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GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS,
INDUSTRY 4.0, AND KOREAN
INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION
September 5, 2017
Professor Gary Gereffi
Director
Global Value Chains Center
Duke University
Duke GVC Center research team in collaboration with KIET:
Stacey Frederick, Penny Bamber, Lukas Brun and Joonkoo Lee
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KIET-DUKE PROJECT – KOREA IN GVCs
• One year joint project between KIET and Duke
• Initiated by KIET; first study to focus on GVCs in Korea
• Objective: Identify upgrading opportunities for the Korean
economy using a global value chain (GVC) perspective
• Research report covers
• GVC and Industry 4.0 trends
• Two GVC case studies on electronics and shipbuilding
• Recommendations and future directions for Korea
• Today’s presentation highlights Korea’s position in GVCs,
key findings from the research, and a global perspective on
GVCs, Industry 4.0 and industrial policy trends.
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KOREA IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: PATHWAYS FOR
INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION
• Korea’s economic development to date based on
considerable strength in manufacturing
• Global playing field is changing  Industry 4.0
technologies are creating new digital economy
• Competitiveness of traditional manufacturing base
under potential threat
• Lower cost locations (e.g., China, Vietnam)
• Innovation hubs (e.g., US, Europe, Japan)
Key Questions:
What pathways should Korea pursue to drive
economic growth?
Can GVC Analysis help identify opportunities?
Key Features of GVC Analysis
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS & DEVELOPMENT:
CHANGING PARADIGMS
Image Source: Taglioni and Winkler. (2016). Making Global Value Chains Work for Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
From low to
high value
activities
within sectors
From low to
high value
sectors–
focus on final
goods
Shift from movement between sectors to
movement within sectors
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KEY TRENDS IN GVCS &
IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT POLICY
• Rationalization
• Lead firms preference to work with large suppliers/partners
• SMEs cut out from volume business, must focus on niches
• Asian regionalization
• Early GVC regionalization (e.g. NAFTA, EU)
• Strong demand drive & relocation of production activities
• New products for Asian markets
• Changing production technologies
• Automation –scale industries/segments
• 3D Printing – niche sectors
• Capital substitution of labor; geography of chain
• Servicification
• New services activities  Big Data/Internet of Things (IoT)
• Increased value of after-sales & knowledge-intensive services
INDUSTRY 4.0
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
ECONOMIC UPGRADING
• Strategies used by firms and countries to
improve their positions in global and regional
value chains
• Entry upgrading – participate in GVCs
• Product upgrading - moving into more sophisticated product lines
• Process upgrading - transforms inputs into outputs more efficiently
by reorganizing the production system or introducing superior
technology
• Functional upgrading - acquiring new functions (or abandoning
existing ones) to increase the overall skill content of the activities
(OEM  ODM  OBM)
• Intersectoral (chain) upgrading – entry or diversification into new
value chain by leveraging the knowledge and skills acquired in the
current chain (e.g., new materials – graphite in Taiwan; high-tech
textiles)
Key Frontier
Upgrading
Strategies
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
STAN SHIH’S SMILING CURVE
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
WHERE DOES THE VALUE LIE
IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS?
