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Global change, parasites, and community assembly: How a parasite expanded its range in the shadow of its host Yi-Hsin Erica Tsai Paul S. Manos Department of Biology Duke University
Climate change and a species’ response
Climate change and a species’ response Climate change
Climate change and a species’ response Climate change
Climate change and a species’ response Climate change
Climate change and a species’ response Climate change ?
Climate change and a community’s response
Climate change and a community’s response
Climate change and a community’s response Climate change
Climate change and a community’s response Climate change
Climate change and a community’s response Climate change ?
How do host and parasite migration patterns compare? What host life history characters act as constraints?
How do host and parasite migration patterns compare? What host life history characters act as constraints? Host = American beech,  Fagus grandifolia Parasite = Beechdrop,  Epifagus virginiana Host density effects
The parasite:  Epifagus virginiana DL Nickrent Obligate parasite Non-photosynthetic Host specific to  Fagus grandifolia Annual Selfer EA Saulys
Two host migration scenarios 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp Host fossil pollen Davis 1983, Bennett 1985,  Delcourt and Delcourt 1987, Williams et al. 2004
Two host migration scenarios Host cpDNA  McLachlan et al. 2005 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp PP Prairie Peninsula
Two host migration scenarios Host fossil pollen Davis 1983, Bennett 1985,  Delcourt and Delcourt 1987, Williams et al. 2004 Host cpDNA  McLachlan et al. 2005 PP 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp
Two host migration scenarios Host fossil pollen Host cpDNA  PP 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp High density forest development Initial range expansion
What limits parasite colonization of a new area? Host fossil pollen = host density Host cpDNA  = host disperal PP 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp
Methods: Building a parasite dataset 1064 specimens 95 populations 1016 cpDNA bp 557 bp  clpP1  intron 459 bp  rbcL  pseudogene 47 substitutions 41 haplotypes 4 haplotype groups
Parasite haplotype distributions PP 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp
Many genetic breaks in the South Monmonier’s analysis: Manni et al. 2004, Miller 2005,  Jombart 2008
Many genetic breaks in the South - Supported by cross validation analysis
Migration into the Midwest Probability Migration rate 0.005 0.015 0.025 1 100 0.01 PP PP 13  kybp 9  kybp 6  kybp 13  kybp 9  kybp Hey and Nielsen 2007
Broad-scale story X Host density matters
But where are the actual migration corridors?
But where are the actual migration corridors? Further work: Establish directionality - Microsatellite markers Threshold density of host? - Fine scale plots Extract migration corridors  - spatial models
Locating migration corridors Landscape connectivity - McRae et al. 2008
Spatial models with all datasets Parasite cpDNA ~ Host pollen age + Host cpDNA
Climate change and a community’s response Climate change ?
Climate change and a community’s response Climate change ?
Acknowledgements Specimen collectors: Yi-Show Tsai Ross McCauley  Chuck Williams Fritz Gerhardt Gelyn Kline Jason McLachlan John Freudenstein Maggie Whitson Paul Manos Mark Fishbein Dan Nickrent Heather Nickrent Philip Hyatt Robyn Burnham Sally Gerhardt Sasa Stefanovic Alison Colwell Erin Tripp Jordan Metzgar Jackson Fox Funding sources: NSF, Sigma Xi, Duke Grad School, Duke Dept. of Biology, ASPT, Mellon Foundation, AWIS, GWIS, Deep Time, Google, NESCent Lab/Theory help: Billy Schnackel Amos Little  Jason McLachlan Sang-Hun Oh Norm Douglas Dylan O. Burge Erin Tripp Taina Price Dudu Meireles James Beck Christy Henzler Lisa Pokorny Michelle Hersh Sara Chun Advisor: Paul Manos
Questions? [email_address] www.duke.edu/~yet2/ phylogeoviz.org

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Global change, parasites, and community assembly: How a parasite expanded its range in the shadow of its host

  • 1. Global change, parasites, and community assembly: How a parasite expanded its range in the shadow of its host Yi-Hsin Erica Tsai Paul S. Manos Department of Biology Duke University
  • 2. Climate change and a species’ response
  • 3. Climate change and a species’ response Climate change
  • 4. Climate change and a species’ response Climate change
  • 5. Climate change and a species’ response Climate change
  • 6. Climate change and a species’ response Climate change ?
