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Getting Started with Business Process Modeling
How much BPMN do you really need?
Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D.
Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation
Howe School of Technology Management
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken NJ
Michael.zurMuehlen@stevens.edu

                                                      1
How do you make a Cup of Coffee?
                                   2
Coffee Lover




                                                           Put Boiling Water
                         Boil Water    Put Coffee in Cup
                                                                in Cup
               Thirsty                                                         Coffee is Ready




                                      The Nescafé Process
                                                                                                 3
Water is cold

                                                no




                              Kettle
                             empty?                              Boil Water



                               yes

                                        Fill Kettle
  Coffee Lover




                                                                                 Put Boiling
                                                                                Water in Cup
                 Thirsty                                                                       Coffee is Ready




                                           No




                                                                Put Coffee in
                           Cup dirty?                               Cup
  Dishwasher




                             Yes

                                        Clean Cup




The Espresso Machine Process                                                                                     4
Hand Coffee
                                                                                          Make Coffee
                                                                                                                                  To Customer
                                                                                                                                                Done


                 Barrista                                                                            Order
                                                                                                   cancelled     Discard Coffee
   Coffee Shop




                                                                                        Insufficient Payment
                 Cashier




                                                          Take Order              +          Collect
                                                                                            Payment
                                                                                                                                    Coffee

                                             Store Open                                                        Done




                                                             Order                           Payment
  Household




                                      Go To Coffee
                                                          Order Coffee                   Pay for Coffee                           Take Coffee
                                         Shop
                            Thirsty                                                                                                             Done




                                                                         > 5 min wait         Leave




The Starbucks Process                                                                                                                                  5
How to Get Started
                        Find
   Pick a
              Model   matching
    tool
                      Problem




                                 6
How to Get Started
                         Find
   Pick a
              Model    matching
    tool
                       Problem



   Pick a     Select   Solve the
  Problem     Method   Problem

                                   6
What is a Good Process Model?

           Correct



           Relevant



          Economical
                                7
Correct




When is a model correct?                Relevant




                                       Economical




 Correct Syntax
  Proper use of the Modeling Method
 Correct Semantics
  Accurate representation of Reality




                                                    8
“As-If”    As-Is    Correct




                                    Relevant




                                   Economical




                                                9
Source: Rob Davis (2006)
Modeling with BPMN
                 10
What is BPMN?
 Graphical Notation for Describing Business Processes
    The “Look” of a process diagram
 Flowchart based
    Activity Network – Nodes and transitions
    Sequential, Parallel and Conditional Paths
    Arbitrarily complex diagrams




    The BPMN will provide businesses with the capability of defining and understanding
    their internal and external business procedures through a Business Process
    Diagram, which will give organizations the ability to communicate these procedures
    in a standardized manner.

                                                                                         11
+ Pool, Lane, Grouping,
                       Annotation, Document,
                       Transaction Boundary...




BPMN 1.0 - Elements Available

                                                 12
BPMN 1.1

 Maintenance Update
 Minor changes to notation
 New symbol for Multiple Event
 and Gateway (used to be star,
 now pentagram)
 New Signal Event
 Separation of “catching” and
 “throwing” events




                                 13
Normal Flow
                           Task
                     End Event
          Start Event / Event
                           Pool
            Data-Based XOR
               Start Message
              Text Annotation
               Message Flow
            Parallel Fork/Join
                         Lanes
                      Gateway
   Sub-Process (Collapsed)
                   Association
                  Data Object
          Intermediate Timer
      Intermediate Message
                End Terminate
   Sub-Process (Expanded)
                      End Link
                  Default Flow
   Inclusive Decision/Merge
              Activity Looping
               Exception Task
                     Start Link
                End Message
               End Exception
   Complex Decision/Merge
                                  diagrams




           Event-Based XOR
            Multiple Instance
                         Group
                                                                                                                                                                             three sources:




                   Transaction
          Intermediate Event
                   End Cancel
               Compensation
                                                                       Long-tail usage pattern




Intermediate Compensation
                                                                                                                             Consulting Projects




             Conditional Flow
              Exception Flow
                                                                                                                                                   Web (random collection)




            Intermediate Link
                                  not be found among any of the




                   Start Timer
                                                                                                 BPMN Seminar participants




         Off-page connector
                                                                                                                                                                             Source: 126 BPMN diagrams from




