable


-al                    biographical, functional, internal, logical


-ful                   beautiful, careful, grateful, harmful


-ic                    cubic, manic, rustic, terrific


-ive                   attractive, dismissive, inventive, persuasive


-less                  breathless, careless, groundless, restless


-ous                   courageous, dangerous, disastrous, fabulous
 However, a large number of very common
 adjectives cannot be identified in this way.
 They do not have typical adjectival form:
  bad           distant        quiet
  bright        elementary     real
  clever        good           red
  cold          great          silent
  common        honest         simple
  complete      hot            strange
  dark          main           wicked
  deep          morose         wide
  difficult     old            young
 Characteristics of Adjectives
 Adjectives can take a modifying word, such as very,
  extremely, or less, before them:

 very cold weather
  extremely large windows
  less violent storms
   This characteristic is known as GRADABILITY. Most adjectives are gradable, though if the adjective already denotes the highest position on a scale, then it is no




                          ~*my very main reason for
my main reason for coming
                          coming


the principal role in the                                                      ~*the very principal role in
play                                                                           the play

    As well as taking modifying words
    like very and extremely,adjectives
    also take different forms to
    indicate their position on a scale
    of comparison:

 big    bigger   biggest
 Formal Characteristics of
          Adverbs

Adjective slow      quick     soft     sudden     gradual



Adverb     slowly   quickly   softly   suddenly   gradually
Características formales de los adverbios
     From our examples above, you can see that many adverbs end
     in -ly . De los ejemplos anteriores, usted puede ver este
     fin muchos adverbios en-mente. More precisely, they are
     formed by adding -ly to an adjective: Más precisamente, se
     forman mediante la adición de-mente a un adjetivo:



Adjective                                            sudden        gradual
            slow lenta   quick rápida   soft suave
Adjetivo                                             súbita        gradual




Adverb      slowly poco a quickly     softly         suddenly de   gradually
Adverbio    poco          rápidamente suavemente     repente       poco a poco
 Formal Characteristics of Adverbs
      From our examples above, you can see
         that many adverbs end in -ly. More
         precisely, they are formed by adding -ly to
         an adjective:
     
Adjectiv
         slow      quick     soft     sudden   gradual
e


Adverb   slowly    quickly   softly   suddenly gradually

       The lowest point on the scale is known as the ABSOLUTE form,
    the middle point is known as the COMPARATIVE form, and the
    highest point is known as the SUPERLATIVE form. Here are some
    more examples:

       Absolute            Comparative             Superlative

         dark                  darker                 darkest

         new                   newer                  newest

          old                   older                 oldest

        young                 younger                youngest
 In most cases, the comparative is formed by adding -er ,
    and the superlative is formed by adding -est, to the
    absolute form. However, a number of very common
    adjectives are irregular in this respect:

      Absolute          Comparative          Superlative

         good                better               best

          bad                worse               worst

           far              farther             farthest
 Some adjectives form the comparative and
   superlative using more and most respectively:


Absolute         Comparative          Superlative


important      more important most important


miserable       more miserable most miserable


 recent           more recent         most recent
 Compounding
  Compounding forms a word out of two or more root
  morphemes. The words are called compounds or
  compound words.
 In Linguistics, compounds can be either native or
  borrowed.
 Native English roots are typically free morphemes, so
  that means compounds are made out of independent
  words that can occur by themselves. Examples:
 mailman (composed of free root mail and free root man)
  mail carrier
  fireplace
  fireplug
  fire hydrant
 Derivation Deriviation is the creation of words by
  modification of a root without the addition of other
  roots. Often the effect is a change in part of speech.
 Subtype of Derivation: Affixation
  The most common type of derivation is the addition
  of one or more affixes to a root, as in the word
  derivation itself. This process is called affixation, a
  term which covers both prefixation and suffixation.
 Acronyms
  Acronyms are formed by taking the initial letters of
  a phrase and making a word out of it. The classical
  acronym is also pronounced as a word. Scuba was
  formed from self-contained underwater breathing
  apparatus.
 Occasionally, not just letters but a whole or part
  syllable can be used in the formation of an acronym.
  Examples:
 radar - RAdio Detection And Ranging
  gestapo - GEheime STAatsPOlizei, German for
  'Secret National Police'.

