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Global Labor Trends 2016
indeed.com/hiringlab
4
Table of
Contents
Labor Market Snapshot 2016
Global Hiring Outlook
a. Overview
b. Migration
c. Education
d. New forms of work
Big Players and Markets
a. China’s economy
b. The oil industry
c. Startups and productivity
d. Tech talent everywhere
The Future of Work
a. Job search
b. Talent attraction
c. The world of work
1
2
3
Labor Market Snapshot 2016
1
Worldwide, employment is changing:
Agriculture is in decline while service jobs are multiplying
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
40.6%
22.9%
36.5%
World average 1994
IndustryServices Agriculture
24.2%
45.1%
30.7%
World average 2010
Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies:
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
Australia Brazil
1994
22.5%
65%
1994
54%
20%
26%
2010
22%
62%
5%
2010
21%
68%
3%
16%
IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies:
IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
China
1994
27.5%
22.5%
50%
United States
2010
35.7%29.5%
34.8%
1994
72.8%
24.3%
2.9%
2010
17.2%
81.2%
1.6%
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies:
UK Japan
1994
70%
2010
79%
1994
60%
34%
6%
28%
19%
IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
2%
1%
2010
79%
25%
4%
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies:
Germany France
1994
37%
60%
1994
68%
27%
5%
2010
22%
74%
3%
IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
3%
2010
29%
70%
2%
Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies:
Italy India
IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
1994
34%
59%
1994
61%
22%
2010
22%
51%
7%
2010
29%
68%
4%
16%
27%
Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies:
Russia Canada
IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
1994
36%
48%
16%
2010
28%
64%
8%
1994
73%
22%
4%
2010
20%
78%
2%
Despite a dip during the Global Financial Crisis, employment
levels in advanced economies have risen steadily over the last few
decades
Source: IMF WEO April 2015
120
70
80
90
100
110
1980 1989 1995 20162007
Advanced Economy employment declined in 2008-09 but is finally returning to trend (Index 2000 = 100)
Advanced Economy Advanced Economy Trend
But there are fewer workers to go round—the
number of people participating in the workforce declined
from 71% in 1990 to 69% in 2013
Source: World Bank WDI
80
70
60
50
90
1990 20001995 2005 2010
Declining Labor Force Participation Rates (% of total population ages 15-64)
IndiaChina United
States
Russian
Federation
WorldUnited
Kingdom
Where have the workers gone? Many have retired.
United
States
Canada IndiaAustralia United
Kingdom
Germany FranceChina Italy Japan Russian
Federation
Brazil
The percentage of the population above the age of 65 grew by an average of 26% between 2000 and 2014 (% of total)
Source: World Bank WDI
30
0
25
20
15
10
5
1980 1989 1995 20162007
People who gave up trying to
find a job during the financial
crisis are not returning to the
workforce, even as more jobs
become available.
Middle tier jobs are
disappearing. These roles
are traditionally seen as
central to the traditional
career ladder
Some jobs aren’t very
attractive (low wage, low
skill), so not enough people
are applying to do them
Fallout from the
recession
Other factors are also contributing to declining workforce participation:
Polarization of the
Labor Market
Lack of
Incentive
2.6%
Productivity growth
averaged
from 1996 to 2006
As a result, productivity growth is stalling
2.1%
In 2014 it got worse:
averaging a meager
Source: The Conference Board
The Global Hiring Outlook
2
2009
Worldwide, employers report difficulty hiring:
Source: ManpowerGroup 2015 Talent Shortage Survey
38
30
32
34
36
Between 2009 and 2015, the share of employers reporting difficulty filling jobs rose by 27%
(% of employers reporting difficulty filling jobs)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Cook
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Nurse Software Engineer Teacher
In several in-demand professions, there just aren’t enough
people with the right skills looking for jobs
Mismatch for select jobs titles by region (Ratio of the share of job seeker interest to share of job postings 09/2015)
AMER APAC EMEA Equilibrium
Young people aren’t learning the tech skills needed at work
Group 4 – good ICT
and PS skills
Group 3 – moderate ICT
and PS skills
Distribution of Information and Technologies Skills
Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2014
Russian
Federation
United
States
Germany England/
N. Ireland
Japan AustraliaCanada
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
On average, 61% of people age 25-64 in advanced economies have
“good or moderate” IT and problem solving skills.
Group 2 –
minimal ICT skills
Group 1– lack of
readiness = opted out of
computer-based asses
Group 0 –
no use, no skills
50
42
34
26
18
Source: ManpowerGroup 2015 Talent Shortage Survey
Americas
Asia Pacific EMEA
The lack of technical competencies in the labor
force has different effects for different markets
2014 2015
Lack of technical competencies - hard skills (%)
In EMEA countries, 43% of employers report a lack of hard skills in the workforce. In the US, it’s 24%.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
US
Germany
Canada
France
UK
Australia
Japan
India
Italy
Brazil
Russia
China
The talent gap is felt most
acutely in the US and
Germany where 26% and
20% of positions are still
open after 60 days,
respectively.
Rank Country
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
25.84%
20.00%
18.70%
16.07%
13.09%
11.66%
11.12%
10.22%
9.28%
7.02%
1.84%
1.42%
Share > 60 days
Jobs are open the longest in the US and Germany
(Share of job postings on Indeed open for >60 days)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Brazil
Japan
Italy
UK
Germany
France
Russia
US
Australia
China
Canada
India
And everywhere you
look, software
engineers are in short
supply
Rank Country
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Difficulty hiring software engineers, by country
(Ranking based on share or postings to share of job seeker clicks)
Migration
4.3 million permanent migrants entered OECD countries, 2006-2014 (millions)
In 2014, migration rates to advanced economies began
returning to pre-recession levels:
Source: OECD International Migration Outlook 2015
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
Today’s global job seeker
is well-informed about
which occupations and
locations offer the best
employment opportunities.
Linguistic and cultural
factors play a key role in
where people search.
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
The top three sources of job searches
for the 12 largest economies
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Indeed Net Interest Score
Not all countries are
equal when it comes
to attracting or
retaining talent
The Indeed Net Interest Score
combines interest from job
seekers within and outside of a
country to measure the
country’s overall desirability.
Market
Russia
United Arab Emirates
Brazil
Switzerland
Indonesia
Qatar
United States
South Africa
Luxembourg
Japan
Chile
Kuwait
United Kingdom
Mexico
Bahrain
India
Singapore
Spain
Peru
Canada
0.658
0.434
0.403
0.305
0.298
0.283
0.283
0.268
0.263
0.251
0.219
0.156
0.156
0.130
0.122
0.106
0.075
0.056
0.054
0.051
Score
It may seem counterintuitive that countries
currently facing tough economic times such
as Russia and Brazil are attracting so much
interest from abroad. But it is important to
note that these markets are still doing better
than most of their neighboring countries.
A lack of job opportunities in the area is
causing interest to rise in these regional
hubs. At the same time, poor economic
conditions give little incentive for workers in
Russia and Brazil to search for jobs in
neighboring countries—which matters
because much of international migration still
involves workers moving to nearby countries
for work.