  • 7. Climate change and a community’s response
  • 8. Climate change and a community’s response
  • 9. Climate change and a community’s response Climate change
  • 10. Climate change and a community’s response Climate change
  • 11. Climate change and a community’s response Climate change ?
  • 12. How do host and parasite migration patterns compare? What host life history characters act as constraints?
  • 13. How do host and parasite migration patterns compare? What host life history characters act as constraints? Host = American beech, Fagus grandifolia Parasite = Beechdrop, Epifagus virginiana Host density effects
  • 14. The parasite: Epifagus virginiana DL Nickrent Obligate parasite Non-photosynthetic Host specific to Fagus grandifolia Annual Selfer EA Saulys
  • 15. Two host migration scenarios 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp Host fossil pollen Davis 1983, Bennett 1985, Delcourt and Delcourt 1987, Williams et al. 2004
  • 16. Two host migration scenarios Host cpDNA McLachlan et al. 2005 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp PP Prairie Peninsula
  • 17. Two host migration scenarios Host fossil pollen Davis 1983, Bennett 1985, Delcourt and Delcourt 1987, Williams et al. 2004 Host cpDNA McLachlan et al. 2005 PP 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp
  • 18. Two host migration scenarios Host fossil pollen Host cpDNA PP 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp High density forest development Initial range expansion
  • 19. What limits parasite colonization of a new area? Host fossil pollen = host density Host cpDNA = host disperal PP 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp
  • 20. Methods: Building a parasite dataset 1064 specimens 95 populations 1016 cpDNA bp 557 bp clpP1 intron 459 bp rbcL pseudogene 47 substitutions 41 haplotypes 4 haplotype groups
  • 21. Parasite haplotype distributions PP 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp
  • 22. Many genetic breaks in the South Monmonier’s analysis: Manni et al. 2004, Miller 2005, Jombart 2008
  • 23. Many genetic breaks in the South - Supported by cross validation analysis
  • 24. Migration into the Midwest Probability Migration rate 0.005 0.015 0.025 1 100 0.01 PP PP 13 kybp 9 kybp 6 kybp 13 kybp 9 kybp Hey and Nielsen 2007
  • 25. Broad-scale story X Host density matters
  • 26. But where are the actual migration corridors?
  • 27. But where are the actual migration corridors? Further work: Establish directionality - Microsatellite markers Threshold density of host? - Fine scale plots Extract migration corridors - spatial models
  • 28. Locating migration corridors Landscape connectivity - McRae et al. 2008
  • 29. Spatial models with all datasets Parasite cpDNA ~ Host pollen age + Host cpDNA
  • 30. Climate change and a community’s response Climate change ?
  • 31. Climate change and a community’s response Climate change ?
  • 32. Acknowledgements Specimen collectors: Yi-Show Tsai Ross McCauley Chuck Williams Fritz Gerhardt Gelyn Kline Jason McLachlan John Freudenstein Maggie Whitson Paul Manos Mark Fishbein Dan Nickrent Heather Nickrent Philip Hyatt Robyn Burnham Sally Gerhardt Sasa Stefanovic Alison Colwell Erin Tripp Jordan Metzgar Jackson Fox Funding sources: NSF, Sigma Xi, Duke Grad School, Duke Dept. of Biology, ASPT, Mellon Foundation, AWIS, GWIS, Deep Time, Google, NESCent Lab/Theory help: Billy Schnackel Amos Little Jason McLachlan Sang-Hun Oh Norm Douglas Dylan O. Burge Erin Tripp Taina Price Dudu Meireles James Beck Christy Henzler Lisa Pokorny Michelle Hersh Sara Chun Advisor: Paul Manos