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Por: Bruno Matlock Clase: 1st 
GRAMMAR BOOK
Table of Contents 
 1. Nationalities 
 2. Stem-Changing Verbs (all 4 classes) 
 3. Para 
 4. Adjectives 
 5. Object Pronoun Placement 
 6. DOP (Direct Object Pronoun) 
 7. IOP (Indirect Object Pronouns) 
 8. ser vs. estar (all in one page) 
 9. -ísimo(a), and g/c/z 
 10. Verbs like gustar 
 11. Affirmative and Negative Words 
 12. pero vs. sino 
 13. DOP/IOP/SE 
 14. Reflexive verbs 
 15. Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars 
 16. los adverbios-mente 
 17. deber + other modal verbs 
 18. past participles as adjectives 
 19. preterite 
 20. Present Progressive Tense
Nacionalidades 
Nationality Country 
 Mexicano Paraguayo 
 Guatemalteco Boliviano 
 Hondureño Chileno 
 Salvadoreño Argentino 
 Nicaragüense Uruguayo 
 Costarricense Español 
 Panameño Guineano 
 Cubano Canadiense 
 Dominicano Estadounidense 
 Puertorriqueño norteamericano 
 Venezolano italiano 
 Ecuatoriano Francés 
 Colombiano Inglés 
 Peruano Latino 
 Mexico Paraguay 
 Guatemala Bolivia 
 Honduras Chile 
 El Salvador Argentina 
 Nicaragua Uruguay 
 Costa Rica Spain 
 Panama Guinea 
 Cuba Canada 
 Dominican Republic United States 
 Puerto Rico North 
America 
 Venezuela Italy 
 Ecuador France 
 Colombia England 
 Peru Mexico
Stem-Changing Verbs 
 E-IE (Querer) O-UE(Soñar) 
 Quiero Queremos Sueño Soñamos 
 Quieras Quereís Sueñas Soñaís 
 Quiera Quieren Sueña Sueñan 
E-I(Repetir) I-IE(Inquirir) 
 Repito Repetimos Inquiero Inquirimos 
 Repites Repetís Inquieres Inquirís 
 Repite Repiten Inquiere Inquieren
Para 
 Para is used with an infinitive verb to express the 
purpose of doing something. 
 Reasons for using Para: 
 P- urpose 
 R-ecipient 
Examples: 
• Trabajamos para ganar dinero. 
O-pinion 
• We work to earn money. 
 D-• Coma las legumbres para la 
estination 
salud. 
• Eat vegetables to be healthy. 
 D-eadline 
 S-tandard
Adjectives 
 Adjectives are descriptive 
words frequently used to 
describe nouns. 
 They can describe color, 
eyes, hair, height, 
personality, etc. 
• Adjectives also need to match 
different things about the noun 
including: 
• Masculine/Feminine 
• Singular/Plural 
• Adjectives that end in -o have 
four forms: alto, alta, altos, altas 
• Adjectives that end in -e have 
two forms: inteligente, 
inteligentes 
• Most adjectives that end in a 
consonant have two forms: 
popular, populares (form plural by 
adding -es) 
Example: 
la chica popular 
el chico popular 
las chicas populares 
los chicos populares
Object Pronoun Placement 
 An “object of a preposition” 
pronoun is by definition placed 
after a preposition, but the other 
two types of object pronouns and 
the reflexive pronouns all go in 
the same place. Because it is 
common to use more than one of 
these pronouns at a time, you 
must know what order to follow 
La señora Gómez enseña las 
lecciones. (Mrs. Gomez 
teaches the lessons.) 
A Reflexive pronoun is in front of an 
Indirect object pronoun, and a 
Direct object is the last pronoun.
DOP(Direct Object Pronouns) 
 The Direct object 
always comes 
before the verb in 
Affirmative 
sentences. 
me (me) 
te (you-familiar) 
lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal) 
nos (us) 
os (you-all-familiar) 
los, las (them, you-all-formal) 
Yo te quiero. (I love you.) 
Tú me quieres. (You love 
me.) 
In the case of infinitives and present 
participles you either can attach the 
direct object pronoun to the end of 
the verb, or you can put it before 
the first verb. 
Voy a hacerla. / La voy a hacer. (I am 
going to do it.) 