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grammar escuela de idiomas andres aucatoma

  • 2.  adjective  Adjectives can be identified using a number of formal criteria. However, we may begin by saying that they typically describe an attribute of a noun:  cold weather large windows violent storms
  • 3. Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. Typical adjective endings include: -able/-ible achievable, capable, illegible, remarkable -al biographical, functional, internal, logical -ful beautiful, careful, grateful, harmful -ic cubic, manic, rustic, terrific -ive attractive, dismissive, inventive, persuasive -less breathless, careless, groundless, restless -ous courageous, dangerous, disastrous, fabulous
  • 4.  However, a large number of very common adjectives cannot be identified in this way. They do not have typical adjectival form: bad distant quiet bright elementary real clever good red cold great silent common honest simple complete hot strange dark main wicked deep morose wide difficult old young
  • 5.  Characteristics of Adjectives  Adjectives can take a modifying word, such as very, extremely, or less, before them:  very cold weather extremely large windows less violent storms This characteristic is known as GRADABILITY. Most adjectives are gradable, though if the adjective already denotes the highest position on a scale, then it is no ~*my very main reason for my main reason for coming coming the principal role in the ~*the very principal role in play the play
  • 6. As well as taking modifying words like very and extremely,adjectives also take different forms to indicate their position on a scale of comparison:  big bigger biggest
  • 7.  Formal Characteristics of Adverbs Adjective slow quick soft sudden gradual Adverb slowly quickly softly suddenly gradually
  • 8. Características formales de los adverbios From our examples above, you can see that many adverbs end in -ly . De los ejemplos anteriores, usted puede ver este fin muchos adverbios en-mente. More precisely, they are formed by adding -ly to an adjective: Más precisamente, se forman mediante la adición de-mente a un adjetivo: Adjective sudden gradual slow lenta quick rápida soft suave Adjetivo súbita gradual Adverb slowly poco a quickly softly suddenly de gradually Adverbio poco rápidamente suavemente repente poco a poco
  • 9.  Formal Characteristics of Adverbs  From our examples above, you can see that many adverbs end in -ly. More precisely, they are formed by adding -ly to an adjective:  Adjectiv slow quick soft sudden gradual e Adverb slowly quickly softly suddenly gradually
  • 10.   The lowest point on the scale is known as the ABSOLUTE form, the middle point is known as the COMPARATIVE form, and the highest point is known as the SUPERLATIVE form. Here are some more examples: Absolute Comparative Superlative dark darker darkest new newer newest old older oldest young younger youngest
  • 11.  In most cases, the comparative is formed by adding -er , and the superlative is formed by adding -est, to the absolute form. However, a number of very common adjectives are irregular in this respect:  Absolute Comparative Superlative good better best bad worse worst far farther farthest
  • 12.  Some adjectives form the comparative and superlative using more and most respectively: Absolute Comparative Superlative important more important most important miserable more miserable most miserable recent more recent most recent
  • 13.  Compounding Compounding forms a word out of two or more root morphemes. The words are called compounds or compound words.  In Linguistics, compounds can be either native or borrowed.  Native English roots are typically free morphemes, so that means compounds are made out of independent words that can occur by themselves. Examples:  mailman (composed of free root mail and free root man) mail carrier fireplace fireplug fire hydrant
  • 14.  Derivation Deriviation is the creation of words by modification of a root without the addition of other roots. Often the effect is a change in part of speech.  Subtype of Derivation: Affixation The most common type of derivation is the addition of one or more affixes to a root, as in the word derivation itself. This process is called affixation, a term which covers both prefixation and suffixation.
  • 15.  Acronyms Acronyms are formed by taking the initial letters of a phrase and making a word out of it. The classical acronym is also pronounced as a word. Scuba was formed from self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.  Occasionally, not just letters but a whole or part syllable can be used in the formation of an acronym. Examples:  radar - RAdio Detection And Ranging gestapo - GEheime STAatsPOlizei, German for 'Secret National Police'.