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Institut für Tourismus
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Global Trends and Best Cases of Digital
Transformation of Tourism
Dr. ROLAND SCHEGG
Sri Lanka‐Korea
Tourism Cooperation Seminar 
“Sustainable Tourism & Digital Transformation”
Tuesday, December 11, 2018
Hilton Colombo, Sri Lanka
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Digital transformation
• Digital transformation (DX) is the reworking of the products, 
processes and strategies within an organization by leveraging 
current technologies. (WhatIs.com)
• Digital transformation is the changes associated with the 
application of digital technology in all aspects of human society 
(Wikipedia)
https://blogs.partner.microsoft.com/mpn/making-sense-of-digital-transformation/
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Let's take the most important 
things right now.....
• Digital transformation is not a question of technology, but of 
what you can (still) do better with it.
• In the future, we must see not only the trees, i.e. the 
technologies, but also the forest that these trees are capable of 
forming. 
 develop and exploit infrastructures, skills and abilities
 strengthen innovations in processes and business models
 Develop the ability to think in an even more coherent, 
customer‐oriented and therefore company‐wide way and to 
use the benefits of digitisation in this context.
Quelle: Laesser, Schegg, Fux, Liebrich, Stämfli, Bandi & Lehmann (2018).
Digitalisierung im Schweizer Tourismus: Chancen, Herausforderungen,
Implikationen
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Agenda
 Digital Transformation & Tourism
 eTourism: travel search and booking trends
 Online Travel and the Global Players
 Sustainable Tourism and ICT
 Case studies
 Implications
Institut für Tourismus
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4 Drivers for Digital
Transformation
1) Connectivity as Internet is available everywhere
 fibre, 4G -> soon 5G, in public transport (train, airplane), …
2) Miniaturisation and mobile applications -> connectivity of stationary
and mobile
 Internet of Things (IoT), Smart City/Destination
3) Massive Price Reduction of Sensors
4) Massive Increase of Performance of IT devices and Artificial
Intelligence (AI)
 Real-time translation, Chatbots, Marketing Automation, etc
Laesser & Schegg (2017): Chancen und
Herausforderungen der Digitalisierung
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Fernando Polo: DIGITAL
TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries)
Digital Transformation is related 
to …
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Gartner’s Hype Cycle 2018
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Changing economy: The future of
jobs in a digitalized economy
Source: The future of jobs: The onrushing wave | The Economist
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Moore’s Law
Fernando Polo: DIGITAL
TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries)
Exponential growth – but  
organisations / people are failing 
to keep up with frantic pace of 
technological revolution
Moore's Law is the observation made by Intel
co-founder Gordon Moore that the number of
transistors on a chip doubles every year while
the costs are halved.
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https://forrester.nitro-digital.com/pdf/Forrester-
s%20Digital%20Maturity%20Model%204.0.pdf
Four Dimensions Determine Digital 
Maturity
Digital Transformation
at the Heart of
Competitiveness
• Strategic Thinking
• Organisational
Culture Shift
• Human Capital
• Creativity &
Entrepreneurship
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World Economic Forum / Accenture analysis
https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-
Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
Value Impact of Digital 
Transformation on Travel & Tourism
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https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
Central Themes of Digital 
Transformation in Travel (I): Customer 
experience, data and personalisation
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Fernando Polo: DIGITAL
TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries)
Digital Touch Points during 
Customer Journey
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https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
Central Themes of Digital 
Transformation in Travel (II): New 
digital ecosystem with global players as
gatekeepers
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https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
Central Themes of Digital 
Transformation in Travel (III): 
Technological innovations change the
system and the processes
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Fernando Polo: DIGITAL
TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries)
New DigitalChannels, Services and 
Business Models
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https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
Central Themes of Digital 
Transformation in Travel (IV): Identity 
management, safety and security
biometrics
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Source: World Economic Forum/Accenture analysis
https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
Value at Stake for Digital Themes in 
Aviation, Travel and Tourism
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Impact of digital transformation 
on tourism
• Change in production processes
 Service 4.0 with IT-controlled processes, networked objects and objects
(Internet of Things, Smart Destination), robotics/machines/automated
processes to replace personal service interaction
• Breaking down the traditional value chains
 Outsourcing of services (platform economy), peer-to-peer economy, better
qualities and lower prices, marginal cost economy
• Disruption as a characteristic of new value chains
 New processes, dilution of property, ownership and benefits (Airbnb, Uber),
redefinition of transaction rules (Blockchain)
• Emancipation/ empowerment of customer
 Individual access to partial services, continuous availability of information and
booking options on a global basis (anywhere, anyhow, anytime)
• Importance of network effects
 falling marginal costs on the supplier side, increasing marginal utility on the
demand side; "The Winner takes it all")
Quelle: Laesser, Schegg, Fux, Liebrich, Stämfli, Bandi & Lehmann (2018).