6% 9%
of all workers look abroad for work
Tech talent more likely than the average candidate
to look for work abroad
of tech workers look abroad for work
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
In the 12 largest economies,
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
US
France
Canada
China
India
Italy
Australia
Japan
Germany
Russia
United Kingdom
Brazil
The US, France and
Canada are attracting the
most searches for “Java”
jobs—a signal that
developers are most
interested in those locations.
Rank
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Country
Ranking of Top 12 Economies
By Inbound Java Search
Education
60%
45%
30%
15%
0%
United States 8 country
average
Germany Italy Canada Japan France Australia United
Kingdom
Education rates are rising around the world
Tertiary education rose nearly 10 percentage points between 2000 and 2012 in these eight major
economies. In 2000, an average of 28% of adults had tertiary education. By 2012 the average was 37%
Source: OECD 2014
2000 2012
… but more education does not always lead to lower unemployment
Source: World Bank, The Global Talent Competitiveness Index
For instance, employment in agriculture in India is 47% compared to 3% and 4% in 3% in France and 4%
in Italy. Meanwhile services make up 28% of employment in India versus 75% in France and 69% in Italy.
Different labor markets require radically different areas of expertise.
When it comes to education, one size does not fit all
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
ItalyFranceIndia
Services Agriculture
Source: World Bank WDI
Meanwhile, even in advanced economies, large parts of the
workforce may not be developing the skills required to
compete in the 21st century
Over 35% of OECD youth are receiving no computer experience at work.
Source: OECD Skills Outlook 2015
60
50
40
30
20
Australia
United
Kingdom
Japan OECD
average
Germany Canada France ItalyUnited
States
Youth with no computer experience at work (% of youth)
In response, many employers are taking a
hands-on interest in education
61%
In the US, 61% of employers offer some form
of undergraduate tuition reimbursement
Source: Society for Human Resource Management
And, there are types of education that may actually be more
effective when it comes to landing a job
75%
of coding bootcamp graduates report going to work in
a job that required the skills they learned in their
course
Source: Course Report
New Forms of Work
Is the 9 to 5 becoming a historical relic? Between 2013 and
2015, interest in flexible work increased by 42% in 9 out of 12
countries studied
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
“Flexible” doesn’t just
mean low paid, low skill
work any more.
Today, it’s professionals
from in-demand
occupations who are
most likely to be
searching for work that
allows them to set their
own schedule
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Occupations most likely to receive interest for remote work
But not every country is equally “flexible”—in fact styles of
work arrangement vary widely across countries
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
97.4%
97.2%
94.8%
74.6%
China
Thailand
India
97%
Full Time
Philippines
Indonesia
94%
Global Average
27.5%
Part Time
Japan
Korea
Poland
38.5%
31.1%
Denmark
26.4%
Sweden
26.2%
Global Average
7%
Temporary
Italy
Luxembourg
France
45.9%
41.9%
40.7%
Belgium
33.8%
Australia
32.3%
Global Average
13.9%
Part-time work is most common in Japan and Korea while temporary
work is easiest to find in Italy and other European countries
The rise of Uber and similarly disruptive services has coincided
with an exponential increase in searches for gig employment
over the last two years
2013-01 2013-07 2014-01 2014-07 2015-01 2015-07
Searches for “gig” jobs as a share of all job searches
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
0
Even so, the gig economy isn’t showing up in traditional models
of employment data in the US
In fact, the number of self employed and multiple jobholders has been declining in the US, despite overall employment growth.
Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
As for Europe, the share of self-employed and multiple
jobholders is stagnant—or even in decline
Source: Eurostat
However, a 2015 Indeed
survey found that 30% of
full time workers do
some kind of
moonlighting on the side.
So perhaps it depends
what question you ask.
Source: Censuswide, Indeed
30%
Wages
Globally, wage growth
continues to lag.
In fact, from 2011 to
2014, wages increased
by a (meager) average of
0.5% globally
Source: OECD 2015
Change in average wages from 2011-2014
Canada
Switzerland
Sweden
Israel
Belgium
Poland
Ireland
Average
Mexico
CzechRepublic
Finland
Italy
Hungary
Portugal
10%
5%
0
-5%
-10%
0.5%
Across the globe the share of wealth held by the top 1% is rising
and the share held by the bottom 90% is declining
Top 1% and Bottom 90% Wealth Distribution
1980 2010
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
France
Sweden Europe
United
Kingdom
United
States
0
Top 1%
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
France
Sweden Europe
United
Kingdom
United
States
0.1
Bottom 90%
Source: Piketty 2014 and IMF staff calculations
High Skill, High
Wage Jobs
Low Skill, Low Pay
Service Jobs
Blue Collar Working
Class Jobs
One cause of this inequality is that high- and low-wage jobs are
both growing while middle-wage jobs are dropping out
How do salaries for cashiers compare to salaries for
Java developers in three key economies?
Case study:
Comparing salaries in high- and low-skill jobs
Cashier Java developer
Everywhere you look the
salary gap between high and
low skill work is
pronounced—but in some
countries it’s bigger than
others.
In the UK, cashiers can
make over 40% of a Java
developer’s salary.
In the US, the divide is
far greater—it’s 20%
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
100%
United
Kingdom
United
States
Australia
Cashier salaries as a share of Java
Developer salaries (July 2015)
Cashier
salary
80k
60k
40k
20k
0
100k
120k
While cashiers make around 20k in all 3 countries, Java
developers have a significant salary premium in the US
compared to Australia and the UK
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Salary Comparison (Figures in 2014 PPP $)
Java developer Cashier
United
Kingdom
Australia United
States
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Japan
United Kingdom
Russia
Canada
Australia
United States
Brazil
France
Netherlands
Germany
Salary transparency varies
widely across countries
In Japan, 91.3% of job
postings contain salary
information. In Germany it’s
closer to 2%.
Rank Country
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
91.30%
63.72%
40.90%
21.01%
17.73%
15.15%
13.61%
11.31%
4.05%
1.99%
Share of job postings that disclose salary information,
by country
Daily
4.2%
2.1%
0.7%
4.3%
2.1%
5.0%
3.8%
0.1%
2.3%
2.8%
2.7%
Globally, 33% of salary postings are given in hourly
rates and 32% are given in monthly rates.
Hourly
18.8%
1.8%
70.2%
58.9%
25.6%
17.7%
57.5%
29.8%
0.3%
49.9%
33.0%
Monthly
0.8%
91.1%
1.4%
12.6%
26.5%
0.2%
30.6%
64.6%
86.7%
3.6%
31.8%
Weekly
2.4%
3.2%
1.8%
14.9%
1.4%
1.2%
0.0%
0.1%
1.8%
6.7%
3.3%
Yearly
73.9%
1.8%
26.0%
9.3%
44.4%
75.9%
8.2%
5.4%
8.9%
37.0%
29.1%
MAX
73.9%
91.1%
70.2%
58.9%
44.4%
75.9%
57.5%
64.6%
86.7%
49.9%
33.0%
Most common
Yearly
Monthly
Hourly
Hourly
Yearly
Yearly
Hourly
Monthly
Monthly
Hourly
Hourly
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
As a share of all postings with salary disclosed (July ‘14 to July ‘15)
Australia
Brazil
Canada
Germany
France
UK
Japan
Netherlands
Russia
US
Average
Big Markets and Players
3
China’s economy
Source: World Bank WDI
In 1990, China was the world’s 11th largest economy.