Estoy limpiándola. / La estoy limpiando. 
(I am cleaning it.)
IOP(Indirect Object Pronoun) 
 Me(Yo) Nos(Nosotros) 
 Te (Tu) Os(Vosotros) 
 Le(El, Ella, Usted) Se(Ellos, Ellas, 
Ustedes) 
List of Indirect Object Pronouns 
Notice that the 
English definition for 
each indirect object 
includes "to/for" 
since they always 
indicate where the 
object is going. 
My mother writes me every week. 
DO=letter (understood) 
IO=me 
(My mother writes me a letter every week.) 
She told him. 
DO=it (understood) 
IO=him 
(She told it to him.)
Ser v. Estar 
 Ser: 
 physical 
description, 
personality 
and character, 
nationality, 
race, gender, 
profession, 
origin 
 TODO- Time 
Origin Date 
Occupation 
 Temporary 
Similarities: 
Verb means to be. 
Estar: 
Feelings/moods/ 
emotions, 
physical 
conditions or 
appearances, 
location of 
things and 
people. 
LOCO- LOcation 
COndition 
Permanent
-ísimo(a), and g/c/z 
• To intensify the meaning 
of adjectives. Use the 
suffix ísimo 
• ísimo = extremely 
 To Add ísimo to an 
ADJECTIVE . . . 
 Remove the final vowel 
 Add ísimo 
 Make sure the ísimo 
agrees with the noun in 
gender and number 
 Ex: ALTO --> ALT- --> 
ALTÍSIMO 
Irregulars . . . If after taking 
off the last vowel, if the 
adjective ends in a: 
C -QU (the C must have a K 
sound) 
BLANCO - blanquísimo 
G -GU 
LARGO - larguísimo 
Z -C 
FELIZ - felicísimo
Verbs like Gustar 
Common Verbs like Gustar 
aburrir to bore faltar to be lacking 
agradar to please fascinar to fascinate 
alegrar to gladden 
fastidia 
r 
to annoy 
apasionar to love gustar to please 
apetecer to feel like 
hacer 
falta 
to be missed 
atraer to attract 
import 
ar 
to matter 
bastar to be enough 
interes 
ar 
to interest 
caber to fit, to fill 
molest 
ar 
to bother 
convenir to be better for parecer to appear to be 
corresponder 
to be 
responsible for 
picar to itch 
costar to cost 
preocu 
par 
to worry 
disgustar to disgust quedar to remain 
doler to hurt 
repugn 
ar 
to disgust 
encantar to delight sobrar to be left over 
extrañar to surprise tocar 
to be 
responsible for 
Me agrada su visita. (I am pleased by your visit.) 
• ¿Os interesaría ir al cine? (Are you interested 
in going to the movies?) 
• A nosotros nos molesta el ruido. (We are 
bothered by the noise.) 
• A muchas mujeres les encantan los cuentos 
de amor. (Many women really like love stories.) 
These verbs all have indirect objects which 
require an indirect object pronoun (in most 
cases). Sentences may begin or end with the 
indirect object and may or may not include the 
preposition “a” plus a pronoun or noun. The verb 
is always conjugated to match the subject noun 
while the person is identified by the indirect 
object pronoun. If the sentence begins with an 
indirect object, the emphasis is placed on the 
person.
Affirmative and Negative 
Words 
 Algo Something 
 Nada Nothing 
 Ni Neither, Nor 
 Siempre Always 
 Nunca Never 
 Nadie None 
 Alguien Someone 
 Alguno Some 
 Ninguno Not any 
Alguno and ninguno must match the 
gender and number of the noun they 
replace or modify. 
Note that alguno changes to algún when 
used before masculine singular nouns. 
Similarly, ninguno changes to ningún 
when used before masculine singular 
nouns. 
Examples 
Alguno de ellos. (One of them.) 
Un hombre está lavando su coche. 
(A man is washing his car.) 
Algunos de los muchachos. (One of 
the boys.) 
Algunos hombres están lavando el 
coche. (Some men are washing the 
car.)
Pero v. Sino 
Pero Sino 
We use "pero" to join two contrasting idea 
when the second phrase does not negate the 
first. Instead, you can think of it as adding on to 
the first idea. See below: 
No soy española, pero hablo bien el idioma. 