                     Start Rule
                                  Some BPEL-related primitives could




           Intermediate Rule
       Intermediate Multiple
         End Compensation
                 Start Multiple
                                                            Web
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Frequency of BPMN Symbol Use




     Intermediate Exception
                                                            Seminar




        Intermediate Cancel
                                                            Consulting




                  End Multiple
14




 Compensation Association
Normal Flow
                            Task
                      End Event
           Start Event / Event
                            Pool
              Data-Based XOR
                 Start Message
               Text Annotation
                 Message Flow
             Parallel Fork/Join
                           Lanes
                       Gateway
    Sub-Process (Collapsed)
                    Association
                    Data Object
           Intermediate Timer
      Intermediate Message
                 End Terminate
    Sub-Process (Expanded)
                        End Link
                   Default Flow
   Inclusive Decision/Merge
              Activity Looping
                Exception Task
                      Start Link
                  End Message
                 End Exception
   Complex Decision/Merge
             Event-Based XOR
             Multiple Instance
                          Group
                    Transaction
          Intermediate Event
                     End Cancel
                 Compensation
Intermediate Compensation
             Conditional Flow
                Exception Flow
            Intermediate Link
                     Start Timer
          Off-page connector
                      Start Rule
            Intermediate Rule
       Intermediate Multiple
          End Compensation
                  Start Multiple
     Intermediate Exception
         Intermediate Cancel
                   End Multiple
  Compensation Association         15
Modeling in the Small:
Service Process Improvement
                             16
Service Process Innovation
  Problem: Service Processes in truck dealerships
  are crucial for customers that need to maintain their
  trucks, potentially very profitable, but not very well
  understood.
  Question: How can we improve the existing service
  process, quantify improvements, and increase both
  customer satisfaction and profitability? How well is
  BPMN suited for this task?
  Approach: Map the existing process in BPMN,
  identify improvement potential, benchmark process
  metrics, design new process in BPMN, supervise
  implementation




                                                          17
As-Is Process (v. 13)
                        18
To-Be Process (v. 11)
                        19
Useful Abuse   20
Insights
 A very limited BPMN subset is sufficient to create processes (and produce
 redesign results)
 “Creative abuse” can increase readability
 Management literacy of the BPMN diagrams made it easier to illustrate the
 ROI of a pure modeling project
 Process simulation is essential to peg financial benefits to process
 changes
 Even in a blue collar environment, process improvement ideas can be
 generated at the front line




                                                                             21
Correct




Relevance                            Relevant




                                    Economical




 Is everything relevant in the model?
  Missing process paths?
  Missing responsibilities?
  Missing information?
 Is everything in the model relevant?
  Information overload


                                                 22
Correct


              2 Verbs in Activity      Constraint
Bad Example                                     Relevant




                                               Economical




       “Call Bank” = How
                     “Verify” = What                        23
Correct




Consistent Level of Abstraction?    Relevant




                                   Economical




                                                24
Correct




When is a model Economical?          Relevant




                                    Economical




    Effort spent on documentation
                 vs.
         Value of model use



                                                 25
Correct




 Relevant




Economical




             26
As-Is or just To-Be?
                   27
Perform As Is Modeling?
   It is important to design as-is models if you feel
      The as-is will include lots of improvement constraints
      You aim for minor changes
      You do not understand the domain at all
      The organization is risk averse
      The process is of strategic importance
      You have a very cost effective methodology for as-is modeling
      The difference between as-is and to-be is a change management
      document




                                                                      28
Skip As Is Modeling?
   You can skip as-is modeling when
      The process is a commodity
      You have a very good understanding of the as-is
      People would otherwise not be able to think out of the box
      You have a very good approach for process improvement




                                                                   29
Modeling in the Large:
Enterprise-wide Modeling
                        30
Project Scope
 Duration: 21 months
 Project team: 13 Modelers (Full-time)
 
    
     >80 Subject Matter Experts (Part-time)
 Goal 1: Development of an Enterprise Process Model
 Goal 2: Alignment of Organization with new Processes




                                                        31
Online Glossary
Process Granularity

Decided to follow Process Objects
   to discover process structure.
 Invoice                                                   Pallet




                                    Reminder
           Payment
                                               Complaint
                     Package Slip
As-Is Modeling
 Survey of As-Is Processes in the district offices
   Mixture of observation and workshops
   “How does this typically work” is not a good question
   Scenarios are helpful (rainy day - sunny day)
 Standardization of models across different districts




                                                           34
To-be Modeling
 Definition of strategic Core Processes
 Development of a Enterprise Process Framework
 Modeling and refinement of an Enterprise Process Catalog
 Enhancement of the glossary




                                                           35
Process Framework - Facility
 Management                                                           Enterprise
                                                                     Management

Customer                                  Asset                   Process Management                                                      Customers
                                       Management                                                      Controlling

                                                                  Strategical /Operative
                                     Portfolio                                                                Reporting
                                                                          Mgmt.