Twenty-five years later, it is second only to the US.
20
15
10
5
0
World’s 12 largest economies 2014 ($ in trillions)
United
States
China Japan Germany BrazilUnited
Kingdom
France AustraliaItaly India Russian
Federation
Canada
The composition of the economy has changed in that time. In 2000,
Agriculture made up 50% of China’s employment. By 2010, industry
was the biggest employer and services were on the rise.
Source: World Bank WDI
40.6%
22.9%
36.5%
World average 1994
IndustryServices Agriculture
24.2%
45.1%
30.7%
World average 2010
But there have been
dramatic changes in the
last half decade—
industrial output growth in
China is now less than half
of its 2010 levels
National Statistical Agency, Haver
Industrial Production in China, % change year over year
20
4
0
2
8
16
14
10
Jan
09
6
12
18
Jan
10
Jan
11
Jan
12
Jan
13
Jan
14
Jan
15
China’s shrinking manufacturing sector and stock market woes caused alarm
among governments and investors in early 2016. Meanwhile, overall
economic growth slowed to its lowest rate in 25 years.
Will China successfully pull off its transition to a more service-based
economy? Or is the era of Chinese expansion over? If the latter, economies
all over the world will feel the affects.
Where China is headed next...
The oil industry
In July 2015, the value of oil was more
than double its value at the start of 2016
Source: Nasdaq
Mar 2015 May 2015 Jul 2015 Sep 2015 Nov 2015 Jan 2016
End of day futures price quotes for crude oil WTI (NYMEX)
70
55
50
25
65
60
45
40
35
29.42
8.2%
16kEmployment in the
industry has declined by
Source: BLS
Jobs lost in the past
two years
What’s the effect of this price drop on oil and gas jobs?
Oil job postings started to drop in June 2014 and job
search followed six months later. This downward
momentum continues today.
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Searches Postings
25
0
-75
7/1/20144/1/2014 10/1/2014 1/1/2015 4/12/015 7/1/2015 10/1/2015
-25
-50
The price of oil may not yet have hit the bottom yet. According to some analysts it could fall further,
placing more pressure on the economies of major producers such as Saudi Arabia and Russia.
Meanwhile, researchers at Harvard, MIT and Cambridge are working on long-life batteries that could in
the near future reduce reliance on fossil fuels and transform the face of transport.
Whatever happens, the oil market has many more surprises in store for us...
The Future of Oil?
Startups and productivity
A start-up world? Today, new companies are a primary
source of job creation in the US
Source: BLS and Kauffman Foundation
Relationship Between Startups and Employment Growth
40
30
20
20
0
1.50 3 4.5 6
Employment growth
Kauffmanrank
There is a strong correlation of -0.41 between the Kauffman Rank for startup activity
and employment growth across the top 40 metro areas in the US
But it’s no magic bullet. Overall, the “startup share”
of all US jobs has declined since 1990.
Source: US Census Bureau
1 year or less (firm age) 5 year or less (firm age)
20%
18%
12%
19951990 2000 2005 2010
-16%
14%
50%
45%
30%
40%
35%
Startup Decline (%)
And this could be contributing to low productivity rates.
Currently hovering at 2.1%, we have not yet returned
to the pre-recession level of 2.6%
Source: The Conference Board
1996-2006 average 2014
3.0%
2.25%
1.5%
.75%
0%
2.6%
2.1%
“Startups create jobs while also allowing new
technology and innovation, which supports
productivity growth. So, lower startup activity
may explain recent weak unemployment and
productivity growth numbers. An improved
startup environment could help boost those
figures and overall global economic health as
well. Without a rebound in startup creation, we
may face lower economic growth in the future.”
Tara M. Sinclair, PhD
Indeed Chief Economist
Tech talent everywhere
1. London
2. Bangalore
3. Beijing
4. Madrid
5. New York
6. Lisbon
7. Pune
8. Chennai
9. Hyderabad
The cities with the highest concentration of Java job postings
can help us identify the world’s tech hubs
10. Shanghai
11. Milano
12. Mumbai
13. Roma
14. Paris
15. Krakow
16. Delhi
17. Warsaw
18. Barcelona
19. Münich
20. Atlanta
21. Sao Paulo
22. Chicago
23. Moscow
24. San Francisco
25. Delhi
Worldwide ranking of cities by Java job postings
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Software Products
25%
17%
8%
7%
7%
5%
5%
4%
3%
20%
Web Services / Internet
Finance / Banking
Consulting
Media / Advertising / Entertainment and Gaming
Health / Biotech / Science
Education / Academia / Research
Telecommunications
Government
Other
Source: Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2015
Most software
developers don’t work
in software firms
Tech jobs are the
most widely spread
across industries
Education, training and library
Healthcare support
Healthcare practitioners and technical
Food preparation and serving related
Protective service
Sales and related
Construction and extraction
Production
Community and social service
Farming, fishing, and forestry
Legal
Arts, design entertainment, sports and media
Architecture and engineering
Life, physical, and social science
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance
Transportation and material moving
Installation, maintenance, and repair
Business and financial operations
Office and administrative support
Management
Computer and mathematical
Most concentratedLeast concentrated
Source: BLS, special tabulation of May 2012 Occupational Employment Statistics
All kinds of jobs now require a high-degree of tech literacy, including this
Operations Manager, Supply Chain
Location: Kensington, Australia
• Experience working in a highly complex, technical environment
such as a consumer electronics company
• Experience working independently and part of geographically dispersed organization
• Knowledge and experience with use of a major ERP system such as Oracle, Agile, etc.
• Profit and Loss Responsibilities
• Experience in Lean Manufacturing and Change Management
And this:
Dental Assistant
Location: Ann Arbor, MI
• Be team oriented and have a tremendous positive attitude
• Possess great customer service skills
• Have a strong work ethic
• X-Ray certified
• Knowledge of Dentrix Dental Software
• Can work a Cerec machine
And this:
Maitre’d
Location: New York, NY
• Take ownership of the room
• Be fabulous, be present, be friendly, be there for the staff
• Knowledge of Oracle MICROS required
• Knowledge of OpenTable and 7 Rooms preferred
The Future of Work
4
The future of job search
Job search then...
For most jobs, you had to have a
copy of the local newspaper to find
jobs in a given location
There was no easy way to
compare all job listings
Job seekers had little control
Job search now...
