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Globalization
Prepared by:
Mr. Antonio Delgado
Faculty, Social Science Department
General De Jesus College
Globalized
World
Contemporary
World
FOCUS QUESTIONS
1. Define globalization.
2. What are the key dynamics of globalization?
3. Name some theories of globalization and describe each.
4. Name some perspectives on globalization.
5. Differentiate westernization from glocalization.
7
Definition
Globalization defined
▪Globalization refers to time- space compressions
(Harvey, 1989).
▪Globalization refers to the integration of the world-economy
(Glipin, 2001).
▪Globalization is the de-territorialization – or ….the growth of
supraterritorial relations between people (Scholte, 2002).
9
Globalization defined
▪Globalization refers to the expansion and intensification of
social relations and consciousness across world-time and
world-space (Steger, 2010).
10
Globalization defined
▪Globalization is the inexorable integration of markets,
transportation systems, and communication systems to a
degree never witnessed before – in a way that is enabling
corporations, countries, and individuals to reach around the
world farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before,
and in a way that is enabling the world to reach into
corporations, countries, and individuals farther, faster,
deeper, and cheaper than ever before (Friedman, 1999).
11
Globalization defined
▪Globalization refers to the worldwide intensification of
interactions and increased movement of money, people,
goods, and ideas within and across national borders (Guest,
2017).
12
Key Dynamics
of Globalization
1. Time-Space Compression
▪According to the theory of time- space compression, the
rapid innovation of communication and transportation
technologies has transformed the way we think about space
(distances) and time.
▪Can you think of examples of time-space compression?
14
15
16
2. Flexible Accumulation
▪reflects the fact that advances in transportation and
communication have enabled companies to move their
production facilities and activities around the world
▪Why do you think companies would want to move production
facilities around the world?
17
18
2. Flexible Accumulation
▪reflects the fact that advances in transportation and
communication have enabled companies to move their
production facilities and activities around the world
▪Reasons: cheaper labor, lower taxes, and fewer
environmental regulations
19
2. Flexible Accumulation
a) Offshoring – is the relocation of a business process from
one country to another—typically an operational process,
such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as
accounting.
b) Outsourcing - is an agreement in which one company
contracts its own internal activity to a different company. It
involves the contracting out of a business process and
operational, and/or non-core functions to another party.
20
21
3. Increasing Migration
▪There is an accelerated movement of people both within
countries and between countries.
▪How does this affect the Philippines?
22
23
5,460 OFWs
Left the Philippines daily in 2017
24
2.3 million
Number of OFWs (PSA, 2018)
25
4. Uneven Development
▪Although many people associate globalization with rapid
economic development and progress, globalization has not
brought equal benefits to the world’s people.
▪Why is this so?
26
27
28
Theories of Globalization
30
1. Modernization Theory (Rostow)
▪Based on stages of economic growth and modernization
a) Traditional society
b) Pre-conditions for take-off
c) Take-off
d) Drive to maturity
e) The age of mass consumption
31
32
2. Dependency Theory (Frank)
▪An approach based on the
periphery’s dependence to the core.
▪the core exploits resources in the
periphery resulting in the
periphery’s dependence on the core
as it imports the core’s finished
products.
33
3. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein)
▪There is only one world – a complex world-systems theory –
in which nation-states compete for capital and labor.
▪The global economy is a market system with a fluid and
dynamic flow of countries and economies from periphery to
semi-periphery to core
34
35
Information Arbitrage (Friedman)
▪To understand the complex system of globalization a multi-
lens perspective is needed.
▪Six dimensional information arbitrage is the best way to see
the system of globalization; politics, culture, national security,
financial markets, technology, environmentalism.
36
Perspectives
on Globalization
1. Hyperglobalist Perspective
▪This is an approach which sees globalization as a new
epoch in human history.
▪This new epoch is characterized by the declining relevance
and authority of nation-states, brought about largely through
the economic logic of a global market.
38
2. Skeptical Perspective
▪This views current international processes as more by
fragmented and regionalized than globalized.
▪Current processes show, at best, a regionalization.
▪Authors with a skeptical perspective reject the notions of the
development of a global culture or a global governance
structure.
39
40
3. Transformationalist Perspective
▪This perspective differs fundamentally from the other two
perspectives in that:
a) there is no single cause (that is, the market or economic
logic) behind globalization; and that
b) the outcome of processes of globalization is not
determined.
41
Globalization as
Westernization
Westernization
▪Westernization is a process whereby societies come under
or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry,
technology, politics, economics, lifestyle, law, norms, mores,
customs, traditions, values, mentality, perceptions, diet,
clothing, language, alphabet, religion, and philosophy.
43
44
Americanization
▪Americanization refers to the import by non - Americans of
products, images, technologies, practices and behavior that
are closely associated with America/Americans.
45
Globalization
as Glocalization
Glocalization
▪Glocalization is the simultaneous occurrence of both
universalizing and particularizing tendencies in contemporary
social, political, and economic systems.
47
48
49
Globalization
51
52
THANKS!
ANY QUESTIONS?
You can find me at:
▪ twitter.com/SirTonyDelgado
▪ facebook.com/kazekage15
▪ facebook.com/GJCconworld
References
▪Guest, K.J. (2017). Cultural Anthropology : A Toolkit for a
Global Age. New York, NY :W.W. Norton & Company
▪Friedman, T.L. ( 2000). The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New
York: Anchor Books
▪Ritzer, G. (2011). Globalization: The Essentials. Chichester,
West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell
▪Martell, L. (Summer 2007). The Third Wave in Globalization
Theory. International Studies Review, 9(2), pp. 173-196.
Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/4621804?seq=1
53

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Globalization: Definition, Perspectives and Theories

  • 1. Globalization Prepared by: Mr. Antonio Delgado Faculty, Social Science Department General De Jesus College
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 7. FOCUS QUESTIONS 1. Define globalization. 2. What are the key dynamics of globalization? 3. Name some theories of globalization and describe each. 4. Name some perspectives on globalization. 5. Differentiate westernization from glocalization. 7
  • 9. Globalization defined ▪Globalization refers to time- space compressions (Harvey, 1989). ▪Globalization refers to the integration of the world-economy (Glipin, 2001). ▪Globalization is the de-territorialization – or ….the growth of supraterritorial relations between people (Scholte, 2002). 9
  • 10. Globalization defined ▪Globalization refers to the expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world-time and world-space (Steger, 2010). 10
  • 11. Globalization defined ▪Globalization is the inexorable integration of markets, transportation systems, and communication systems to a degree never witnessed before – in a way that is enabling corporations, countries, and individuals to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and in a way that is enabling the world to reach into corporations, countries, and individuals farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before (Friedman, 1999). 11
  • 12. Globalization defined ▪Globalization refers to the worldwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of money, people, goods, and ideas within and across national borders (Guest, 2017). 12
  • 14. 1. Time-Space Compression ▪According to the theory of time- space compression, the rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies has transformed the way we think about space (distances) and time. ▪Can you think of examples of time-space compression? 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 2. Flexible Accumulation ▪reflects the fact that advances in transportation and communication have enabled companies to move their production facilities and activities around the world ▪Why do you think companies would want to move production facilities around the world? 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 2. Flexible Accumulation ▪reflects the fact that advances in transportation and communication have enabled companies to move their production facilities and activities around the world ▪Reasons: cheaper labor, lower taxes, and fewer environmental regulations 19
  • 20. 2. Flexible Accumulation a) Offshoring – is the relocation of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting. b) Outsourcing - is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company. It involves the contracting out of a business process and operational, and/or non-core functions to another party. 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 3. Increasing Migration ▪There is an accelerated movement of people both within countries and between countries. ▪How does this affect the Philippines? 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 5,460 OFWs Left the Philippines daily in 2017 24
  • 25. 2.3 million Number of OFWs (PSA, 2018) 25
  • 26. 4. Uneven Development ▪Although many people associate globalization with rapid economic development and progress, globalization has not brought equal benefits to the world’s people. ▪Why is this so? 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 1. Modernization Theory (Rostow) ▪Based on stages of economic growth and modernization a) Traditional society b) Pre-conditions for take-off c) Take-off d) Drive to maturity e) The age of mass consumption 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 2. Dependency Theory (Frank) ▪An approach based on the periphery’s dependence to the core. ▪the core exploits resources in the periphery resulting in the periphery’s dependence on the core as it imports the core’s finished products. 33
  • 34. 3. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein) ▪There is only one world – a complex world-systems theory – in which nation-states compete for capital and labor. ▪The global economy is a market system with a fluid and dynamic flow of countries and economies from periphery to semi-periphery to core 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. Information Arbitrage (Friedman) ▪To understand the complex system of globalization a multi- lens perspective is needed. ▪Six dimensional information arbitrage is the best way to see the system of globalization; politics, culture, national security, financial markets, technology, environmentalism. 36
  • 38. 1. Hyperglobalist Perspective ▪This is an approach which sees globalization as a new epoch in human history. ▪This new epoch is characterized by the declining relevance and authority of nation-states, brought about largely through the economic logic of a global market. 38
  • 39. 2. Skeptical Perspective ▪This views current international processes as more by fragmented and regionalized than globalized. ▪Current processes show, at best, a regionalization. ▪Authors with a skeptical perspective reject the notions of the development of a global culture or a global governance structure. 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. 3. Transformationalist Perspective ▪This perspective differs fundamentally from the other two perspectives in that: a) there is no single cause (that is, the market or economic logic) behind globalization; and that b) the outcome of processes of globalization is not determined. 41
  • 43. Westernization ▪Westernization is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, politics, economics, lifestyle, law, norms, mores, customs, traditions, values, mentality, perceptions, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, and philosophy. 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Americanization ▪Americanization refers to the import by non - Americans of products, images, technologies, practices and behavior that are closely associated with America/Americans. 45
  • 47. Glocalization ▪Glocalization is the simultaneous occurrence of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies in contemporary social, political, and economic systems. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. 49
  • 51. 51
  • 52. 52 THANKS! ANY QUESTIONS? You can find me at: ▪ twitter.com/SirTonyDelgado ▪ facebook.com/kazekage15 ▪ facebook.com/GJCconworld
  • 53. References ▪Guest, K.J. (2017). Cultural Anthropology : A Toolkit for a Global Age. New York, NY :W.W. Norton & Company ▪Friedman, T.L. ( 2000). The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Anchor Books ▪Ritzer, G. (2011). Globalization: The Essentials. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell ▪Martell, L. (Summer 2007). The Third Wave in Globalization Theory. International Studies Review, 9(2), pp. 173-196. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/4621804?seq=1 53