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Geological Evolution
Grade 8
Science
Geological
Evolution refers
to Earth’s
gradual
change over its
history.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
One of the ways in
which the Earth
evolves is through
plate tectonics,
which is the
process that
explains how
large pieces of
the Earth’s
outermost layer
move and
change.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
One aspect of plate
tectonics is the
Continental Drift
Theory, which states
that the gradual
shifting of Earth’s
plates causes
continents to change
their global positions
over time.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The boundary formed by the collision
(coming together) of two plates is
called a convergent plate
boundary.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
The boundary formed between two
plates moving apart from each
other is called a divergent
boundary.
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decompressor
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Scientists believe that at one point in
Earth’s history all of the continents
were once connected to form a
gigantic land mass called Pangaea,
also known as the super-continent.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Relative Dating
The use of information about rock
layers and the fossil record to
determine the age relationships
between rocks is called relative
dating.
The Law of Superposition is the
principal that states that each layer
of sedimentary rock is older than the
layer above it.
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decompressor
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Law of Superposition
In simple terms, this means that the
top layer of sedimentary rock is the
youngest and the bottom layer is
the oldest.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
An extrusion is an igneous rock layer
that forms when lava cools and
hardens on Earth’s surface.
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decompressor
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Extrusions are usually horizontal and
can be treated as a sedimentary
rock layer when trying to use
relative dating.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
An intrusion is when
magma cools and
hardens beneath
Earth’s surface.
These layers are not
horizontal and show
where magma has
broken through
sedimentary rock
layers.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Intrusions are always younger than
the sedimentary rock layers they
have broken through.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
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decompressor
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A fault is a break or
a crack in Earth’s
crust. A fault is
always younger
than the rock
layers that it
breaks through.
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decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
An unconformity is where a newer
rock layer meets a much older rock
layer. It is a gap in the geological
record. It shows were some rock
layers have been lost due to
erosion.
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decompressor
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An index fossil is a fossil of an organism
that was present on Earth during a
short time range, but was common
on the Earth.
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decompressor
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Index fossils are used
to date rock layers,
because scientists
know that the rock
layer in which an
index fossil is found is
the same age as the
index fossil.
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Geological evolution

  • 2. Geological Evolution refers to Earth’s gradual change over its history. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 3. One of the ways in which the Earth evolves is through plate tectonics, which is the process that explains how large pieces of the Earth’s outermost layer move and change. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 4. One aspect of plate tectonics is the Continental Drift Theory, which states that the gradual shifting of Earth’s plates causes continents to change their global positions over time. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 5. The boundary formed by the collision (coming together) of two plates is called a convergent plate boundary. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 6. The boundary formed between two plates moving apart from each other is called a divergent boundary. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 7. Scientists believe that at one point in Earth’s history all of the continents were once connected to form a gigantic land mass called Pangaea, also known as the super-continent. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 8. Relative Dating The use of information about rock layers and the fossil record to determine the age relationships between rocks is called relative dating.
  • 9. The Law of Superposition is the principal that states that each layer of sedimentary rock is older than the layer above it. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 10. Law of Superposition In simple terms, this means that the top layer of sedimentary rock is the youngest and the bottom layer is the oldest. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 11. An extrusion is an igneous rock layer that forms when lava cools and hardens on Earth’s surface. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 12. Extrusions are usually horizontal and can be treated as a sedimentary rock layer when trying to use relative dating. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 13. An intrusion is when magma cools and hardens beneath Earth’s surface. These layers are not horizontal and show where magma has broken through sedimentary rock layers. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 14. Intrusions are always younger than the sedimentary rock layers they have broken through. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 15. A fault is a break or a crack in Earth’s crust. A fault is always younger than the rock layers that it breaks through. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 16. An unconformity is where a newer rock layer meets a much older rock layer. It is a gap in the geological record. It shows were some rock layers have been lost due to erosion. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 17. An index fossil is a fossil of an organism that was present on Earth during a short time range, but was common on the Earth. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 18. Index fossils are used to date rock layers, because scientists know that the rock layer in which an index fossil is found is the same age as the index fossil. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.