Job seekers can search any time for
jobs in any industry, in any location
Easy to compare all your options
and opportunities
Search and apply from your
mobile phone
Job seekers are increasingly
in the driver’s seat
All countries around the world,
70%
of the labor force is actively
looking or open to a new job
Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=10,041)
US
Australia
UK
Netherlands
France
Germany
Worldwide average
And most of that job
search happens online.
In fact, the global
average for online job
search is 71%
Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=2,363)
68%
74%
70%
75%
66%
74%
71%
Country % of those hired who looked online
The rise of online job search makes it much
easier to look abroad for work
8%
of job seekers search outside of their
country’s borders
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
Globally,
40.3% 59.5%
of job seekers were using
mobile devices
The majority of search today happens on mobile devices.
Today’s job seekers can look for opportunities on the go
and at any time of the day:
of job seekers
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
In 2013, In 2016, that rate jumped to
Preferences for mobile job search vary from
88% in South Korea to 29% in Poland
Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
South Korea
Taiwan
Japan
Sweden
Norway
Hong Kong
Thailand
Indonesia
Denmark
Vietnam
Turkey
Singapore
Malaysia
Bahrain
United Kingdom
Ireland
Mexico
Saudi Arabia
87.9%
84.2%
81.3%
79.4%
76.6%
76.5%
76.3%
74.8%
72.5%
71.0%
67.8%
66.2%
65.9%
65.2%
64.3%
64.3%
63.5%
63.4%
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Israel
Australia
Brazil
Netherlands
Kuwait
Luxembourg
United States
Finland
Chile
South Africa
Italy
India
Switzerland
Germany
New Zealand
Austria
Oman
Philippines
63.3%
60.5%
60.4%
59.7%
59.4%
58.5%
58.2%
57.9%
57.9%
55.7%
55.4%
55.2%
55.1%
54.4%
54.1%
53.0%
52.1%
51.5
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
Colombia
Argentina
United Arab Emirates
Canada
Qatar
France
Portugal
Romania
Greece
Belgium
Czech Republic
Russia
Peru
Pakistan
Hungary
China
Venezuela
Poland
50.3%
50.2%
50.1%
49.7%
46.7%
44.7%
44.3%
43.5%
42.4%
41.1%
40.9%
40.2%
40.0%
39.5%
39.4%
38.7%
33.4%
29.1%
The Future of Talent Attraction
Employers were reactive, posting
job openings as vacancies arose
Recruiting then
Pay-per-post advertising was king—
and the price didn’t change, regardless
of whether it was successful or not
The hunt for talent was scattershot
and unpredictable—cold-calling
candidates, anyone?
Savvy employers are both strategic and proactive—
anticipating talent needs to fill positions quickly
Recruiting now
Employers promote their brand to sell
themselves to the best and most active
job seekers
Talent retention is as important as
talent attraction—today’s best
companies take steps to build career
paths and opportunities for employees
In their own words, here’s how employers
think about these changes:
“We hire the person not the position. So
we’re looking for people who are leaders,
people who are innovative, people who
are strategic thinkers. As people come in,
everyone is a leader from day one and
throughout your career we are looking to
really build your skills and growth and as
your passions change there are many
doors that open across the company.”
Scott Isenhart,
North America Talent
Supply Leader, P&G
See the full interview
“As I thought about how we would
reimagine recruiting, I realized that we
needed to move away from recruiting for
jobs, because that time is over. Instead,
we focus, for instance, on growing
people’s talent and really amplifying and
unleashing their super powers. Then we
identify the ways in which those super
powers can contribute to our company and
its mission”
Sandy Gould,
SVP Talent Acquisition and
Development, Yahoo
See the full interview
Around the world,
people are increasingly
active when it comes to
job search
Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=2,363)
78%
90%
76%
United States
91%
Global Average
92%
80%
Australia
90%
78%
United Kingdom
92%
82%
Netherlands
89%
74%
France
91%
81%
Germany
% of new hires in the last year who took an action 6 months prior to current job
% of those hired in the past year who took some action to find a job six months
prior to their current job who looked online
Pay is still #1, but
location and flexible
hours are key
considerations for over
40% of candidates
worldwide
Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=10,041)
Top three factors that play a role in a candidate’s decision
64%
44%
Global
Average
42%
77%
54%
United
States
51%
64%
51%Australia
50%
60%
43%
United
Kingdom
41%
61%
42%Netherlands
40%
57%
38%France
38%
64%
42%Germany
40%
Pay
Location
Flexible Hours
The Changing World of Work
Work then...
In the 9 to 5 era, where and when you did your
work was strictly defined
Work now...
Today you could be working at home, in a cafe, or on an
airplane—results are what matter most!
The amount of time people spend working is declining.
Hours worked Declining from 1990 to 2013 (Percentage)
Source: OECD
2000
1750
1500
1250
2250
Russia Italy OECD CanadaJapan Australia UK France Germany
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
In 1990, OECD countries worked an average of 1880 hours a year.
By 2013 this had dropped to an average of 1770.
Source: OECD
… which breaks down to an average of 1,770 hours worked per year,
or 34 hours a week:
1.6k
1.2k
.8k
.4k
0
Germany France Australia United
Kingdom
JapanCanada Italy RussiaOECD
Total
United
States
1.66k
2.0k
1.36k
1.47k
1.67k 1.71k 1.73k 1.73k 1.77k 1.79k
1.98k
Hours worked per person annually (2014)
It’s not just the 9 to 5 that’s changing.
Today, work-life balance is increasingly important—and some
tech employers see this as a way to attract top talent.
In most advanced
economies, paid leave is
the law, with an average of
19 days PTO and an
additional 10 public
holidays.
In the US, it’s a different
story
Source: OECD Family Database
Days of Paid annual leave (Statutory minimum)
France
UK
Germany
Australia
0 5 10 15 20 25
Italy
Canada
Japan
US
39
21.7
17
17
16
14
14
6
0
UK
Italy
OECD average
Canada
France
Germany
Japan
Australia
US
The OECD average is
17 weeks of paid
maternity leave at 78%
of average gross
earnings.
In the US, companies
are not obliged to
provide any maternity
leave
Weeks of paid leave Country
Source: OECD Family Database
30.9
80
77.5
47.7
100
100
67
40.6
0
Payment rate
“We’ve also been thinking about how
we’re going to take time off during the
first months of her life. This is a very
personal decision, and I’ve decided to
take 2 months of paternity leave when
our daughter arrives.”
However, a new generation of
business leaders is driving change
in the US. Facebook CEO Mark
Zuckerberg took time off after the
birth of his first child:
Source: Wired Article and LA Times November 2015
“I take a lot of vacation and I'm hoping
that certainly sets an example. It is
helpful. You often do your best thinking
when you're off hiking in some mountain
or something. You get a different
perspective on things.”