Digitalisierung im Schweizer Tourismus: Chancen, Herausforderungen,
Implikationen
Institut für Tourismus
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Agenda
 Digital Transformation & Tourism
 eTourism: Travel Search and Booking Trends
 Online Travel and the Global Players
 Sustainable Tourism and ICT
 How to improve sustainability with ICT
 Implications
Institut für Tourismus
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Use of digital media: global, mobile 
and social
https://www.slideshare.net/wearesocial/digital-in-2018-global-overview-
86860338?ref=https://wearesocial.com/blog/2018/01/global-digital-report-2018
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Five Stages of Travel: digital 
dominates each step
http://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/insights/library/infogra
phics/five-stages-of-travel/
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Travel
inspiration
Information
search
BookingTravel (on site
experience)
Post-travel
Digital technology omnipresent in 
travel planning
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Agenda
 Digital Transformation & tourism
 eTourism: Travel Search and Booking Trends
 Online Travel and the Global Players
 Sustainable Tourism and ICT
 Case studies
 Implications
Institut für Tourismus
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The Complex Path from Searching
to Booking
Source: http://www.tnooz.com/article/travel-research-google-online-acitvity. The data (and subsequent
interpretation by Google) comes from two studies carried out last year with 5,000 consumers via GFK
and a Nielsen study of 1,700 mobile users, both with UK respondents.
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Distribution - strategic analysis:
power of suppliers -> young,
dynamic, global platform companies
Creation : 2000
Valuation : 6.4 Mia $
Creation : 1997 (booking 2000)
Valuation : 88.7 Mia $
Creation: 2001 (Microsoft)
Valuation : 20.3 Mia $
Creation : 2008
Valuation: 31 Mia $
Creation : 2009
Valuation: >60 Mia $
Creation : 2005
Valuation : 2.9 Mia $
4.11.2015: Expedia buys
HomeAway for 4 Mia $
Source: trefis.com / techcrunch.com /
Reuters / Piper Jaffray & wikipedia.org
Comparison
Creation : 1957
Valuation : 7.15 Mia $
Revenue: 1.1 Mia $
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Distribution - strategic analysis:
power of suppliers -> vertical
integration with the aim of
customer ownership
2016 27
Travel
inspiration
Information
search
BookingTravel (on site
experience)
Post-
travel
(cloud-PMS / CRM)
(Website / Revenue Mgt)
(1.8 Mia $)
(2.6 Mia $)
(Loyalty Programm)
DiDi – ride sharing / FareHarbor - Booking software and services for tours and
activities
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Timeline of major acquisitions and
investments at Expedia and Booking
Holdings
28
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Online Travel: Playground of Big 
Players
https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
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Case study Switzerland: 
Distribution Trends in the Hotel 
Sector 2002‐2017
Attention: Market shares in %  of bookings for 2002‐2012 & 2014 
and in % of overnights in 2013 and 2015 !
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Direct Bookings (hotel-guest)
Online booking intermediairies (OTA, GDS, social media)
Tourism partners (tour operators, wholesaler, DMO national-
local, event & conference organizers, hotel chain, others)
*2017 (n=252) *2016 (n=243) *2015 (n=226) 2014 (n=250) *2013 (n=279) 2012 (n=200) 2011 (n=196)
2010 (n=211) 2009 (n=198) 2008 (n=184) 2006 (n=100) 2005 (n=94) 2002 (n=202)
Source: Schegg 2018
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New Entrants in Travel
Distribution: Google
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https://www.tourobs.ch/fr/articles-et-actualites/articles/id-6683-airbnb-co-l-engouement-des-acteurs-globaux-de-
la-location-entre-particuliers-pour-le-marche-suisse/
New Entrants in Travel
Distribution: Airbnb
Growth of Airbnb in Switzerland (January 2018)
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https://www.tourobs.ch/fr/articles-et-actualites/articles/id-4745-3d-mapping-
of-the-airbnb-phenomenon-in-switzerland/
3D Mapping of Airbnb bed supply (yellow/red) vs hotel bed supply
(violet/blue) (January 2017)
New Entrants in Travel
Distribution: Airbnb
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Airbnb Switzerland: single hosts
vs multi-hosts (January 2018)
https://www.tourobs.ch/fr/articles-et-actualites/articles/id-6683-airbnb-co-l-engouement-des-acteurs-globaux-de-
la-location-entre-particuliers-pour-le-marche-suisse/
Proportion of hosts with 1 listing (in %)
Market share of multihosts with more then 10 listings (in %)
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Big Players invest in In-Destination
Activities
Source: https://www.scoop.it/t/etourism-trends-and-news?q=activities
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Sustainable Tourism in a World
of OTA, GAFA and BAT
“If you cannot beat them join
them”
• Dominance of big players
seems to be a fact (also
through mergers and
acquisitions)
• High pace of innovation
favors big players
OTA: Online Travel Agency, GAFA: Google, Amazon, facebook, Apple,
BAT: Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent (WeChat)
https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-
en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-
Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
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• Evaneos, a booking platform for customized multi-day
tours, has raised an $80 million round of investment with the
goal of becoming a global digital travel brand.
• Evaneos connects consumers with more than 1,200
professional local agents to create multi-day tours, such as
a safari in Kenya or an 11-day tour of sights in Uzbekistan.