                          Market Activities                                                Enactment of Services




                                                                                                                                             Der bearbeitete
  Der relevante




                                                                                                                     Technical
                              Project                                  Planning                                      Services
   Market                      study
  Shareholders                                                       Contracting                 Resource-            Administrative        Market
                                                                                                 disposition            Services            Shareholders
      Owners                       Marketing
        Users                         and                                                                                                     Owners

                                   Acquisition                        Consulting                                      Personnel                  Users
                                                                                                                       Services



                  Information-                        Material-                        Accounting,
                   Informations-                    Informations-                      Informations-                      Legal Issues
                                                                                                                          Informations-
                    processing                      management                            Finance
                  verarbeitung                       verarbeitung                      verarbeitung                       verarbeitung

                                                                    Human Resources
Example Level 1-3
                                                                                                                                                                    Unternehmensführung

                                                                      Kunden                                                   Prozeßmanagement                                                              Controlling                         Kunden

                                                                                                                                Strategische/Operative
                                                                                                                                       Führung                                                              Berichtswesen




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Der bearbeitete Markt
                                                                                                                    Marktbearbeitung                                                            Leistungserbringung
                                                                     !quot;§===




                                                                          Der relevante Markt
                                                                       Eigentümer

                                                                                                                              Marketing
                                                                                                                                                                        Planung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Technische
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dienstleistung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                !quot;§===
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eigentümer

                                                                          Markt                                                  und
                                                                                                                              Akquisition
                                                                      Investoren
                                                                                                                                                                        Vertrags-                      Ressourcen-             Kaufmännische      Markt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Investoren
                                                                                                                                                                        abschluß                        disposition            Dienstleistung

                                                                                                Eigentümer
                                                                                     Nutzer                                                                                                                                                                      Eigentümer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Personelle
                                                                                                                    Asset                   Projektstudie               Beratung                                            Dienstleistung           Nutzer
                                                                                                                 Management



                                                                     !quot;§===
                                                                         Nutzer


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                !quot;§===
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Nutzer




                                                                                                             Informations-                            Material-
                                                                                                                                                    Informations-                           Rechnungs-
                                                                                                                                                                                           Informations-                        Recht
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Informations-
                                                                                                              verarbeitung                            wirtschaft
                                                                                                                                                     verarbeitung                         wesen, Finanzen
                                                                                                                                                                                            verarbeitung                     verarbeitung


                                                                                                                                                                    Personalmanagement




                                                                                                                        Process: Goods Receipt
                              Process: Purchase on site

Process: Purchase Resources




                                          Process: Evaluate Quotes
                                                                     Process: Goods Issue
Process Framework: Fortune 100
Methods   Enterprise Process Architecture   Organization




                                                      38
Lessons learned
 Glossary was helpful
   “Object” in real estate is very different from CS “object”
 Modeling standards were invaluable
   Not just words, but naming and phrasing conventions
 Employees can learn “complicated” modeling techniques
   Use method filters wisely
   Decide who will read and who will contribute
   Who owns the model?


                                                                39
Lessons Learned (2)
 Method became more and more standardized over time
    Started with (nearly) all modeling elements
    Ended with heavily customized method filters
    Started with free-form EPC with routing guidelines
    Ended with swimlane-style EPCs
 Process modeling can become a self-fulfilling purpose
    Rogue projects sprung up before the implementation phase
 Integrating 650 models only works if you have standards
    2 full time staff for model consolidation
 in the end, everything changed…
                                                               40
What’s the Big Picture?
                      41
Top
                        Management
                          Support

                  Economics           Governance


                    Project Management

        Project              Model            Model
         Setup               Design         Maintenance




                     Users          Info.            Tools
     Modelers
                                  Providers        and Lang.