Meanwhile Netflix CEO Reed
Hastings is a firm believer in the
importance of taking time off to
recharge:
Source: CNBC 11/3/2015
Where this trend will end is anybody’s guess
But the battle to attract in-demand talent may make such
arrangements more common in cutting-edge sectors of the US
economy as employers compete against each other to offer the
best package possible
Get more data from our latest report:
Labor Market Outlook 2016
indeed.com/hiringlab
Global Labor Trends 2016

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Global Labor Trends 2016

  • 1. Global Labor Trends 2016 indeed.com/hiringlab
  • 2. 4 Table of Contents Labor Market Snapshot 2016 Global Hiring Outlook a. Overview b. Migration c. Education d. New forms of work Big Players and Markets a. China’s economy b. The oil industry c. Startups and productivity d. Tech talent everywhere The Future of Work a. Job search b. Talent attraction c. The world of work 1 2 3
  • 4. Worldwide, employment is changing: Agriculture is in decline while service jobs are multiplying Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture) 40.6% 22.9% 36.5% World average 1994 IndustryServices Agriculture 24.2% 45.1% 30.7% World average 2010
  • 5. Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies: Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture) Australia Brazil 1994 22.5% 65% 1994 54% 20% 26% 2010 22% 62% 5% 2010 21% 68% 3% 16% IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized
  • 6. Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies: IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized China 1994 27.5% 22.5% 50% United States 2010 35.7%29.5% 34.8% 1994 72.8% 24.3% 2.9% 2010 17.2% 81.2% 1.6% Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
  • 7. Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies: UK Japan 1994 70% 2010 79% 1994 60% 34% 6% 28% 19% IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized 2% 1% 2010 79% 25% 4% Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture)
  • 8. Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies: Germany France 1994 37% 60% 1994 68% 27% 5% 2010 22% 74% 3% IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture) 3% 2010 29% 70% 2%
  • 9. Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies: Italy India IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture) 1994 34% 59% 1994 61% 22% 2010 22% 51% 7% 2010 29% 68% 4% 16% 27%
  • 10. Here’s how that looks for the world’s 12 largest economies: Russia Canada IndustryServices Agriculture Uncategorized Source: World Bank WDI (employment in services, industry and agriculture) 1994 36% 48% 16% 2010 28% 64% 8% 1994 73% 22% 4% 2010 20% 78% 2%
  • 11. Despite a dip during the Global Financial Crisis, employment levels in advanced economies have risen steadily over the last few decades Source: IMF WEO April 2015 120 70 80 90 100 110 1980 1989 1995 20162007 Advanced Economy employment declined in 2008-09 but is finally returning to trend (Index 2000 = 100) Advanced Economy Advanced Economy Trend
  • 12. But there are fewer workers to go round—the number of people participating in the workforce declined from 71% in 1990 to 69% in 2013 Source: World Bank WDI 80 70 60 50 90 1990 20001995 2005 2010 Declining Labor Force Participation Rates (% of total population ages 15-64) IndiaChina United States Russian Federation WorldUnited Kingdom
  • 13. Where have the workers gone? Many have retired. United States Canada IndiaAustralia United Kingdom Germany FranceChina Italy Japan Russian Federation Brazil The percentage of the population above the age of 65 grew by an average of 26% between 2000 and 2014 (% of total) Source: World Bank WDI 30 0 25 20 15 10 5 1980 1989 1995 20162007
  • 14. People who gave up trying to find a job during the financial crisis are not returning to the workforce, even as more jobs become available. Middle tier jobs are disappearing. These roles are traditionally seen as central to the traditional career ladder Some jobs aren’t very attractive (low wage, low skill), so not enough people are applying to do them Fallout from the recession Other factors are also contributing to declining workforce participation: Polarization of the Labor Market Lack of Incentive
  • 15. 2.6% Productivity growth averaged from 1996 to 2006 As a result, productivity growth is stalling 2.1% In 2014 it got worse: averaging a meager Source: The Conference Board
  • 16. The Global Hiring Outlook 2
  • 17. 2009 Worldwide, employers report difficulty hiring: Source: ManpowerGroup 2015 Talent Shortage Survey 38 30 32 34 36 Between 2009 and 2015, the share of employers reporting difficulty filling jobs rose by 27% (% of employers reporting difficulty filling jobs) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  • 18. Cook 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Nurse Software Engineer Teacher In several in-demand professions, there just aren’t enough people with the right skills looking for jobs Mismatch for select jobs titles by region (Ratio of the share of job seeker interest to share of job postings 09/2015) AMER APAC EMEA Equilibrium
  • 19. Young people aren’t learning the tech skills needed at work Group 4 – good ICT and PS skills Group 3 – moderate ICT and PS skills Distribution of Information and Technologies Skills Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2014 Russian Federation United States Germany England/ N. Ireland Japan AustraliaCanada 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% On average, 61% of people age 25-64 in advanced economies have “good or moderate” IT and problem solving skills. Group 2 – minimal ICT skills Group 1– lack of readiness = opted out of computer-based asses Group 0 – no use, no skills
  • 20. 50 42 34 26 18 Source: ManpowerGroup 2015 Talent Shortage Survey Americas Asia Pacific EMEA The lack of technical competencies in the labor force has different effects for different markets 2014 2015 Lack of technical competencies - hard skills (%) In EMEA countries, 43% of employers report a lack of hard skills in the workforce. In the US, it’s 24%.
  • 21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 US Germany Canada France UK Australia Japan India Italy Brazil Russia China The talent gap is felt most acutely in the US and Germany where 26% and 20% of positions are still open after 60 days, respectively. Rank Country Source: Indeed Hiring Lab 25.84% 20.00% 18.70% 16.07% 13.09% 11.66% 11.12% 10.22% 9.28% 7.02% 1.84% 1.42% Share > 60 days Jobs are open the longest in the US and Germany (Share of job postings on Indeed open for >60 days)
  • 22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Brazil Japan Italy UK Germany France Russia US Australia China Canada India And everywhere you look, software engineers are in short supply Rank Country Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Difficulty hiring software engineers, by country (Ranking based on share or postings to share of job seeker clicks)
  • 24. 4.3 million permanent migrants entered OECD countries, 2006-2014 (millions) In 2014, migration rates to advanced economies began returning to pre-recession levels: Source: OECD International Migration Outlook 2015 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
  • 25. Today’s global job seeker is well-informed about which occupations and locations offer the best employment opportunities. Linguistic and cultural factors play a key role in where people search. Source: Indeed Hiring Lab The top three sources of job searches for the 12 largest economies
  • 26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Indeed Net Interest Score Not all countries are equal when it comes to attracting or retaining talent The Indeed Net Interest Score combines interest from job seekers within and outside of a country to measure the country’s overall desirability. Market Russia United Arab Emirates Brazil Switzerland Indonesia Qatar United States South Africa Luxembourg Japan Chile Kuwait United Kingdom Mexico Bahrain India Singapore Spain Peru Canada 0.658 0.434 0.403 0.305 0.298 0.283 0.283 0.268 0.263 0.251 0.219 0.156 0.156 0.130 0.122 0.106 0.075 0.056 0.054 0.051 Score
  • 27. It may seem counterintuitive that countries currently facing tough economic times such as Russia and Brazil are attracting so much interest from abroad. But it is important to note that these markets are still doing better than most of their neighboring countries. A lack of job opportunities in the area is causing interest to rise in these regional hubs. At the same time, poor economic conditions give little incentive for workers in Russia and Brazil to search for jobs in neighboring countries—which matters because much of international migration still involves workers moving to nearby countries for work.