Evaneos connects travelers with 
off‐the‐beaten‐track activities
https://skift.com/2018/09/07/tour-booking-startup-evaneos-raises-80-million/
Alternative
to GAFA /
OTAs
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Agenda
 Digital Transformation & tourism
 eTourism: Travel Search and Booking Trends
 Online Travel and the Global Players
 Sustainable Tourism and ICT
 How to improve sustainability with ICT
 Implications
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Video: ICT for a Sustainable
World
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4764_NwlLAw
(until 3:46)
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Areas of Catalytic Importance
for Boosting Sustainability in the
Tourism Sector
• Frame of reference
• Interconnectedness of actors
• Effective prioritization of new ideas
• Shared Value structure
• Expert knowledge
• Assistance from key stakeholders
• Focus on key subject
• Communication
• ‘Replicability and Stickiness’ of core message
• Room, to maneuver
• Participatory approach
• Continuous advancements
• Lead actors’ characteristics
UNWTO 2016 & Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation,
Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB): Innovative Catalysts Boosting
Sustainability in the Tourism Sector. Based on cases and initiatives from
Germany
Human factors, exchange and
communication, collaboration
seem crucial elements -> ICT
can enhance and facilitate
these areas (open innovation
approach, collaborative tools,
ease of communication etc.)
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Video: ICT and Sustainable
Tourism
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hvv3lwngRP4
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• The technologies allow for greater efficiency in the use
of resources and, consequently, a reduction in costs.
• Connectivity and sensing at destinations enables better
measurement of all parameters related to sustainable
tourism, even in real time.
• The possibilities of storing and exploiting information are
greater with big data techniques.
• The dissemination of information and the participation of
local society is easier with the use of new technologies.
Guía de Implantación de Destinos Turísticos Inteligentes de la Comunitat
Valenciana. http://invattur.gva.es/estudio/guia-de-implantacion-de-destinos-
turisticos-inteligentes-de-la-comunitat-valenciana-2/
The promise of digital
technologies for sustainable
tourism
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• Digital technologies and platforms can help developing
economies to leapfrog conventional destination
management challenges and boost their competitiveness.
• They also can provide new opportunities for women and
rural entrepreneurs to improve their market access and
financial inclusion.
 However, many developing (and even the developed - Schegg)
destinations have limited knowledge on how to take advantage
of digital platforms and mitigate risks.
 Either constrained by the lack of understanding or knowhow
and resources, these economies are not able to leverage digital
tools to grow their tourism.
Source: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2018/09/25/digital-
platforms-and-the-future-of-tourism-a-world-tourism-celebration
The Promise of Digital
technologies: reality check
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• ICT provides a host of tourism stakeholders with the basis for
direct market access, global distribution and networking.
 Nevertheless, fewer than 3% of tour guides have an online
presence.
 Since digital connectivity is essential for empowering SMEs to
market their products and services in a global economy, there is
an urgent need to further improve ICT-related infrastructure,
particularly in developing countries and rural areas.
UNWTO 2018: Turism for Development – Volume I: Key Areas for Action
The Promise of Digital
technologies: reality check
Institut für Tourismus
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Agenda
 Digital Transformation & Tourism
 eTourism: travel search and booking trends
 Online Travel and the Global Players
 Sustainable Tourism and ICT
 Case studies
 Implications
Institut für Tourismus
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Five areas of intervention of ICT 
in context of sustainable tourism
Source: L. Cantoni „ICT for Sustainable Tourism in World Heritage Sites. An
Overview and Some Cases. UNESCO chair in ICT
Access information and share
experiences online
E.g.: videos ¦ websites
While onsite: mobile access ¦
location based services (LBS)
¦ augmented reality (AR)
Digital StoryTelling ¦ informal
learning ¦ gamification (app)
Listening to Online Travel
Reviews
Distribute info ¦ support
communication and
promotion
eLearning ¦ Open Educational
Resources (OER) ¦ MOOCs ¦ …
E.g.: elearning.ticino.ch ¦
www.elearning4tourism.com
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Best Practice ICT & Sustainable
Tourism: INVAT·TUR – ICT as an
Enabler of Multi-Stakeholder
Cooperation and Innovation
http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/invattur.pdf
Institut für Tourismus
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Best Practice ICT & Sustainable
Tourism: Inclusive Tourism
• INVAT.TUR (Valencia), in close collaboration and co-operation with
the tourism sector, develops activities and projects in six areas to
achieve the following strategic goals:
• To generate and transfer knowledge in the tourism sector throughout
Research, Development and Innovation activities (R+D+I).
• To develop R+D+I activities tailored to the needs of the industry.
• To foster innovation culture as a tool to improve competitiveness in
tourist companies.
• To develop an useful market intelligence area aimed to facilitate
strategic promotion and marketing decisions in the destination
management process.
• To encourage collaboration between public and private institutions
in actions of R+D+I.
