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Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
1
Global Marketing Management
Masaaki Kotabe & Kristiaan Helsen
Third Edition
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
2
Chapter 7
Global Segmentation and
Positioning
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
3
Chapter Overview
1. Reasons for International Market
Segmentation
2. International Market Segmentation
Approaches
3. Segmentation Scenarios
4. Bases for Country Segmentation
5. International Positioning Strategies
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
4
Chapter Overview (contd.)
6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer
Culture Positioning
7. Appendix
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
5
Introduction
 Variation in customer needs is the primary motive
for market segmentation.
 Most companies will identify and target the most
attractive market segments that they can
effectively serve.
 In global marketing, market segmentation
becomes especially critical because of wide
divergence in cross-border consumer needs and
lifestyles.
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
6
Introduction (contd.)
 Once the management has chosen its target
segments, management needs to determine a
competitive positioning strategy for its products.
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
7
1. Reasons for International Market
Segmentation
 Segments ideally should possess the following set
of properties:
– Identifiable
– Sizable
– Accessible
– Stable
– Responsive
– Actionable
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
8
1. Reasons for International Market
Segmentation (contd.)
 Country Screening
 Global Market Research
 Entry Decisions
 Positioning Strategy
 Resource Allocation
 Marketing Mix Policy
– Balance between standardization and
customization
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
9
2. International Market Segmentation
Approaches
 International segmentation procedures:
– Country-ad-segments or aggregate
segmentation
– Disaggregate international consumer
segmentation
– Two-stage international segmentation
 The standard country segmentation procedure
classifies prospect countries on a single dimension
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
10
2. International Market Segmentation
Approaches (contd.)
(e.g., per capita GNP) or on a set of multiple
socioeconomic, political, and cultural criteria
available from secondary data sources.
 When there are numerous country traits, use
smaller set of dimensions using data reduction
techniques such as factor analysis.
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
11
3. Segmentation Scenarios
 Universal or global segments
 Regional segments
 Unique (diverse) segments
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
12
4. Bases for Country Segmentation
 Demographics
– Demographics variables are among the most
popular criteria.
 Socioeconomic Variables
– Caveats in using per capita income as an
economic development indicator:
» Monetization of transactions within a
country
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
13
4. Bases for Country Segmentation
(contd.)
»Gray and Black Market sections of the
economy
»Income disparities
– Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) criteria
– Socioeconomic Strata (SES) Analysis
– Human development index (HDI) classification
 Behavior-Based Segmentation
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
14
4. Bases for Country Segmentation
(contd.)
 Lifestyles
– Global Values Segments; the survey
investigated 1000 consumers in 35 countries
(source: Robert Starch Worldwide):
»Strivers (23 percent)
»Devouts (22 percent)
»Altruists (18 percent)
»Intimates (15 percent)
»Fun Seekers (12 percent)
»Creatives (10 percent)
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
15
5. International Positioning Strategies
 The formulation of a positioning strategy (local or
global) includes the following steps:
1. Identify the relevant set of competing
products or brands.
2. Determine current perceptions held by
consumers about your product/brand and the
competition.
3. Develop possible positioning themes.
4. Screen the positioning alternatives and select
the most appealing one.
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
16
5. International Positioning Strategies
(contd.)
5. Develop a marketing mix strategy.
6. Over time, monitor the effectiveness of your
positioning strategy and if needed, conduct an
audit.
 Uniform vs. Localized Positioning Strategies
 Universal Positioning Appeals
– Positioning themes:
»Specific product features/attributes
»Product benefit, solutions for problems
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
17
5. International Positioning Strategies
(contd.)
»User application
»Lifestyles
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
19
6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer
Culture Positioning
 Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP)
– Brand as a symbol of a given global consumer
culture
 Local consumer culture positioning (LCCP)
– Brand as an intrinsic part of the local culture.
 Foreign consumer culture positioning (FCCP)
– Brand mystique built around a specific foreign
culture
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
20
7. Appendix
 Segmentation techniques and tools:
– Cluster Analysis: Collection of statistical
procedures for dividing objects into groups
(clusters). The grouping is done in such a
manner that members belonging to the same
group are very similar to one another but quite
distinct from members of other groups.
– Regression Analysis: In regression, one
assumes that there exists a relationship between
a response variable, Y, and one or more so-
called predictor variables, X1, X2 and so on.
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
21
7. Appendix (contd.)
– For each of the parameter estimates, the
regression analysis will also produce standard
error.