  • 28. 6% 9% of all workers look abroad for work Tech talent more likely than the average candidate to look for work abroad of tech workers look abroad for work Source: Indeed Hiring Lab In the 12 largest economies,
  • 29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 US France Canada China India Italy Australia Japan Germany Russia United Kingdom Brazil The US, France and Canada are attracting the most searches for “Java” jobs—a signal that developers are most interested in those locations. Rank Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Country Ranking of Top 12 Economies By Inbound Java Search
  • 31. 60% 45% 30% 15% 0% United States 8 country average Germany Italy Canada Japan France Australia United Kingdom Education rates are rising around the world Tertiary education rose nearly 10 percentage points between 2000 and 2012 in these eight major economies. In 2000, an average of 28% of adults had tertiary education. By 2012 the average was 37% Source: OECD 2014 2000 2012
  • 32. … but more education does not always lead to lower unemployment Source: World Bank, The Global Talent Competitiveness Index
  • 33. For instance, employment in agriculture in India is 47% compared to 3% and 4% in 3% in France and 4% in Italy. Meanwhile services make up 28% of employment in India versus 75% in France and 69% in Italy. Different labor markets require radically different areas of expertise. When it comes to education, one size does not fit all 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% ItalyFranceIndia Services Agriculture Source: World Bank WDI
  • 34. Meanwhile, even in advanced economies, large parts of the workforce may not be developing the skills required to compete in the 21st century Over 35% of OECD youth are receiving no computer experience at work. Source: OECD Skills Outlook 2015 60 50 40 30 20 Australia United Kingdom Japan OECD average Germany Canada France ItalyUnited States Youth with no computer experience at work (% of youth)
  • 35. In response, many employers are taking a hands-on interest in education 61% In the US, 61% of employers offer some form of undergraduate tuition reimbursement Source: Society for Human Resource Management
  • 36. And, there are types of education that may actually be more effective when it comes to landing a job 75% of coding bootcamp graduates report going to work in a job that required the skills they learned in their course Source: Course Report
  • 37. New Forms of Work
  • 38. Is the 9 to 5 becoming a historical relic? Between 2013 and 2015, interest in flexible work increased by 42% in 9 out of 12 countries studied Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
  • 39. “Flexible” doesn’t just mean low paid, low skill work any more. Today, it’s professionals from in-demand occupations who are most likely to be searching for work that allows them to set their own schedule Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Occupations most likely to receive interest for remote work
  • 40. But not every country is equally “flexible”—in fact styles of work arrangement vary widely across countries Source: Indeed Hiring Lab 97.4% 97.2% 94.8% 74.6% China Thailand India 97% Full Time Philippines Indonesia 94% Global Average 27.5% Part Time Japan Korea Poland 38.5% 31.1% Denmark 26.4% Sweden 26.2% Global Average 7% Temporary Italy Luxembourg France 45.9% 41.9% 40.7% Belgium 33.8% Australia 32.3% Global Average 13.9% Part-time work is most common in Japan and Korea while temporary work is easiest to find in Italy and other European countries
  • 41. The rise of Uber and similarly disruptive services has coincided with an exponential increase in searches for gig employment over the last two years 2013-01 2013-07 2014-01 2014-07 2015-01 2015-07 Searches for “gig” jobs as a share of all job searches Source: Indeed Hiring Lab 0
  • 42. Even so, the gig economy isn’t showing up in traditional models of employment data in the US In fact, the number of self employed and multiple jobholders has been declining in the US, despite overall employment growth. Source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
  • 43. As for Europe, the share of self-employed and multiple jobholders is stagnant—or even in decline Source: Eurostat
  • 44. However, a 2015 Indeed survey found that 30% of full time workers do some kind of moonlighting on the side. So perhaps it depends what question you ask. Source: Censuswide, Indeed 30%
  • 45. Wages
  • 46. Globally, wage growth continues to lag. In fact, from 2011 to 2014, wages increased by a (meager) average of 0.5% globally Source: OECD 2015 Change in average wages from 2011-2014 Canada Switzerland Sweden Israel Belgium Poland Ireland Average Mexico CzechRepublic Finland Italy Hungary Portugal 10% 5% 0 -5% -10% 0.5%
  • 47. Across the globe the share of wealth held by the top 1% is rising and the share held by the bottom 90% is declining Top 1% and Bottom 90% Wealth Distribution 1980 2010 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 France Sweden Europe United Kingdom United States 0 Top 1% 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 France Sweden Europe United Kingdom United States 0.1 Bottom 90% Source: Piketty 2014 and IMF staff calculations
  • 48. High Skill, High Wage Jobs Low Skill, Low Pay Service Jobs Blue Collar Working Class Jobs One cause of this inequality is that high- and low-wage jobs are both growing while middle-wage jobs are dropping out
  • 49. How do salaries for cashiers compare to salaries for Java developers in three key economies? Case study: Comparing salaries in high- and low-skill jobs Cashier Java developer
  • 50. Everywhere you look the salary gap between high and low skill work is pronounced—but in some countries it’s bigger than others. In the UK, cashiers can make over 40% of a Java developer’s salary. In the US, the divide is far greater—it’s 20% Source: Indeed Hiring Lab 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% United Kingdom United States Australia Cashier salaries as a share of Java Developer salaries (July 2015) Cashier salary
  • 51. 80k 60k 40k 20k 0 100k 120k While cashiers make around 20k in all 3 countries, Java developers have a significant salary premium in the US compared to Australia and the UK Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Salary Comparison (Figures in 2014 PPP $) Java developer Cashier United Kingdom Australia United States
  • 52. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Japan United Kingdom Russia Canada Australia United States Brazil France Netherlands Germany Salary transparency varies widely across countries In Japan, 91.3% of job postings contain salary information. In Germany it’s closer to 2%. Rank Country Source: Indeed Hiring Lab 91.30% 63.72% 40.90% 21.01% 17.73% 15.15% 13.61% 11.31% 4.05% 1.99% Share of job postings that disclose salary information, by country
  • 53. Daily 4.2% 2.1% 0.7% 4.3% 2.1% 5.0% 3.8% 0.1% 2.3% 2.8% 2.7% Globally, 33% of salary postings are given in hourly rates and 32% are given in monthly rates. Hourly 18.8% 1.8% 70.2% 58.9% 25.6% 17.7% 57.5% 29.8% 0.3% 49.9% 33.0% Monthly 0.8% 91.1% 1.4% 12.6% 26.5% 0.2% 30.6% 64.6% 86.7% 3.6% 31.8% Weekly 2.4% 3.2% 1.8% 14.9% 1.4% 1.2% 0.0% 0.1% 1.8% 6.7% 3.3% Yearly 73.9% 1.8% 26.0% 9.3% 44.4% 75.9% 8.2% 5.4% 8.9% 37.0% 29.1% MAX 73.9% 91.1% 70.2% 58.9% 44.4% 75.9% 57.5% 64.6% 86.7% 49.9% 33.0% Most common Yearly Monthly Hourly Hourly Yearly Yearly Hourly Monthly Monthly Hourly Hourly Source: Indeed Hiring Lab As a share of all postings with salary disclosed (July ‘14 to July ‘15) Australia Brazil Canada Germany France UK Japan Netherlands Russia US Average
  • 54. Big Markets and Players 3
  • 56. Source: World Bank WDI In 1990, China was the world’s 11th largest economy. Twenty-five years later, it is second only to the US. 20 15 10 5 0 World’s 12 largest economies 2014 ($ in trillions) United States China Japan Germany BrazilUnited Kingdom France AustraliaItaly India Russian Federation Canada
  • 57. The composition of the economy has changed in that time. In 2000, Agriculture made up 50% of China’s employment. By 2010, industry was the biggest employer and services were on the rise. Source: World Bank WDI 40.6% 22.9% 36.5% World average 1994 IndustryServices Agriculture 24.2% 45.1% 30.7% World average 2010
  • 58. But there have been dramatic changes in the last half decade— industrial output growth in China is now less than half of its 2010 levels National Statistical Agency, Haver Industrial Production in China, % change year over year 20 4 0 2 8 16 14 10 Jan 09 6 12 18 Jan 10 Jan 11 Jan 12 Jan 13 Jan 14 Jan 15
  • 59. China’s shrinking manufacturing sector and stock market woes caused alarm among governments and investors in early 2016. Meanwhile, overall economic growth slowed to its lowest rate in 25 years. Will China successfully pull off its transition to a more service-based economy? Or is the era of Chinese expansion over? If the latter, economies all over the world will feel the affects. Where China is headed next...