• To facilitate access to knowledge, to anticipate and to adapt Valencian
tourist offer to the new market trends.
http://www.necstour.eu/news/4-cases-necstours-member-regions-embracing-
digital-transformation
http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/invattur.pdf
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Best Practice ICT & Sustainable
Tourism: European project
DANTE
http://www.danteproject.eu/
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Best Practice ICT & Sustainable
Tourism: DANTE
http://www.danteproject.eu/sites/danteproject.eu/files/goodpractices/DANTE_
Thematic_Guidelines.pdf
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Best Practice ICT & Sustainable
Tourism: DANTE
http://www.danteproject.eu/sites/danteproject.eu/files/goodpractices/DANTE_
Thematic_Guidelines.pdf
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eFitness Zermatt: Supporting
and educating stakeholders in
a mountain resort
eFitness Zermatt (ritzy* and Zermatt Tourism)
http://ztnet.ch/e-fitness
52
2. Independent and
individual consulting
3. Strengthen digital
Know-how
1. Situation analysis
(Gaps)
4. Implementing what
has been learned and
recognised
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Focus Description Value added
Shared
Serivces
Offer support services that can be
used across organizations. The
services enable the efficient use of
available systems.
Shared services to support the
individual implementation
pragmatically with specialists.
Shared
Systems
Offer of systems (software) which
are used across organizations.
Shared systems, because no
differentiation can take place via
systems and standardization helps
to reduce costs.
Shared
Data
Provides data that can be used
across destinations for systems
and analyses.
Shared data to open and link data
silos to reduce data management
efforts and improve information
quality.
ICT as an enabler for a real
digital «Sharing» Economy
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Cases of Shared (digital) Services
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Shared Services @ Graubünden 
Ferien (CH) ‐> Regional Tourism 
Organisation offering Services for
Stakeholders in Region
Content Marketing Distribution
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eCoaches supporting SMEs in digital 
transformation process (Oberbayern 
Tourismus, Germany) 
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Cases of Shared Systems
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Shared Systems @ Tourismus 
Services Ostschweiz (Switzerland)
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Shared Web Systems in Western 
Switzerland
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Case of Shared Data
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Shared Data @ Südtirol (Italy)
Open Data Hub
https://opendatahub.bz.it/
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CRM
Customer 
Experience
http://www.innovation-touristique.com/content/val-thorens-
%C2%ABsmart-data-de-l%E2%80%99or-blanc-aux-clients-
en-or%E2%80%A6%C2%BB
The brand and shared data (CRM) 
as a strategic development tool
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Data mining on 300 guest attributes allows 
focused CRM approach with high ROI
Data sources for Val Thorens
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Agenda
 Digital Transformation & Tourism
 eTourism: travel search and booking trends
 Online Travel and the Global Players
 Sustainable Tourism and ICT
 Case studies
 Implications
Institut für Tourismus
Seite 65
Conclusions
• Human and organizational factors
• Cooperation and framework
conditions
• Regional initiatives and public
funding important
 SMEs do not have Ra&D department ->
need of PPP, role of universities!
• Digital Mindset -> investment in
skills
 Agility and pace (trial and error)
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The Digital Transformation
challenge
Take Businesses/Stakeholders out of Isolation
• Facilitate Knowledge Exchange
• Create Platforms for Best Practice
• Allow Industry Leadership
• Foster Innovative Developments
http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/9706/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native
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Thank you!
Zermatt @LeanderWenger
Institut für Tourismus
Seite 68
Contact
Prof. Roland Schegg
University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland Valais (HES‐SO Valais)
School of Management 
Institute of Tourism (ITO)
TechnoPôle 3
CH‐3960 Sierre/Siders, Switzerland
Tel:  +41 (0)27 606 90 83
Mail: roland.schegg@hevs.ch 
Twitter: @RolandSchegg
LinkedIn: ch.linkedin.com/in/rolandschegg/
School/Institute: www.hevs.ch
eTourism news: www.etourism‐monitor.ch 
Tourism Observatory: www.tourobs.ch
Bachelor of Science HES‐SO in Tourism  in German, French and English
http://tourism.hevs.ch
EMBA en innovation touristique: www.innovation‐touristique.com

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Global Trends and Best Cases of Digital Transformation of Tourism

  • 1. Institut für Tourismus Seite 1 Global Trends and Best Cases of Digital Transformation of Tourism Dr. ROLAND SCHEGG Sri Lanka‐Korea Tourism Cooperation Seminar  “Sustainable Tourism & Digital Transformation” Tuesday, December 11, 2018 Hilton Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • 2. Institut für Tourismus Seite 2 Digital transformation • Digital transformation (DX) is the reworking of the products,  processes and strategies within an organization by leveraging  current technologies. (WhatIs.com) • Digital transformation is the changes associated with the  application of digital technology in all aspects of human society  (Wikipedia) https://blogs.partner.microsoft.com/mpn/making-sense-of-digital-transformation/
  • 3. Institut für Tourismus Seite 3 Let's take the most important  things right now..... • Digital transformation is not a question of technology, but of  what you can (still) do better with it. • In the future, we must see not only the trees, i.e. the  technologies, but also the forest that these trees are capable of  forming.   develop and exploit infrastructures, skills and abilities  strengthen innovations in processes and business models  Develop the ability to think in an even more coherent,  customer‐oriented and therefore company‐wide way and to  use the benefits of digitisation in this context. Quelle: Laesser, Schegg, Fux, Liebrich, Stämfli, Bandi & Lehmann (2018). Digitalisierung im Schweizer Tourismus: Chancen, Herausforderungen, Implikationen