9
Korea in Global Value Chains
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KOREA IN GVCS: DUKE GVCC STUDY
Electronics Shipbuilding
$120 billion Exports (2015, US$) $38 billion
23% Share of Korea’s
Exports
7.3%
396,000 (2012) Employment 260,000
Samsung, LG, SK Hynix Key Lead Firms HHI, SHI, DSME
Components/subassemblies
(for export)
Lead firm (final 3C products)
Main Stages of GVC
Participation
Components
Lead firms; Integration
Cost-driven consumer market
Current
Competitiveness
Strategy
Higher-value, niche markets
Two Key Sectors
+650,000 jobs
30% exports
(US$240,000 /employee)
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KOREA IN GVCS: KEY FINDINGS
• Upgrading driven by indigenous firms, not FDI
• Transfer knowledge via licensing rather than collaboration
• Limited outsourcing  Firms have maintained
manufacturing capabilities in-house (unique to Korean
lead firms)
• Process & product upgrading (i.e., productivity & new
technologies, incremental product improvements) 
major drivers of competitiveness
• Functional upgrading mainly occurred upstream in
GVCs applied R&D, new product development
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KOREA IN GVCS: KEY FINDINGS (cont’d)
• Small and medium enterprises not well linked to
innovative activities outside chaebol economy
• Weak presence in services in value chain
• Poor services sector overall
• Focused on small number innovative products &
select end markets
• China is in all products; Japan declining presence
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
GVC UPGRADING:
POTENTIAL PATHWAYS FOR THE FUTURE
• Upgrading into Production Technologies  position
Korea at forefront of Industry 4.0
• Functional Upgrading into Services  very strong
R&D but only in select GVCs
• After-sales services  Big data
• IT services  IoT
• Manufacturing-related services  use GVC approach to
identify these (use manufacturing to move into services)
• Intersectoral (chain) upgrading  Leverage
existing knowledge across tech leaders to move into &
define new sectors on the technological frontier
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
UPGRADE INTO SERVICES: POST PRODUCTION &
MANUFACTURING-RELATED SERVICES
Products
Products &
Services
Smart Services
Benchmarking
& Performance
Consulting
GVC OPPORTUNITIES
• Port logistics
• Navigational services
• Safety services
• Weather forecasting
• City planning/urban
development
• Autonomous car
programming
• Advertising/targeting
marketing
• Political campaign
targetingDesign services
ERP
CRM
e-Commerce
Logistics
Insurance
Potential Markets
2017 KOREAN
STRENGTHS
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
THREE KEYS TO UNLOCKING THIS POTENTIAL
Human
Capital
Innovation
Systems
Services
Regulation
COHERENT & CONSISTENT INSTITUTIONALAPPROACH
Korea in Comparative Perspective
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
INNOVATION SYSTEMS IN EAST ASIA
China Japan Korea Singapore Taiwan
GVC/Integrat
ion Approach
FDI
National
Champions
National
Champions
FDI
FDI/National
Champions
Capability
Development
in GVCs
Membershi
p of GVCs
Indigenous
Innovation
Indigenous
Innovation/Li
censing of
foreign tech
Membership
of GVCs
Membership
of GVCs
Policy
Approach
SME &
Industrial
Space
Supporting
national
champs &
core
technologies
SME &
Industrial
Space,
Targeted FDI
SME &
Industrial
Space
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
CHINA’S ONE-BELT, ONE-ROAD INITIATIVE
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
ASIAN-PACIFIC TOP 10 GDP COUNTRIES,
ONE BELT ONE ROAD AND TTP MEMBERS
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
MADE IN CHINA 2025: STRATEGIC INDUSTRIES
AND ULTIMATE GOALS
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
UPGRADING STRATEGIES FOR CHINESE VEHICLE
MANUFACTURERS, MID-1990s - PRESENT
Source: Chun Jiang, “China in Global Value Chains,” Duke GLS program (2016).
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
MAJOR R&D CENTERS FOUNDED BY MNCs IN CHINA
Source: Chun Jiang, “China in Global Value Chains,” Duke GLS program (2016).
The Digital Economy
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY &
CATEGORIES OF DIGITAL & ICT FIRMS
Korea: 4% of firms; 8% of sales
IT devices and components (3/52 firms) (Samsung, LG, SK Hynik)
IT software and services (1/21) (Samsung SDS)
Telecommunications (0/27)
Image Source: UNCTAD. (2017). World Investment Report: Investment and the Digital Economy.
Korea: Very limited
participation (1/100 firms);
< 1 % sales or assets
Dominated by US and
European firms (90/100)
E-commerce is a focus area
for China
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY &
CATEGORIES OF DIGITAL & ICT FIRMS
Key areas
for Korea
Image Source: UNCTAD. (2017). World Investment Report: Investment and the Digital Economy.