  • 61. In July 2015, the value of oil was more than double its value at the start of 2016 Source: Nasdaq Mar 2015 May 2015 Jul 2015 Sep 2015 Nov 2015 Jan 2016 End of day futures price quotes for crude oil WTI (NYMEX) 70 55 50 25 65 60 45 40 35 29.42
  • 62. 8.2% 16kEmployment in the industry has declined by Source: BLS Jobs lost in the past two years What’s the effect of this price drop on oil and gas jobs?
  • 63. Oil job postings started to drop in June 2014 and job search followed six months later. This downward momentum continues today. Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Searches Postings 25 0 -75 7/1/20144/1/2014 10/1/2014 1/1/2015 4/12/015 7/1/2015 10/1/2015 -25 -50
  • 64. The price of oil may not yet have hit the bottom yet. According to some analysts it could fall further, placing more pressure on the economies of major producers such as Saudi Arabia and Russia. Meanwhile, researchers at Harvard, MIT and Cambridge are working on long-life batteries that could in the near future reduce reliance on fossil fuels and transform the face of transport. Whatever happens, the oil market has many more surprises in store for us... The Future of Oil?
  • 66. A start-up world? Today, new companies are a primary source of job creation in the US Source: BLS and Kauffman Foundation Relationship Between Startups and Employment Growth 40 30 20 20 0 1.50 3 4.5 6 Employment growth Kauffmanrank There is a strong correlation of -0.41 between the Kauffman Rank for startup activity and employment growth across the top 40 metro areas in the US
  • 67. But it’s no magic bullet. Overall, the “startup share” of all US jobs has declined since 1990. Source: US Census Bureau 1 year or less (firm age) 5 year or less (firm age) 20% 18% 12% 19951990 2000 2005 2010 -16% 14% 50% 45% 30% 40% 35% Startup Decline (%)
  • 68. And this could be contributing to low productivity rates. Currently hovering at 2.1%, we have not yet returned to the pre-recession level of 2.6% Source: The Conference Board 1996-2006 average 2014 3.0% 2.25% 1.5% .75% 0% 2.6% 2.1%
  • 69. “Startups create jobs while also allowing new technology and innovation, which supports productivity growth. So, lower startup activity may explain recent weak unemployment and productivity growth numbers. An improved startup environment could help boost those figures and overall global economic health as well. Without a rebound in startup creation, we may face lower economic growth in the future.” Tara M. Sinclair, PhD Indeed Chief Economist
  • 71. 1. London 2. Bangalore 3. Beijing 4. Madrid 5. New York 6. Lisbon 7. Pune 8. Chennai 9. Hyderabad The cities with the highest concentration of Java job postings can help us identify the world’s tech hubs 10. Shanghai 11. Milano 12. Mumbai 13. Roma 14. Paris 15. Krakow 16. Delhi 17. Warsaw 18. Barcelona 19. Münich 20. Atlanta 21. Sao Paulo 22. Chicago 23. Moscow 24. San Francisco 25. Delhi Worldwide ranking of cities by Java job postings Source: Indeed Hiring Lab
  • 72. Software Products 25% 17% 8% 7% 7% 5% 5% 4% 3% 20% Web Services / Internet Finance / Banking Consulting Media / Advertising / Entertainment and Gaming Health / Biotech / Science Education / Academia / Research Telecommunications Government Other Source: Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2015 Most software developers don’t work in software firms
  • 73. Tech jobs are the most widely spread across industries Education, training and library Healthcare support Healthcare practitioners and technical Food preparation and serving related Protective service Sales and related Construction and extraction Production Community and social service Farming, fishing, and forestry Legal Arts, design entertainment, sports and media Architecture and engineering Life, physical, and social science Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance Transportation and material moving Installation, maintenance, and repair Business and financial operations Office and administrative support Management Computer and mathematical Most concentratedLeast concentrated Source: BLS, special tabulation of May 2012 Occupational Employment Statistics
  • 74. All kinds of jobs now require a high-degree of tech literacy, including this Operations Manager, Supply Chain Location: Kensington, Australia • Experience working in a highly complex, technical environment such as a consumer electronics company • Experience working independently and part of geographically dispersed organization • Knowledge and experience with use of a major ERP system such as Oracle, Agile, etc. • Profit and Loss Responsibilities • Experience in Lean Manufacturing and Change Management
  • 75. And this: Dental Assistant Location: Ann Arbor, MI • Be team oriented and have a tremendous positive attitude • Possess great customer service skills • Have a strong work ethic • X-Ray certified • Knowledge of Dentrix Dental Software • Can work a Cerec machine
  • 76. And this: Maitre’d Location: New York, NY • Take ownership of the room • Be fabulous, be present, be friendly, be there for the staff • Knowledge of Oracle MICROS required • Knowledge of OpenTable and 7 Rooms preferred
  • 77. The Future of Work 4
  • 78. The future of job search
  • 79. Job search then... For most jobs, you had to have a copy of the local newspaper to find jobs in a given location There was no easy way to compare all job listings Job seekers had little control
  • 80. Job search now... Job seekers can search any time for jobs in any industry, in any location Easy to compare all your options and opportunities Search and apply from your mobile phone Job seekers are increasingly in the driver’s seat
  • 81. All countries around the world, 70% of the labor force is actively looking or open to a new job Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=10,041)
  • 82. US Australia UK Netherlands France Germany Worldwide average And most of that job search happens online. In fact, the global average for online job search is 71% Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=2,363) 68% 74% 70% 75% 66% 74% 71% Country % of those hired who looked online
  • 83. The rise of online job search makes it much easier to look abroad for work 8% of job seekers search outside of their country’s borders Source: Indeed Hiring Lab Globally,
  • 84. 40.3% 59.5% of job seekers were using mobile devices The majority of search today happens on mobile devices. Today’s job seekers can look for opportunities on the go and at any time of the day: of job seekers Source: Indeed Hiring Lab In 2013, In 2016, that rate jumped to