  • 4. Institut für Tourismus Seite 4 Agenda  Digital Transformation & Tourism  eTourism: travel search and booking trends  Online Travel and the Global Players  Sustainable Tourism and ICT  Case studies  Implications
  • 5. Institut für Tourismus Seite 5 4 Drivers for Digital Transformation 1) Connectivity as Internet is available everywhere  fibre, 4G -> soon 5G, in public transport (train, airplane), … 2) Miniaturisation and mobile applications -> connectivity of stationary and mobile  Internet of Things (IoT), Smart City/Destination 3) Massive Price Reduction of Sensors 4) Massive Increase of Performance of IT devices and Artificial Intelligence (AI)  Real-time translation, Chatbots, Marketing Automation, etc Laesser & Schegg (2017): Chancen und Herausforderungen der Digitalisierung
  • 6. Institut für Tourismus Seite 6 Fernando Polo: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries) Digital Transformation is related  to …
  • 7. Institut für Tourismus Seite 7 Gartner’s Hype Cycle 2018
  • 8. Institut für Tourismus Seite 8 Changing economy: The future of jobs in a digitalized economy Source: The future of jobs: The onrushing wave | The Economist
  • 9. Institut für Tourismus Seite 9 Moore’s Law Fernando Polo: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries) Exponential growth – but   organisations / people are failing  to keep up with frantic pace of  technological revolution Moore's Law is the observation made by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every year while the costs are halved.
  • 10. Institut für Tourismus Seite 10 https://forrester.nitro-digital.com/pdf/Forrester- s%20Digital%20Maturity%20Model%204.0.pdf Four Dimensions Determine Digital  Maturity Digital Transformation at the Heart of Competitiveness • Strategic Thinking • Organisational Culture Shift • Human Capital • Creativity & Entrepreneurship
  • 11. Institut für Tourismus Seite 11 World Economic Forum / Accenture analysis https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion- Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI-Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf Value Impact of Digital  Transformation on Travel & Tourism
  • 12. Institut für Tourismus Seite 12 https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf Central Themes of Digital  Transformation in Travel (I): Customer  experience, data and personalisation
  • 13. Institut für Tourismus Seite 13 Fernando Polo: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries) Digital Touch Points during  Customer Journey
  • 14. Institut für Tourismus Seite 14 https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf Central Themes of Digital  Transformation in Travel (II): New  digital ecosystem with global players as gatekeepers
  • 15. Institut für Tourismus Seite 15 https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf Central Themes of Digital  Transformation in Travel (III):  Technological innovations change the system and the processes
  • 16. Institut für Tourismus Seite 16 Fernando Polo: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION (travel & hospitality industries) New DigitalChannels, Services and  Business Models
  • 17. Institut für Tourismus Seite 17 https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf Central Themes of Digital  Transformation in Travel (IV): Identity  management, safety and security biometrics
  • 18. Institut für Tourismus Seite 18 Source: World Economic Forum/Accenture analysis https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf Value at Stake for Digital Themes in  Aviation, Travel and Tourism
  • 19. Institut für Tourismus Seite 19 Impact of digital transformation  on tourism • Change in production processes  Service 4.0 with IT-controlled processes, networked objects and objects (Internet of Things, Smart Destination), robotics/machines/automated processes to replace personal service interaction • Breaking down the traditional value chains  Outsourcing of services (platform economy), peer-to-peer economy, better qualities and lower prices, marginal cost economy • Disruption as a characteristic of new value chains  New processes, dilution of property, ownership and benefits (Airbnb, Uber), redefinition of transaction rules (Blockchain) • Emancipation/ empowerment of customer  Individual access to partial services, continuous availability of information and booking options on a global basis (anywhere, anyhow, anytime) • Importance of network effects  falling marginal costs on the supplier side, increasing marginal utility on the demand side; "The Winner takes it all") Quelle: Laesser, Schegg, Fux, Liebrich, Stämfli, Bandi & Lehmann (2018). Digitalisierung im Schweizer Tourismus: Chancen, Herausforderungen, Implikationen
  • 20. Institut für Tourismus Seite 20 Agenda  Digital Transformation & Tourism  eTourism: Travel Search and Booking Trends  Online Travel and the Global Players  Sustainable Tourism and ICT  How to improve sustainability with ICT  Implications
  • 21. Institut für Tourismus Seite 21 Use of digital media: global, mobile  and social https://www.slideshare.net/wearesocial/digital-in-2018-global-overview- 86860338?ref=https://wearesocial.com/blog/2018/01/global-digital-report-2018
  • 22. Institut für Tourismus Seite 22 Five Stages of Travel: digital  dominates each step http://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/insights/library/infogra phics/five-stages-of-travel/
  • 23. Institut für Tourismus Seite 23 Travel inspiration Information search BookingTravel (on site experience) Post-travel Digital technology omnipresent in  travel planning
  • 24. Institut für Tourismus Seite 24 Agenda  Digital Transformation & tourism  eTourism: Travel Search and Booking Trends  Online Travel and the Global Players  Sustainable Tourism and ICT  Case studies  Implications
  • 25. Institut für Tourismus Seite 25 The Complex Path from Searching to Booking Source: http://www.tnooz.com/article/travel-research-google-online-acitvity. The data (and subsequent interpretation by Google) comes from two studies carried out last year with 5,000 consumers via GFK and a Nielsen study of 1,700 mobile users, both with UK respondents.