(I'm not Spanish, but I speak the language 
well.) 
Hace frío, pero también hace sol. 
(It's cold out, but it's also sunny.) 
Estudiar no es divertido, pero es necesario. 
(Studying isn't fun, but it's necessary.) 
We use sino, on the other hand, is used 
generally in negative sentences in 
which the second phrase negates or 
corrects the first. The equivalent in 
English would be "but rather" or "but 
on the contrary". 
Hoy no voy a estudiar biología, sino 
matemáticas. 
(Today I'm not going to study biology, 
but rathermath.) 
Similar: BUT
DOP/IOP/SE 
 me (me) 
te (you-familiar) 
lo, la (him, her, it, 
you-formal) 
 nos (us) 
os (you-all-familiar) 
los, las (them, you-all- 
formal) 
 The Direct 
object always 
comes before 
the verb in 
Affirmative 
sentences. 
Me(Yo) 
Te (Tu) 
Le(El, Ella, Usted) 
Nos(Nosotros) 
Os(Vosotros) 
Se(Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes) 
Notice that the English 
definition for each 
indirect object includes 
"to/for" since they 
always indicate where 
the object is going. 
The 'se' form of the 
indirect object pronoun 
can either refer to a 
third person singular or 
plural when both (direct 
and indirect object) 
pronouns are used. 
Passive “se”: 
Levantarse, 
Despertarse( To wake 
up) 
Reciprical “Se”: 
Mirarse, Verse(To look, 
to see) 
DOP IOP 
SE
Reflexive Verbs 
A.K.A 
MIRROR VERBS 
Reflexive pronouns work with a 
reflexive verb to indicate that a 
person is performing the action 
toward or for him- or herself. 
These types of verbs are not very 
common in English, but are used 
frequently in Spanish. Many 
actions related to personal care 
or daily routines are reflexive, but 
other verbs can be reflexive as 
well. 
Me ducho cada mañana. (I shower 
(myself) every morning.) 
Te peinas el pelo. (You brush your hair 
(yourself).) 
Se hablaba. (He was talking to himself.) 
Me veo en el espejo. (I see myself in the 
mirror.)
Tu Commands Affirmative, 
Negative, Irregulars 
Affirmative 
• Commands 
that give order 
or advice 
• It is formed by 
taking the tu 
form of the 
verb and 
dropping the 
“S” 
Di, haz, ve, 
pon, sal, se, ten 
ven ( Decir, 
Hacer, Ir, Poner, 
Salir, Ser, Tener, 
Venir) 
TVDISHES 
Des/Digas, 
vayas, seas, 
hagas, estes, 
sepas, tengas, 
vengas (Same 
Verbs) 
Negative 
• Commands 
that give 
order or 
advice. 
• Telling 
somebody 
not to do 
something 
• Fromed by 
putting into 
the yo form 
changing 
the vowel 
and adding 
an “s” 
IRREGULARS
Los adverbios-mente 
When two or 
more adverbs 
modify the same 
verb the last one 
takes the -mente 
Irregular 
adverbs 
Mucho- a lot 
Muy- very 
Mal-bad 
Bastante-quite/enough 
Ya-already 
Bien-good 
Deasiado-too 
Nunca- never 
Poco- little 
Peor-worse 
Siempre- always 
1. Add- mente to the end of the verb to create adverbs. 
2. If it ends in a –o it always changes to the feminine (a). 
1. Reciente 
(recently) 
2. Frecuente 
(Frequent) 
EXAMPLES 
1. Receintemente 
(recently) 
2. Frecuentemente 
(Frequently)
Modal Verbs 
 Modal Verbs should be conjugated and placed 
in front of a non-conjugated, or infinitive, 
verb. 
 Should be used with an infinitive all the time. 
 Modal verbs Examples: 
 Desear- to need 
 Ellos desean dormir. 
 Deber-Ought to 
 Tú debes quitar la ropa.
Past participles as 
Adjectives 
 Drop –ar ending and add –ado 
 Drop –er or –ir ending and add -ido 
Examples: 
La puerta está cerrada. 
The door is closed.
Preterite 
 A definite time in the past. 
 Has a beginning and/or ending. 