  • 85. Preferences for mobile job search vary from 88% in South Korea to 29% in Poland Source: Indeed Hiring Lab 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 South Korea Taiwan Japan Sweden Norway Hong Kong Thailand Indonesia Denmark Vietnam Turkey Singapore Malaysia Bahrain United Kingdom Ireland Mexico Saudi Arabia 87.9% 84.2% 81.3% 79.4% 76.6% 76.5% 76.3% 74.8% 72.5% 71.0% 67.8% 66.2% 65.9% 65.2% 64.3% 64.3% 63.5% 63.4% 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Israel Australia Brazil Netherlands Kuwait Luxembourg United States Finland Chile South Africa Italy India Switzerland Germany New Zealand Austria Oman Philippines 63.3% 60.5% 60.4% 59.7% 59.4% 58.5% 58.2% 57.9% 57.9% 55.7% 55.4% 55.2% 55.1% 54.4% 54.1% 53.0% 52.1% 51.5 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Colombia Argentina United Arab Emirates Canada Qatar France Portugal Romania Greece Belgium Czech Republic Russia Peru Pakistan Hungary China Venezuela Poland 50.3% 50.2% 50.1% 49.7% 46.7% 44.7% 44.3% 43.5% 42.4% 41.1% 40.9% 40.2% 40.0% 39.5% 39.4% 38.7% 33.4% 29.1%
  • 86. The Future of Talent Attraction
  • 87. Employers were reactive, posting job openings as vacancies arose Recruiting then Pay-per-post advertising was king— and the price didn’t change, regardless of whether it was successful or not The hunt for talent was scattershot and unpredictable—cold-calling candidates, anyone? Savvy employers are both strategic and proactive— anticipating talent needs to fill positions quickly Recruiting now Employers promote their brand to sell themselves to the best and most active job seekers Talent retention is as important as talent attraction—today’s best companies take steps to build career paths and opportunities for employees
  • 88. In their own words, here’s how employers think about these changes:
  • 89. “We hire the person not the position. So we’re looking for people who are leaders, people who are innovative, people who are strategic thinkers. As people come in, everyone is a leader from day one and throughout your career we are looking to really build your skills and growth and as your passions change there are many doors that open across the company.” Scott Isenhart, North America Talent Supply Leader, P&G See the full interview
  • 90. “As I thought about how we would reimagine recruiting, I realized that we needed to move away from recruiting for jobs, because that time is over. Instead, we focus, for instance, on growing people’s talent and really amplifying and unleashing their super powers. Then we identify the ways in which those super powers can contribute to our company and its mission” Sandy Gould, SVP Talent Acquisition and Development, Yahoo See the full interview
  • 91. Around the world, people are increasingly active when it comes to job search Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=2,363) 78% 90% 76% United States 91% Global Average 92% 80% Australia 90% 78% United Kingdom 92% 82% Netherlands 89% 74% France 91% 81% Germany % of new hires in the last year who took an action 6 months prior to current job % of those hired in the past year who took some action to find a job six months prior to their current job who looked online
  • 92. Pay is still #1, but location and flexible hours are key considerations for over 40% of candidates worldwide Source: Harris poll on behalf of Indeed (Base=Employed or not employed but looking, n=10,041) Top three factors that play a role in a candidate’s decision 64% 44% Global Average 42% 77% 54% United States 51% 64% 51%Australia 50% 60% 43% United Kingdom 41% 61% 42%Netherlands 40% 57% 38%France 38% 64% 42%Germany 40% Pay Location Flexible Hours
  • 94. Work then... In the 9 to 5 era, where and when you did your work was strictly defined
  • 95. Work now... Today you could be working at home, in a cafe, or on an airplane—results are what matter most!
  • 96. The amount of time people spend working is declining. Hours worked Declining from 1990 to 2013 (Percentage) Source: OECD 2000 1750 1500 1250 2250 Russia Italy OECD CanadaJapan Australia UK France Germany 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 In 1990, OECD countries worked an average of 1880 hours a year. By 2013 this had dropped to an average of 1770.
  • 97. Source: OECD … which breaks down to an average of 1,770 hours worked per year, or 34 hours a week: 1.6k 1.2k .8k .4k 0 Germany France Australia United Kingdom JapanCanada Italy RussiaOECD Total United States 1.66k 2.0k 1.36k 1.47k 1.67k 1.71k 1.73k 1.73k 1.77k 1.79k 1.98k Hours worked per person annually (2014)
  • 98. It’s not just the 9 to 5 that’s changing. Today, work-life balance is increasingly important—and some tech employers see this as a way to attract top talent.
  • 99. In most advanced economies, paid leave is the law, with an average of 19 days PTO and an additional 10 public holidays. In the US, it’s a different story Source: OECD Family Database Days of Paid annual leave (Statutory minimum) France UK Germany Australia 0 5 10 15 20 25 Italy Canada Japan US
  • 100. 39 21.7 17 17 16 14 14 6 0 UK Italy OECD average Canada France Germany Japan Australia US The OECD average is 17 weeks of paid maternity leave at 78% of average gross earnings. In the US, companies are not obliged to provide any maternity leave Weeks of paid leave Country Source: OECD Family Database 30.9 80 77.5 47.7 100 100 67 40.6 0 Payment rate
  • 101. “We’ve also been thinking about how we’re going to take time off during the first months of her life. This is a very personal decision, and I’ve decided to take 2 months of paternity leave when our daughter arrives.” However, a new generation of business leaders is driving change in the US. Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg took time off after the birth of his first child: Source: Wired Article and LA Times November 2015
  • 102. “I take a lot of vacation and I'm hoping that certainly sets an example. It is helpful. You often do your best thinking when you're off hiking in some mountain or something. You get a different perspective on things.” Meanwhile Netflix CEO Reed Hastings is a firm believer in the importance of taking time off to recharge: Source: CNBC 11/3/2015
  • 103. Where this trend will end is anybody’s guess But the battle to attract in-demand talent may make such arrangements more common in cutting-edge sectors of the US economy as employers compete against each other to offer the best package possible
  • 104. Get more data from our latest report: Labor Market Outlook 2016 indeed.com/hiringlab