  • 26. Institut für Tourismus Seite 26 Distribution - strategic analysis: power of suppliers -> young, dynamic, global platform companies Creation : 2000 Valuation : 6.4 Mia $ Creation : 1997 (booking 2000) Valuation : 88.7 Mia $ Creation: 2001 (Microsoft) Valuation : 20.3 Mia $ Creation : 2008 Valuation: 31 Mia $ Creation : 2009 Valuation: >60 Mia $ Creation : 2005 Valuation : 2.9 Mia $ 4.11.2015: Expedia buys HomeAway for 4 Mia $ Source: trefis.com / techcrunch.com / Reuters / Piper Jaffray & wikipedia.org Comparison Creation : 1957 Valuation : 7.15 Mia $ Revenue: 1.1 Mia $
  • 27. Institut für Tourismus Seite 27 Distribution - strategic analysis: power of suppliers -> vertical integration with the aim of customer ownership 2016 27 Travel inspiration Information search BookingTravel (on site experience) Post- travel (cloud-PMS / CRM) (Website / Revenue Mgt) (1.8 Mia $) (2.6 Mia $) (Loyalty Programm) DiDi – ride sharing / FareHarbor - Booking software and services for tours and activities
  • 28. Institut für Tourismus Seite 28 Timeline of major acquisitions and investments at Expedia and Booking Holdings 28
  • 29. Institut für Tourismus Seite 29 Online Travel: Playground of Big  Players https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
  • 30. Institut für Tourismus Seite 30 Case study Switzerland:  Distribution Trends in the Hotel  Sector 2002‐2017 Attention: Market shares in %  of bookings for 2002‐2012 & 2014  and in % of overnights in 2013 and 2015 ! 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Direct Bookings (hotel-guest) Online booking intermediairies (OTA, GDS, social media) Tourism partners (tour operators, wholesaler, DMO national- local, event & conference organizers, hotel chain, others) *2017 (n=252) *2016 (n=243) *2015 (n=226) 2014 (n=250) *2013 (n=279) 2012 (n=200) 2011 (n=196) 2010 (n=211) 2009 (n=198) 2008 (n=184) 2006 (n=100) 2005 (n=94) 2002 (n=202) Source: Schegg 2018
  • 31. Institut für Tourismus Seite 31 New Entrants in Travel Distribution: Google
  • 32. Institut für Tourismus Seite 32 https://www.tourobs.ch/fr/articles-et-actualites/articles/id-6683-airbnb-co-l-engouement-des-acteurs-globaux-de- la-location-entre-particuliers-pour-le-marche-suisse/ New Entrants in Travel Distribution: Airbnb Growth of Airbnb in Switzerland (January 2018)
  • 33. Institut für Tourismus Seite 33 https://www.tourobs.ch/fr/articles-et-actualites/articles/id-4745-3d-mapping- of-the-airbnb-phenomenon-in-switzerland/ 3D Mapping of Airbnb bed supply (yellow/red) vs hotel bed supply (violet/blue) (January 2017) New Entrants in Travel Distribution: Airbnb
  • 34. Institut für Tourismus Seite 34 Airbnb Switzerland: single hosts vs multi-hosts (January 2018) https://www.tourobs.ch/fr/articles-et-actualites/articles/id-6683-airbnb-co-l-engouement-des-acteurs-globaux-de- la-location-entre-particuliers-pour-le-marche-suisse/ Proportion of hosts with 1 listing (in %) Market share of multihosts with more then 10 listings (in %)
  • 35. Institut für Tourismus Seite 35 Big Players invest in In-Destination Activities Source: https://www.scoop.it/t/etourism-trends-and-news?q=activities
  • 36. Institut für Tourismus Seite 36 Sustainable Tourism in a World of OTA, GAFA and BAT “If you cannot beat them join them” • Dominance of big players seems to be a fact (also through mergers and acquisitions) • High pace of innovation favors big players OTA: Online Travel Agency, GAFA: Google, Amazon, facebook, Apple, BAT: Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent (WeChat) https://www.accenture.com/t20170116T084449__w__/us- en/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/WEF/PDF/Accenture-DTI- Aviation-Travel-and-Tourism-Industry-White-Paper.pdf
  • 37. Institut für Tourismus Seite 37 • Evaneos, a booking platform for customized multi-day tours, has raised an $80 million round of investment with the goal of becoming a global digital travel brand. • Evaneos connects consumers with more than 1,200 professional local agents to create multi-day tours, such as a safari in Kenya or an 11-day tour of sights in Uzbekistan. Evaneos connects travelers with  off‐the‐beaten‐track activities https://skift.com/2018/09/07/tour-booking-startup-evaneos-raises-80-million/ Alternative to GAFA / OTAs
  • 38. Institut für Tourismus Seite 38 Agenda  Digital Transformation & tourism  eTourism: Travel Search and Booking Trends  Online Travel and the Global Players  Sustainable Tourism and ICT  How to improve sustainability with ICT  Implications
  • 39. Institut für Tourismus Seite 39 Video: ICT for a Sustainable World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4764_NwlLAw (until 3:46)