Modeling in Context                                            42
Thank You - Questions?
Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D.
Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation
Howe School of Technology Management
Stevens Institute of Technology
Castle Point on the Hudson
Hoboken, NJ 07030
Phone: 
+1 (201) 216-8293
Fax:
 
+1 (201) 216-5385
E-mail:
 mzurmuehlen@stevens.edu
Web:
      http://www.cebpi.org
slides: 	 www.slideshare.net/mzurmuehlen




                                                      43

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Getting Started With Business Process Modeling

  • 1. Getting Started with Business Process Modeling How much BPMN do you really need? Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken NJ Michael.zurMuehlen@stevens.edu 1
  • 2. How do you make a Cup of Coffee? 2
  • 3. Coffee Lover Put Boiling Water Boil Water Put Coffee in Cup in Cup Thirsty Coffee is Ready The Nescafé Process 3
  • 4. Water is cold no Kettle empty? Boil Water yes Fill Kettle Coffee Lover Put Boiling Water in Cup Thirsty Coffee is Ready No Put Coffee in Cup dirty? Cup Dishwasher Yes Clean Cup The Espresso Machine Process 4
  • 5. Hand Coffee Make Coffee To Customer Done Barrista Order cancelled Discard Coffee Coffee Shop Insufficient Payment Cashier Take Order + Collect Payment Coffee Store Open Done Order Payment Household Go To Coffee Order Coffee Pay for Coffee Take Coffee Shop Thirsty Done > 5 min wait Leave The Starbucks Process 5
  • 6. How to Get Started Find Pick a Model matching tool Problem 6
  • 7. How to Get Started Find Pick a Model matching tool Problem Pick a Select Solve the Problem Method Problem 6
  • 8. What is a Good Process Model? Correct Relevant Economical 7
  • 9. Correct When is a model correct? Relevant Economical Correct Syntax Proper use of the Modeling Method Correct Semantics Accurate representation of Reality 8
  • 10. “As-If” As-Is Correct Relevant Economical 9 Source: Rob Davis (2006)
  • 12. What is BPMN? Graphical Notation for Describing Business Processes The “Look” of a process diagram Flowchart based Activity Network – Nodes and transitions Sequential, Parallel and Conditional Paths Arbitrarily complex diagrams The BPMN will provide businesses with the capability of defining and understanding their internal and external business procedures through a Business Process Diagram, which will give organizations the ability to communicate these procedures in a standardized manner. 11
  • 13. + Pool, Lane, Grouping, Annotation, Document, Transaction Boundary... BPMN 1.0 - Elements Available 12
  • 14. BPMN 1.1 Maintenance Update Minor changes to notation New symbol for Multiple Event and Gateway (used to be star, now pentagram) New Signal Event Separation of “catching” and “throwing” events 13
  • 15. Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge diagrams Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group three sources: Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Long-tail usage pattern Intermediate Compensation Consulting Projects Conditional Flow Exception Flow Web (random collection) Intermediate Link not be found among any of the Start Timer BPMN Seminar participants Off-page connector Source: 126 BPMN diagrams from Start Rule Some BPEL-related primitives could Intermediate Rule Intermediate Multiple End Compensation Start Multiple Web Frequency of BPMN Symbol Use Intermediate Exception Seminar Intermediate Cancel Consulting End Multiple 14 Compensation Association
  • 16. Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Intermediate Compensation Conditional Flow Exception Flow Intermediate Link Start Timer Off-page connector Start Rule Intermediate Rule Intermediate Multiple End Compensation Start Multiple Intermediate Exception Intermediate Cancel End Multiple Compensation Association 15
  • 17. Modeling in the Small: Service Process Improvement 16
  • 18. Service Process Innovation Problem: Service Processes in truck dealerships are crucial for customers that need to maintain their trucks, potentially very profitable, but not very well understood. Question: How can we improve the existing service process, quantify improvements, and increase both customer satisfaction and profitability? How well is BPMN suited for this task? Approach: Map the existing process in BPMN, identify improvement potential, benchmark process metrics, design new process in BPMN, supervise implementation 17
  • 22. Insights A very limited BPMN subset is sufficient to create processes (and produce redesign results) “Creative abuse” can increase readability Management literacy of the BPMN diagrams made it easier to illustrate the ROI of a pure modeling project Process simulation is essential to peg financial benefits to process changes Even in a blue collar environment, process improvement ideas can be generated at the front line 21