 Las expressiones para el uso (trigger words) 
 Ayer, Anoche, El año pasado, La semana pasada, 
Ante ayer 
-Ar verbs 
- É - amos 
- Aste -asteios 
- Ó -aron 
-Er Verbs 
- Í -imos 
- Iste -isteís 
- Ió -ieron 
-Ir Verbs 
- Í -imos 
- Iste -isteís 
- Ió -ieron
Present Progressive Tense 
Spanish –ing’s 
Estar 
-AR -ER/IR Irregulars 
-ANDO - IENDO -YENDO/ Vowel Change 
IRREGULARS 
Verbs 
Leer 
Oir 
Traer 
Pedir 
Servir 
Decir 
Dormir 
Venir 
Irregular Present 
Participle
Works Cited 
 http://ww2.d155.org/cls/tdirectory/JOrgler/Share 
d%20Documents/Acc.%20Spanish%20II%20- 
%202nd%20Semester/Adding%20isimo%20to% 
20adjectives.pdf 
 http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/adj1.htm 
 http://www.cliffsnotes.com/foreign-languages/ 
spanish/spanish-ii/pronouns/pronoun-placement 
 http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/40 
 http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/85

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Grammar book

  • 1. Por: Bruno Matlock Clase: 1st GRAMMAR BOOK
  • 2. Table of Contents  1. Nationalities  2. Stem-Changing Verbs (all 4 classes)  3. Para  4. Adjectives  5. Object Pronoun Placement  6. DOP (Direct Object Pronoun)  7. IOP (Indirect Object Pronouns)  8. ser vs. estar (all in one page)  9. -ísimo(a), and g/c/z  10. Verbs like gustar  11. Affirmative and Negative Words  12. pero vs. sino  13. DOP/IOP/SE  14. Reflexive verbs  15. Tú commands affirmative + negative + irregulars  16. los adverbios-mente  17. deber + other modal verbs  18. past participles as adjectives  19. preterite  20. Present Progressive Tense
  • 3. Nacionalidades Nationality Country  Mexicano Paraguayo  Guatemalteco Boliviano  Hondureño Chileno  Salvadoreño Argentino  Nicaragüense Uruguayo  Costarricense Español  Panameño Guineano  Cubano Canadiense  Dominicano Estadounidense  Puertorriqueño norteamericano  Venezolano italiano  Ecuatoriano Francés  Colombiano Inglés  Peruano Latino  Mexico Paraguay  Guatemala Bolivia  Honduras Chile  El Salvador Argentina  Nicaragua Uruguay  Costa Rica Spain  Panama Guinea  Cuba Canada  Dominican Republic United States  Puerto Rico North America  Venezuela Italy  Ecuador France  Colombia England  Peru Mexico
  • 4. Stem-Changing Verbs  E-IE (Querer) O-UE(Soñar)  Quiero Queremos Sueño Soñamos  Quieras Quereís Sueñas Soñaís  Quiera Quieren Sueña Sueñan E-I(Repetir) I-IE(Inquirir)  Repito Repetimos Inquiero Inquirimos  Repites Repetís Inquieres Inquirís  Repite Repiten Inquiere Inquieren
  • 5. Para  Para is used with an infinitive verb to express the purpose of doing something.  Reasons for using Para:  P- urpose  R-ecipient Examples: • Trabajamos para ganar dinero. O-pinion • We work to earn money.  D-• Coma las legumbres para la estination salud. • Eat vegetables to be healthy.  D-eadline  S-tandard
  • 6. Adjectives  Adjectives are descriptive words frequently used to describe nouns.  They can describe color, eyes, hair, height, personality, etc. • Adjectives also need to match different things about the noun including: • Masculine/Feminine • Singular/Plural • Adjectives that end in -o have four forms: alto, alta, altos, altas • Adjectives that end in -e have two forms: inteligente, inteligentes • Most adjectives that end in a consonant have two forms: popular, populares (form plural by adding -es) Example: la chica popular el chico popular las chicas populares los chicos populares
  • 7. Object Pronoun Placement  An “object of a preposition” pronoun is by definition placed after a preposition, but the other two types of object pronouns and the reflexive pronouns all go in the same place. Because it is common to use more than one of these pronouns at a time, you must know what order to follow La señora Gómez enseña las lecciones. (Mrs. Gomez teaches the lessons.) A Reflexive pronoun is in front of an Indirect object pronoun, and a Direct object is the last pronoun.