Digital content: esp.
games and info/media
segments
Software/services: smaller
firm size; high average share
of foreign sales (63%)
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
MADE IN CHINA 2025: GVCS & INDUSTRY 4.0
• No more catching-up: Upgrading in GVCs has been
exhausted as a economic growth driver
• Innovation-driven development #1 priority, not a S&T
policy
• Benchmarked to global leaders, esp. Germany “Industrie
4.0"
• China’s Supply Chain Integrator Model: Accelerate
upgrading through GVCs
• Platform companies: Innovation, technology, and services
• E-commerce and shared economy
• Increased use of IT in SMEs
• Automation -- productivity & labor shortage/labor costs
• Environmental upgrading
Still a vision – long way to go.
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
POLICY RESPONSE TO INDUSTRY 4.0 IN EAST ASIA
Country
Major Institutional
Characteristics
Current Policy
Approach
Examples of Recent
“Industry 4.0” Policy/
Program
China
Platform/Supply Chain
Integrator
Developing indigenous
(private) lead firms
Made in China 2025
Korea
Integration of more
domestic actors; low
foreign input
Strengthening
indigenous lead firm
innovation in select
sectors
Comprehensive Action
Plan for Future New
Growth & Industrial
Engine
Singapore
Global integration
(Foreign input plays key
role)
Leading services hub in
region; regional HQs
National Additive
Manufacturing Innovation
Cluster
Taiwan
Global integration
(Foreign input plays key
role)
Developing software
capabilities & design
services in IT
Industrial Technology
Research Institute (ITRI)’s
Cloud Computing Center
for Mobile Application
(CCCMA)
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
KOREA’S SUCCESS IN GVCs:
LEVERAGING STRENGTHS, NEW OPPORTUNITIES
• Korea in East Asia  most dynamic global region
• Korea’s strategy: indigenous R&D, a few core
industries, upgrading driven by large national firms
• China’s strategy: diversified GVCs, export-oriented,
links to FDIs, use domestic market for innovation &
growth
• Industry 4.0: Internet use driving digital economy,
upstream (sourcing) and downstream (e-commerce)
• Platform economy: digital and tech MNEs are creating
new markets for SMEs (e.g., sharing economy)
• IT services: complement what large companies do, and
allows innovation for SMEs (apps, 3DP, health care)
© 2017 GVCC, Duke University
ggere@soc.duke.edu
Gary Gereffi
30

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Global Value Chains, Industry 4.0, and Korean Industrial Transformation

  • 1. GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS, INDUSTRY 4.0, AND KOREAN INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION September 5, 2017 Professor Gary Gereffi Director Global Value Chains Center Duke University Duke GVC Center research team in collaboration with KIET: Stacey Frederick, Penny Bamber, Lukas Brun and Joonkoo Lee
  • 2. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KIET-DUKE PROJECT – KOREA IN GVCs • One year joint project between KIET and Duke • Initiated by KIET; first study to focus on GVCs in Korea • Objective: Identify upgrading opportunities for the Korean economy using a global value chain (GVC) perspective • Research report covers • GVC and Industry 4.0 trends • Two GVC case studies on electronics and shipbuilding • Recommendations and future directions for Korea • Today’s presentation highlights Korea’s position in GVCs, key findings from the research, and a global perspective on GVCs, Industry 4.0 and industrial policy trends.
  • 3. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KOREA IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: PATHWAYS FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION • Korea’s economic development to date based on considerable strength in manufacturing • Global playing field is changing  Industry 4.0 technologies are creating new digital economy • Competitiveness of traditional manufacturing base under potential threat • Lower cost locations (e.g., China, Vietnam) • Innovation hubs (e.g., US, Europe, Japan) Key Questions: What pathways should Korea pursue to drive economic growth? Can GVC Analysis help identify opportunities?