  • 40. Institut für Tourismus Seite 40 Areas of Catalytic Importance for Boosting Sustainability in the Tourism Sector • Frame of reference • Interconnectedness of actors • Effective prioritization of new ideas • Shared Value structure • Expert knowledge • Assistance from key stakeholders • Focus on key subject • Communication • ‘Replicability and Stickiness’ of core message • Room, to maneuver • Participatory approach • Continuous advancements • Lead actors’ characteristics UNWTO 2016 & Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB): Innovative Catalysts Boosting Sustainability in the Tourism Sector. Based on cases and initiatives from Germany Human factors, exchange and communication, collaboration seem crucial elements -> ICT can enhance and facilitate these areas (open innovation approach, collaborative tools, ease of communication etc.)
  • 41. Institut für Tourismus Seite 41 Video: ICT and Sustainable Tourism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hvv3lwngRP4
  • 42. Institut für Tourismus Seite 42 • The technologies allow for greater efficiency in the use of resources and, consequently, a reduction in costs. • Connectivity and sensing at destinations enables better measurement of all parameters related to sustainable tourism, even in real time. • The possibilities of storing and exploiting information are greater with big data techniques. • The dissemination of information and the participation of local society is easier with the use of new technologies. Guía de Implantación de Destinos Turísticos Inteligentes de la Comunitat Valenciana. http://invattur.gva.es/estudio/guia-de-implantacion-de-destinos- turisticos-inteligentes-de-la-comunitat-valenciana-2/ The promise of digital technologies for sustainable tourism
  • 43. Institut für Tourismus Seite 43 • Digital technologies and platforms can help developing economies to leapfrog conventional destination management challenges and boost their competitiveness. • They also can provide new opportunities for women and rural entrepreneurs to improve their market access and financial inclusion.  However, many developing (and even the developed - Schegg) destinations have limited knowledge on how to take advantage of digital platforms and mitigate risks.  Either constrained by the lack of understanding or knowhow and resources, these economies are not able to leverage digital tools to grow their tourism. Source: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2018/09/25/digital- platforms-and-the-future-of-tourism-a-world-tourism-celebration The Promise of Digital technologies: reality check
  • 44. Institut für Tourismus Seite 44 • ICT provides a host of tourism stakeholders with the basis for direct market access, global distribution and networking.  Nevertheless, fewer than 3% of tour guides have an online presence.  Since digital connectivity is essential for empowering SMEs to market their products and services in a global economy, there is an urgent need to further improve ICT-related infrastructure, particularly in developing countries and rural areas. UNWTO 2018: Turism for Development – Volume I: Key Areas for Action The Promise of Digital technologies: reality check
  • 45. Institut für Tourismus Seite 45 Agenda  Digital Transformation & Tourism  eTourism: travel search and booking trends  Online Travel and the Global Players  Sustainable Tourism and ICT  Case studies  Implications
  • 46. Institut für Tourismus Seite 46 Five areas of intervention of ICT  in context of sustainable tourism Source: L. Cantoni „ICT for Sustainable Tourism in World Heritage Sites. An Overview and Some Cases. UNESCO chair in ICT Access information and share experiences online E.g.: videos ¦ websites While onsite: mobile access ¦ location based services (LBS) ¦ augmented reality (AR) Digital StoryTelling ¦ informal learning ¦ gamification (app) Listening to Online Travel Reviews Distribute info ¦ support communication and promotion eLearning ¦ Open Educational Resources (OER) ¦ MOOCs ¦ … E.g.: elearning.ticino.ch ¦ www.elearning4tourism.com
  • 47. Institut für Tourismus Seite 47 Best Practice ICT & Sustainable Tourism: INVAT·TUR – ICT as an Enabler of Multi-Stakeholder Cooperation and Innovation http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/invattur.pdf
  • 48. Institut für Tourismus Seite 48 Best Practice ICT & Sustainable Tourism: Inclusive Tourism • INVAT.TUR (Valencia), in close collaboration and co-operation with the tourism sector, develops activities and projects in six areas to achieve the following strategic goals: • To generate and transfer knowledge in the tourism sector throughout Research, Development and Innovation activities (R+D+I). • To develop R+D+I activities tailored to the needs of the industry. • To foster innovation culture as a tool to improve competitiveness in tourist companies. • To develop an useful market intelligence area aimed to facilitate strategic promotion and marketing decisions in the destination management process. • To encourage collaboration between public and private institutions in actions of R+D+I. • To facilitate access to knowledge, to anticipate and to adapt Valencian tourist offer to the new market trends. http://www.necstour.eu/news/4-cases-necstours-member-regions-embracing- digital-transformation http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/invattur.pdf