  • 23. Correct Relevance Relevant Economical Is everything relevant in the model? Missing process paths? Missing responsibilities? Missing information? Is everything in the model relevant? Information overload 22
  • 24. Correct 2 Verbs in Activity Constraint Bad Example Relevant Economical “Call Bank” = How “Verify” = What 23
  • 25. Correct Consistent Level of Abstraction? Relevant Economical 24
  • 26. Correct When is a model Economical? Relevant Economical Effort spent on documentation vs. Value of model use 25
  • 28. As-Is or just To-Be? 27
  • 29. Perform As Is Modeling? It is important to design as-is models if you feel The as-is will include lots of improvement constraints You aim for minor changes You do not understand the domain at all The organization is risk averse The process is of strategic importance You have a very cost effective methodology for as-is modeling The difference between as-is and to-be is a change management document 28
  • 30. Skip As Is Modeling? You can skip as-is modeling when The process is a commodity You have a very good understanding of the as-is People would otherwise not be able to think out of the box You have a very good approach for process improvement 29
  • 31. Modeling in the Large: Enterprise-wide Modeling 30
  • 32. Project Scope Duration: 21 months Project team: 13 Modelers (Full-time) >80 Subject Matter Experts (Part-time) Goal 1: Development of an Enterprise Process Model Goal 2: Alignment of Organization with new Processes 31
  • 34. Process Granularity Decided to follow Process Objects to discover process structure. Invoice Pallet Reminder Payment Complaint Package Slip
  • 35. As-Is Modeling Survey of As-Is Processes in the district offices Mixture of observation and workshops “How does this typically work” is not a good question Scenarios are helpful (rainy day - sunny day) Standardization of models across different districts 34
  • 36. To-be Modeling Definition of strategic Core Processes Development of a Enterprise Process Framework Modeling and refinement of an Enterprise Process Catalog Enhancement of the glossary 35
  • 37. Process Framework - Facility Management Enterprise Management Customer Asset Process Management Customers Management Controlling Strategical /Operative Portfolio Reporting Mgmt. Market Activities Enactment of Services Der bearbeitete Der relevante Technical Project Planning Services Market study Shareholders Contracting Resource- Administrative Market disposition Services Shareholders Owners Marketing Users and Owners Acquisition Consulting Personnel Users Services Information- Material- Accounting, Informations- Informations- Informations- Legal Issues Informations- processing management Finance verarbeitung verarbeitung verarbeitung verarbeitung Human Resources
  • 38. Example Level 1-3 Unternehmensführung Kunden Prozeßmanagement Controlling Kunden Strategische/Operative Führung Berichtswesen Der bearbeitete Markt Marktbearbeitung Leistungserbringung !quot;§=== Der relevante Markt Eigentümer Marketing Planung Technische Dienstleistung !quot;§=== Eigentümer Markt und Akquisition Investoren Vertrags- Ressourcen- Kaufmännische Markt Investoren abschluß disposition Dienstleistung Eigentümer Nutzer Eigentümer Personelle Asset Projektstudie Beratung Dienstleistung Nutzer Management !quot;§=== Nutzer !quot;§=== Nutzer Informations- Material- Informations- Rechnungs- Informations- Recht Informations- verarbeitung wirtschaft verarbeitung wesen, Finanzen verarbeitung verarbeitung Personalmanagement Process: Goods Receipt Process: Purchase on site Process: Purchase Resources Process: Evaluate Quotes Process: Goods Issue
  • 39. Process Framework: Fortune 100 Methods Enterprise Process Architecture Organization 38
  • 40. Lessons learned Glossary was helpful “Object” in real estate is very different from CS “object” Modeling standards were invaluable Not just words, but naming and phrasing conventions Employees can learn “complicated” modeling techniques Use method filters wisely Decide who will read and who will contribute Who owns the model? 39
  • 41. Lessons Learned (2) Method became more and more standardized over time Started with (nearly) all modeling elements Ended with heavily customized method filters Started with free-form EPC with routing guidelines Ended with swimlane-style EPCs Process modeling can become a self-fulfilling purpose Rogue projects sprung up before the implementation phase Integrating 650 models only works if you have standards 2 full time staff for model consolidation in the end, everything changed… 40
  • 42. What’s the Big Picture? 41
  • 43. Top Management Support Economics Governance Project Management Project Model Model Setup Design Maintenance Users Info. Tools Modelers Providers and Lang. Modeling in Context 42
  • 44. Thank You - Questions? Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Castle Point on the Hudson Hoboken, NJ 07030 Phone: +1 (201) 216-8293 Fax: +1 (201) 216-5385 E-mail: mzurmuehlen@stevens.edu Web: http://www.cebpi.org slides: www.slideshare.net/mzurmuehlen 43