  • 4. Key Features of GVC Analysis
  • 5. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS & DEVELOPMENT: CHANGING PARADIGMS Image Source: Taglioni and Winkler. (2016). Making Global Value Chains Work for Development. Washington, DC: World Bank. From low to high value activities within sectors From low to high value sectors– focus on final goods Shift from movement between sectors to movement within sectors
  • 6. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KEY TRENDS IN GVCS & IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT POLICY • Rationalization • Lead firms preference to work with large suppliers/partners • SMEs cut out from volume business, must focus on niches • Asian regionalization • Early GVC regionalization (e.g. NAFTA, EU) • Strong demand drive & relocation of production activities • New products for Asian markets • Changing production technologies • Automation –scale industries/segments • 3D Printing – niche sectors • Capital substitution of labor; geography of chain • Servicification • New services activities  Big Data/Internet of Things (IoT) • Increased value of after-sales & knowledge-intensive services INDUSTRY 4.0
  • 7. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University ECONOMIC UPGRADING • Strategies used by firms and countries to improve their positions in global and regional value chains • Entry upgrading – participate in GVCs • Product upgrading - moving into more sophisticated product lines • Process upgrading - transforms inputs into outputs more efficiently by reorganizing the production system or introducing superior technology • Functional upgrading - acquiring new functions (or abandoning existing ones) to increase the overall skill content of the activities (OEM  ODM  OBM) • Intersectoral (chain) upgrading – entry or diversification into new value chain by leveraging the knowledge and skills acquired in the current chain (e.g., new materials – graphite in Taiwan; high-tech textiles) Key Frontier Upgrading Strategies
  • 8. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University STAN SHIH’S SMILING CURVE
  • 9. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University WHERE DOES THE VALUE LIE IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS? 9
  • 10. Korea in Global Value Chains
  • 11. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KOREA IN GVCS: DUKE GVCC STUDY Electronics Shipbuilding $120 billion Exports (2015, US$) $38 billion 23% Share of Korea’s Exports 7.3% 396,000 (2012) Employment 260,000 Samsung, LG, SK Hynix Key Lead Firms HHI, SHI, DSME Components/subassemblies (for export) Lead firm (final 3C products) Main Stages of GVC Participation Components Lead firms; Integration Cost-driven consumer market Current Competitiveness Strategy Higher-value, niche markets Two Key Sectors +650,000 jobs 30% exports (US$240,000 /employee)
  • 12. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KOREA IN GVCS: KEY FINDINGS • Upgrading driven by indigenous firms, not FDI • Transfer knowledge via licensing rather than collaboration • Limited outsourcing  Firms have maintained manufacturing capabilities in-house (unique to Korean lead firms) • Process & product upgrading (i.e., productivity & new technologies, incremental product improvements)  major drivers of competitiveness • Functional upgrading mainly occurred upstream in GVCs applied R&D, new product development
  • 13. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KOREA IN GVCS: KEY FINDINGS (cont’d) • Small and medium enterprises not well linked to innovative activities outside chaebol economy • Weak presence in services in value chain • Poor services sector overall • Focused on small number innovative products & select end markets • China is in all products; Japan declining presence
  • 14. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University GVC UPGRADING: POTENTIAL PATHWAYS FOR THE FUTURE • Upgrading into Production Technologies  position Korea at forefront of Industry 4.0 • Functional Upgrading into Services  very strong R&D but only in select GVCs • After-sales services  Big data • IT services  IoT • Manufacturing-related services  use GVC approach to identify these (use manufacturing to move into services) • Intersectoral (chain) upgrading  Leverage existing knowledge across tech leaders to move into & define new sectors on the technological frontier
  • 15. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University UPGRADE INTO SERVICES: POST PRODUCTION & MANUFACTURING-RELATED SERVICES Products Products & Services Smart Services Benchmarking & Performance Consulting GVC OPPORTUNITIES • Port logistics • Navigational services • Safety services • Weather forecasting • City planning/urban development • Autonomous car programming • Advertising/targeting marketing • Political campaign targetingDesign services ERP CRM e-Commerce Logistics Insurance Potential Markets 2017 KOREAN STRENGTHS
  • 16. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University THREE KEYS TO UNLOCKING THIS POTENTIAL Human Capital Innovation Systems Services Regulation COHERENT & CONSISTENT INSTITUTIONALAPPROACH
  • 17. Korea in Comparative Perspective
  • 18. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University INNOVATION SYSTEMS IN EAST ASIA China Japan Korea Singapore Taiwan GVC/Integrat ion Approach FDI National Champions National Champions FDI FDI/National Champions Capability Development in GVCs Membershi p of GVCs Indigenous Innovation Indigenous Innovation/Li censing of foreign tech Membership of GVCs Membership of GVCs Policy Approach SME & Industrial Space Supporting national champs & core technologies SME & Industrial Space, Targeted FDI SME & Industrial Space
  • 19. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University CHINA’S ONE-BELT, ONE-ROAD INITIATIVE
  • 20. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University ASIAN-PACIFIC TOP 10 GDP COUNTRIES, ONE BELT ONE ROAD AND TTP MEMBERS
  • 21. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University MADE IN CHINA 2025: STRATEGIC INDUSTRIES AND ULTIMATE GOALS
  • 22. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University UPGRADING STRATEGIES FOR CHINESE VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS, MID-1990s - PRESENT Source: Chun Jiang, “China in Global Value Chains,” Duke GLS program (2016).