  • 8. DOP(Direct Object Pronouns)  The Direct object always comes before the verb in Affirmative sentences. me (me) te (you-familiar) lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal) nos (us) os (you-all-familiar) los, las (them, you-all-formal) Yo te quiero. (I love you.) Tú me quieres. (You love me.) In the case of infinitives and present participles you either can attach the direct object pronoun to the end of the verb, or you can put it before the first verb. Voy a hacerla. / La voy a hacer. (I am going to do it.) Estoy limpiándola. / La estoy limpiando. (I am cleaning it.)
  • 9. IOP(Indirect Object Pronoun)  Me(Yo) Nos(Nosotros)  Te (Tu) Os(Vosotros)  Le(El, Ella, Usted) Se(Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes) List of Indirect Object Pronouns Notice that the English definition for each indirect object includes "to/for" since they always indicate where the object is going. My mother writes me every week. DO=letter (understood) IO=me (My mother writes me a letter every week.) She told him. DO=it (understood) IO=him (She told it to him.)
  • 10. Ser v. Estar  Ser:  physical description, personality and character, nationality, race, gender, profession, origin  TODO- Time Origin Date Occupation  Temporary Similarities: Verb means to be. Estar: Feelings/moods/ emotions, physical conditions or appearances, location of things and people. LOCO- LOcation COndition Permanent
  • 11. -ísimo(a), and g/c/z • To intensify the meaning of adjectives. Use the suffix ísimo • ísimo = extremely  To Add ísimo to an ADJECTIVE . . .  Remove the final vowel  Add ísimo  Make sure the ísimo agrees with the noun in gender and number  Ex: ALTO --> ALT- --> ALTÍSIMO Irregulars . . . If after taking off the last vowel, if the adjective ends in a: C -QU (the C must have a K sound) BLANCO - blanquísimo G -GU LARGO - larguísimo Z -C FELIZ - felicísimo
  • 12. Verbs like Gustar Common Verbs like Gustar aburrir to bore faltar to be lacking agradar to please fascinar to fascinate alegrar to gladden fastidia r to annoy apasionar to love gustar to please apetecer to feel like hacer falta to be missed atraer to attract import ar to matter bastar to be enough interes ar to interest caber to fit, to fill molest ar to bother convenir to be better for parecer to appear to be corresponder to be responsible for picar to itch costar to cost preocu par to worry disgustar to disgust quedar to remain doler to hurt repugn ar to disgust encantar to delight sobrar to be left over extrañar to surprise tocar to be responsible for Me agrada su visita. (I am pleased by your visit.) • ¿Os interesaría ir al cine? (Are you interested in going to the movies?) • A nosotros nos molesta el ruido. (We are bothered by the noise.) • A muchas mujeres les encantan los cuentos de amor. (Many women really like love stories.) These verbs all have indirect objects which require an indirect object pronoun (in most cases). Sentences may begin or end with the indirect object and may or may not include the preposition “a” plus a pronoun or noun. The verb is always conjugated to match the subject noun while the person is identified by the indirect object pronoun. If the sentence begins with an indirect object, the emphasis is placed on the person.
  • 13. Affirmative and Negative Words  Algo Something  Nada Nothing  Ni Neither, Nor  Siempre Always  Nunca Never  Nadie None  Alguien Someone  Alguno Some  Ninguno Not any Alguno and ninguno must match the gender and number of the noun they replace or modify. Note that alguno changes to algún when used before masculine singular nouns. Similarly, ninguno changes to ningún when used before masculine singular nouns. Examples Alguno de ellos. (One of them.) Un hombre está lavando su coche. (A man is washing his car.) Algunos de los muchachos. (One of the boys.) Algunos hombres están lavando el coche. (Some men are washing the car.)