– The higher the R2 value, the better the ability
of the regression model to predict the data.
Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing
Management, Third Edition, 2004
22
Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004

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Global STP.ppt

  • 1. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 1 Global Marketing Management Masaaki Kotabe & Kristiaan Helsen Third Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004
  • 2. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 2 Chapter 7 Global Segmentation and Positioning
  • 3. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 3 Chapter Overview 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches 3. Segmentation Scenarios 4. Bases for Country Segmentation 5. International Positioning Strategies
  • 4. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 4 Chapter Overview (contd.) 6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning 7. Appendix
  • 5. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 5 Introduction  Variation in customer needs is the primary motive for market segmentation.  Most companies will identify and target the most attractive market segments that they can effectively serve.  In global marketing, market segmentation becomes especially critical because of wide divergence in cross-border consumer needs and lifestyles.
  • 6. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 6 Introduction (contd.)  Once the management has chosen its target segments, management needs to determine a competitive positioning strategy for its products.
  • 7. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 7 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation  Segments ideally should possess the following set of properties: – Identifiable – Sizable – Accessible – Stable – Responsive – Actionable
  • 8. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 8 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation (contd.)  Country Screening  Global Market Research  Entry Decisions  Positioning Strategy  Resource Allocation  Marketing Mix Policy – Balance between standardization and customization
  • 9. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 9 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches  International segmentation procedures: – Country-ad-segments or aggregate segmentation – Disaggregate international consumer segmentation – Two-stage international segmentation  The standard country segmentation procedure classifies prospect countries on a single dimension
  • 10. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 10 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches (contd.) (e.g., per capita GNP) or on a set of multiple socioeconomic, political, and cultural criteria available from secondary data sources.  When there are numerous country traits, use smaller set of dimensions using data reduction techniques such as factor analysis.
  • 11. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 11 3. Segmentation Scenarios  Universal or global segments  Regional segments  Unique (diverse) segments
  • 12. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 12 4. Bases for Country Segmentation  Demographics – Demographics variables are among the most popular criteria.  Socioeconomic Variables – Caveats in using per capita income as an economic development indicator: » Monetization of transactions within a country
  • 13. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 13 4. Bases for Country Segmentation (contd.) »Gray and Black Market sections of the economy »Income disparities – Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) criteria – Socioeconomic Strata (SES) Analysis – Human development index (HDI) classification  Behavior-Based Segmentation
  • 14. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 14 4. Bases for Country Segmentation (contd.)  Lifestyles – Global Values Segments; the survey investigated 1000 consumers in 35 countries (source: Robert Starch Worldwide): »Strivers (23 percent) »Devouts (22 percent) »Altruists (18 percent) »Intimates (15 percent) »Fun Seekers (12 percent) »Creatives (10 percent)
  • 15. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 15 5. International Positioning Strategies  The formulation of a positioning strategy (local or global) includes the following steps: 1. Identify the relevant set of competing products or brands. 2. Determine current perceptions held by consumers about your product/brand and the competition. 3. Develop possible positioning themes. 4. Screen the positioning alternatives and select the most appealing one.
  • 16. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 16 5. International Positioning Strategies (contd.) 5. Develop a marketing mix strategy. 6. Over time, monitor the effectiveness of your positioning strategy and if needed, conduct an audit.  Uniform vs. Localized Positioning Strategies  Universal Positioning Appeals – Positioning themes: »Specific product features/attributes »Product benefit, solutions for problems
  • 17. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 17 5. International Positioning Strategies (contd.) »User application »Lifestyles
  • 18.
  • 19. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 19 6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning  Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) – Brand as a symbol of a given global consumer culture  Local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) – Brand as an intrinsic part of the local culture.  Foreign consumer culture positioning (FCCP) – Brand mystique built around a specific foreign culture
  • 20. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 20 7. Appendix  Segmentation techniques and tools: – Cluster Analysis: Collection of statistical procedures for dividing objects into groups (clusters). The grouping is done in such a manner that members belonging to the same group are very similar to one another but quite distinct from members of other groups. – Regression Analysis: In regression, one assumes that there exists a relationship between a response variable, Y, and one or more so- called predictor variables, X1, X2 and so on.
  • 21. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 21 7. Appendix (contd.) – For each of the parameter estimates, the regression analysis will also produce standard error. – The higher the R2 value, the better the ability of the regression model to predict the data.
  • 22. Chapter 7 Kotabe & Helsen's Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, 2004 22 Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004