  • 23. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University MAJOR R&D CENTERS FOUNDED BY MNCs IN CHINA Source: Chun Jiang, “China in Global Value Chains,” Duke GLS program (2016).
  • 25. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY & CATEGORIES OF DIGITAL & ICT FIRMS Korea: 4% of firms; 8% of sales IT devices and components (3/52 firms) (Samsung, LG, SK Hynik) IT software and services (1/21) (Samsung SDS) Telecommunications (0/27) Image Source: UNCTAD. (2017). World Investment Report: Investment and the Digital Economy. Korea: Very limited participation (1/100 firms); < 1 % sales or assets Dominated by US and European firms (90/100) E-commerce is a focus area for China
  • 26. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY & CATEGORIES OF DIGITAL & ICT FIRMS Key areas for Korea Image Source: UNCTAD. (2017). World Investment Report: Investment and the Digital Economy. Digital content: esp. games and info/media segments Software/services: smaller firm size; high average share of foreign sales (63%)
  • 27. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University MADE IN CHINA 2025: GVCS & INDUSTRY 4.0 • No more catching-up: Upgrading in GVCs has been exhausted as a economic growth driver • Innovation-driven development #1 priority, not a S&T policy • Benchmarked to global leaders, esp. Germany “Industrie 4.0" • China’s Supply Chain Integrator Model: Accelerate upgrading through GVCs • Platform companies: Innovation, technology, and services • E-commerce and shared economy • Increased use of IT in SMEs • Automation -- productivity & labor shortage/labor costs • Environmental upgrading Still a vision – long way to go.
  • 28. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University POLICY RESPONSE TO INDUSTRY 4.0 IN EAST ASIA Country Major Institutional Characteristics Current Policy Approach Examples of Recent “Industry 4.0” Policy/ Program China Platform/Supply Chain Integrator Developing indigenous (private) lead firms Made in China 2025 Korea Integration of more domestic actors; low foreign input Strengthening indigenous lead firm innovation in select sectors Comprehensive Action Plan for Future New Growth & Industrial Engine Singapore Global integration (Foreign input plays key role) Leading services hub in region; regional HQs National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Cluster Taiwan Global integration (Foreign input plays key role) Developing software capabilities & design services in IT Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)’s Cloud Computing Center for Mobile Application (CCCMA)
  • 29. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University KOREA’S SUCCESS IN GVCs: LEVERAGING STRENGTHS, NEW OPPORTUNITIES • Korea in East Asia  most dynamic global region • Korea’s strategy: indigenous R&D, a few core industries, upgrading driven by large national firms • China’s strategy: diversified GVCs, export-oriented, links to FDIs, use domestic market for innovation & growth • Industry 4.0: Internet use driving digital economy, upstream (sourcing) and downstream (e-commerce) • Platform economy: digital and tech MNEs are creating new markets for SMEs (e.g., sharing economy) • IT services: complement what large companies do, and allows innovation for SMEs (apps, 3DP, health care)
  • 30. © 2017 GVCC, Duke University ggere@soc.duke.edu Gary Gereffi 30