  • 14. Pero v. Sino Pero Sino We use "pero" to join two contrasting idea when the second phrase does not negate the first. Instead, you can think of it as adding on to the first idea. See below: No soy española, pero hablo bien el idioma. (I'm not Spanish, but I speak the language well.) Hace frío, pero también hace sol. (It's cold out, but it's also sunny.) Estudiar no es divertido, pero es necesario. (Studying isn't fun, but it's necessary.) We use sino, on the other hand, is used generally in negative sentences in which the second phrase negates or corrects the first. The equivalent in English would be "but rather" or "but on the contrary". Hoy no voy a estudiar biología, sino matemáticas. (Today I'm not going to study biology, but rathermath.) Similar: BUT
  • 15. DOP/IOP/SE  me (me) te (you-familiar) lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)  nos (us) os (you-all-familiar) los, las (them, you-all- formal)  The Direct object always comes before the verb in Affirmative sentences. Me(Yo) Te (Tu) Le(El, Ella, Usted) Nos(Nosotros) Os(Vosotros) Se(Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes) Notice that the English definition for each indirect object includes "to/for" since they always indicate where the object is going. The 'se' form of the indirect object pronoun can either refer to a third person singular or plural when both (direct and indirect object) pronouns are used. Passive “se”: Levantarse, Despertarse( To wake up) Reciprical “Se”: Mirarse, Verse(To look, to see) DOP IOP SE
  • 16. Reflexive Verbs A.K.A MIRROR VERBS Reflexive pronouns work with a reflexive verb to indicate that a person is performing the action toward or for him- or herself. These types of verbs are not very common in English, but are used frequently in Spanish. Many actions related to personal care or daily routines are reflexive, but other verbs can be reflexive as well. Me ducho cada mañana. (I shower (myself) every morning.) Te peinas el pelo. (You brush your hair (yourself).) Se hablaba. (He was talking to himself.) Me veo en el espejo. (I see myself in the mirror.)
  • 17. Tu Commands Affirmative, Negative, Irregulars Affirmative • Commands that give order or advice • It is formed by taking the tu form of the verb and dropping the “S” Di, haz, ve, pon, sal, se, ten ven ( Decir, Hacer, Ir, Poner, Salir, Ser, Tener, Venir) TVDISHES Des/Digas, vayas, seas, hagas, estes, sepas, tengas, vengas (Same Verbs) Negative • Commands that give order or advice. • Telling somebody not to do something • Fromed by putting into the yo form changing the vowel and adding an “s” IRREGULARS
  • 18. Los adverbios-mente When two or more adverbs modify the same verb the last one takes the -mente Irregular adverbs Mucho- a lot Muy- very Mal-bad Bastante-quite/enough Ya-already Bien-good Deasiado-too Nunca- never Poco- little Peor-worse Siempre- always 1. Add- mente to the end of the verb to create adverbs. 2. If it ends in a –o it always changes to the feminine (a). 1. Reciente (recently) 2. Frecuente (Frequent) EXAMPLES 1. Receintemente (recently) 2. Frecuentemente (Frequently)
  • 19. Modal Verbs  Modal Verbs should be conjugated and placed in front of a non-conjugated, or infinitive, verb.  Should be used with an infinitive all the time.  Modal verbs Examples:  Desear- to need  Ellos desean dormir.  Deber-Ought to  Tú debes quitar la ropa.
  • 20. Past participles as Adjectives  Drop –ar ending and add –ado  Drop –er or –ir ending and add -ido Examples: La puerta está cerrada. The door is closed.
  • 21. Preterite  A definite time in the past.  Has a beginning and/or ending.  Las expressiones para el uso (trigger words)  Ayer, Anoche, El año pasado, La semana pasada, Ante ayer -Ar verbs - É - amos - Aste -asteios - Ó -aron -Er Verbs - Í -imos - Iste -isteís - Ió -ieron -Ir Verbs - Í -imos - Iste -isteís - Ió -ieron
  • 22. Present Progressive Tense Spanish –ing’s Estar -AR -ER/IR Irregulars -ANDO - IENDO -YENDO/ Vowel Change IRREGULARS Verbs Leer Oir Traer Pedir Servir Decir Dormir Venir Irregular Present Participle
  • 23. Works Cited  http://ww2.d155.org/cls/tdirectory/JOrgler/Share d%20Documents/Acc.%20Spanish%20II%20- %202nd%20Semester/Adding%20isimo%20to% 20adjectives.pdf  http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/adj1.htm  http://www.cliffsnotes.com/foreign-languages/ spanish/spanish-ii/pronouns/pronoun-placement  http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/40  http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/85