  • 49. Institut für Tourismus Seite 49 Best Practice ICT & Sustainable Tourism: European project DANTE http://www.danteproject.eu/
  • 50. Institut für Tourismus Seite 50 Best Practice ICT & Sustainable Tourism: DANTE http://www.danteproject.eu/sites/danteproject.eu/files/goodpractices/DANTE_ Thematic_Guidelines.pdf
  • 51. Institut für Tourismus Seite 51 Best Practice ICT & Sustainable Tourism: DANTE http://www.danteproject.eu/sites/danteproject.eu/files/goodpractices/DANTE_ Thematic_Guidelines.pdf
  • 52. Institut für Tourismus Seite 52 eFitness Zermatt: Supporting and educating stakeholders in a mountain resort eFitness Zermatt (ritzy* and Zermatt Tourism) http://ztnet.ch/e-fitness 52 2. Independent and individual consulting 3. Strengthen digital Know-how 1. Situation analysis (Gaps) 4. Implementing what has been learned and recognised
  • 53. Institut für Tourismus Seite 53 Focus Description Value added Shared Serivces Offer support services that can be used across organizations. The services enable the efficient use of available systems. Shared services to support the individual implementation pragmatically with specialists. Shared Systems Offer of systems (software) which are used across organizations. Shared systems, because no differentiation can take place via systems and standardization helps to reduce costs. Shared Data Provides data that can be used across destinations for systems and analyses. Shared data to open and link data silos to reduce data management efforts and improve information quality. ICT as an enabler for a real digital «Sharing» Economy
  • 54. Institut für Tourismus Seite 54 Cases of Shared (digital) Services
  • 55. Institut für Tourismus Seite 55 Shared Services @ Graubünden  Ferien (CH) ‐> Regional Tourism  Organisation offering Services for Stakeholders in Region Content Marketing Distribution
  • 56. Institut für Tourismus Seite 56 eCoaches supporting SMEs in digital  transformation process (Oberbayern  Tourismus, Germany) 
  • 57. Institut für Tourismus Seite 57 Cases of Shared Systems
  • 58. Institut für Tourismus Seite 58 Shared Systems @ Tourismus  Services Ostschweiz (Switzerland)
  • 59. Institut für Tourismus Seite 59 Shared Web Systems in Western  Switzerland
  • 60. Institut für Tourismus Seite 60 Case of Shared Data
  • 61. Institut für Tourismus Seite 61 Shared Data @ Südtirol (Italy) Open Data Hub https://opendatahub.bz.it/
  • 62. Institut für Tourismus Seite 62 CRM Customer  Experience http://www.innovation-touristique.com/content/val-thorens- %C2%ABsmart-data-de-l%E2%80%99or-blanc-aux-clients- en-or%E2%80%A6%C2%BB The brand and shared data (CRM)  as a strategic development tool
  • 63. Institut für Tourismus Seite 63 Data mining on 300 guest attributes allows  focused CRM approach with high ROI Data sources for Val Thorens
  • 64. Institut für Tourismus Seite 64 Agenda  Digital Transformation & Tourism  eTourism: travel search and booking trends  Online Travel and the Global Players  Sustainable Tourism and ICT  Case studies  Implications
  • 65. Institut für Tourismus Seite 65 Conclusions • Human and organizational factors • Cooperation and framework conditions • Regional initiatives and public funding important  SMEs do not have Ra&D department -> need of PPP, role of universities! • Digital Mindset -> investment in skills  Agility and pace (trial and error)
  • 66. Institut für Tourismus Seite 66 The Digital Transformation challenge Take Businesses/Stakeholders out of Isolation • Facilitate Knowledge Exchange • Create Platforms for Best Practice • Allow Industry Leadership • Foster Innovative Developments http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/9706/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native
  • 67. Institut für Tourismus Seite 67 Thank you! Zermatt @LeanderWenger
  • 68. Institut für Tourismus Seite 68 Contact Prof. Roland Schegg University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland Valais (HES‐SO Valais) School of Management  Institute of Tourism (ITO) TechnoPôle 3 CH‐3960 Sierre/Siders, Switzerland Tel:  +41 (0)27 606 90 83 Mail: roland.schegg@hevs.ch  Twitter: @RolandSchegg LinkedIn: ch.linkedin.com/in/rolandschegg/ School/Institute: www.hevs.ch eTourism news: www.etourism‐monitor.ch  Tourism Observatory: www.tourobs.ch Bachelor of Science HES‐SO in Tourism  in German, French and English http://tourism.hevs.ch EMBA en innovation touristique: www.innovation‐touristique.com