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Gender gap in public
speaking
@asalvaire
Historically, women have been
silenced
Even if we are socialized to think
women talk more
Good girls are taught to be quiet
and well behaved
The silent sex: a 4,000-year
campaign
• Homer labeled speech as “the business of
men” and Sophocles wrote that “silence is
a woman’s garment”
• The first laws to have come down to us
included a speech code for women. The
people responsible for these laws were the
Sumerians of Mesopotamia, in now modern
Iraq.
• It says that a woman who speaks out of turn
to a man will have her teeth smashed by a
burnt brick.
Suppressing of women’s voices
is still part of everyday life
• Male doctors invariably interrupt patients when they
speak, especially female patients, but patients rarely
interrupt doctors in return.
Unless the doctor is a woman.
• Parents interrupt girls twice as often and hold them to
stricter politeness norms.
• Teachers engage boys, who correctly see disruptive
speech as a marker of dominant masculinity, more often
and more dynamically than girls.
On Twitter, people retweet men
two times as often as women.
• Social media is dominated by women,
and Twitter is no exception, but it appears
that when it comes to sharing information
on our favourite micro-blogging network,
men are far more likely to be retweeted
than women.
A new tool called Twee-Q (“Twitter Equality Quotient”)
lets you scan the Twitter profile of any user to
determine the frequency that they retweet men and
women on the network.
• Throughout Twitter, the results are both
conclusive and pretty shocking – over
more than 11,000 tests, and almost half a
million retweets, men have been
retweeted almost twice as often as
women, with close to 63 percent of all
retweets those of male users.
The larger the group, the
more likely men are to speak
• Scholars at Brigham Young University and
Princeton examined whether women speak
less than men when a group collaborates to
solve a problem.
• In most groups that they studied, the time
that women spoke was significantly less than
their proportional representation – amounting
to less than 75 percent of the time that
men spoke.
Having a seat at the table is not
the same as having a voice
http://arementalkingtoomuch.com/
Authority and power are linked
to male voices
• A study by a Yale psychologist, Victoria L.
Brescoll, found that male senators with more
power (as measured by tenure, leadership
positions and track record of legislation passed)
spoke more on the Senate floor than their junior
colleagues.
• It is also clear that the more powerful men
become, the more they speak. This would seem a
natural correlation, but the same is not true for
women.
• But for female senators, power was not linked
to significantly more speaking time.
Male students tend towards greater
talkativeness than female students
• The male tendency to dominate in some classes did
not surprise us, since talkativeness studies in general
have concluded that men dominate mixed discussion
groups everywhere -- both within the classroom and
beyond.
• What did surprise us was the degree to which male
domination appeared to depend on gender
demographics: when the teacher was male and the
students in a particular class were predominantly
male, then male students dominated the discussions.
• In none of the demographic circumstances
studied did women students talk as much as men.
Women don’t dare to speak
Why don't women talk as much
as men?
• Women's lower self-esteem translates in
language patterns.
• Women are verbally less assertive than
men, in the sense that they are more likely to
use hedges, qualifiers and questioning
intonations.
• Women use more phrases like “kind of,”
“probably” or “maybe,” as well as more fillers
like “um,” “ah” and “I mean.”
• They also turn sentences into questions,
seeking affirmation: “Isn’t it?”
Women worry about “negative consequences”
and backlash if they are more voluble
• Powerful women are in fact correct in
assuming that they will incur backlash as a
result of talking more than others
• Troublingly, the study found that their fears
were well founded, as both male and female
listeners were quick to think these women
were talking too much, too aggressively.
• In other words, men are rewarded for
speaking, while women are punished.
Another explanation is that women prove to be
extremely vulnerable to interruption.
• Numerous studies have demonstrated that in
mixed-sex conversations, women are
interrupted far more frequently than men
are. By men AND by women.
• Women’s "bursts" last only a few seconds,
while male students typically kept on talking
until they had finished.
• Moreover, once interrupted, women
sometimes stayed out of the discussion for
the remainder of the conversation.
“Interruptions can be used to
display or gain dominance”
• A man may be more likely to see
conversation as “a competitive game
while “the woman see discussions as
being collaborative, hence expects and
gives space for interruption.”
• “Men are used to talking more in other
contexts and women being in lower status
positions and this bleeds into the meeting
context.”
And it even has a name…
https://www.facebook.com/attn/videos/1051065834928875/
How To Mansplain In 6 Easy
Steps – Kristy Sammis
• First: Call her by her first name.
• Next: State your opinion as fact.
• Third: Respond as though her facts are opinions.
• Fourth: Be sure to let her know what you think of her.
• Fifth: Make assumptions about her with impunity.
Especially about her age and experience.
– Use innuendo and flirtatious language to make sure she
knows you’d never let a thing like her being wrong get in the
way of your wanting to get in her pants.
• Lastly: If a woman calls you out for any of the above
behaviors, call her out for being overly sensitive.
How to bro-propriate
Far too many conferences feature
talks exclusively hosted by men.
• Just this past winter at the World Economic
Forum in Davos — the business world’s
super-fancy schmooze-fest in Switzerland —
a stunning 20 percent of the panels
were all-male.
• Women were almost entirely absent from the
panels this year at congressional hearings
discussing the U.S.-Iran deal, even though
women were key players in structuring the
deal, The Brookings Institution recently
noted.
And we end up with all-male
panels…
You too may have noted that too many pushing for an improvement. As business
(In)visibility of women at forums matters
Conferences and panels provide a platform to share
experiences and perspectives. When you limit the range
of perspectives, you limit the quality of the conversation.
- Simon Rothery, CEO, Goldman Sachs Australia
Where are the women?
Many high-profile conferences, events and taskforces lack
gender balance, despite there often being no shortage of
qualified women. It is estimated less than 15% of panellists in
Australia are women. Less than 12% of experts cited in business
newspapers are women. Such optics have consequences.
15%
of panellists in Australia are women
Consequences of
(in)visibility
The absence of women at public
professional forums is a problem.
Because speakers are usually
male, audiences are given a narrow
perspective. The lack of diversity limits
the quality of the conversation and
potential outcomes.
Moreover, when visible role models
are male, the absence of women
perpetuates absence of women. Fewer
women choose to speak, and fewer are
chosen.
Without the opportunity for women to
serve on panels as thought leaders,
women lack profile-building speaking
opportunities, an important contributor
to experience and recognition.
In the rare instances women do
present at events, entrenched gender
biases often surface, leading to
negative experiences for the presenter.
Women who speak up may encounter
derogatory comments or be perceived
as arrogant.
Apple’s Worldwide Developers
Conference
Source: www.feministe.us
What conference organizers answer
when asked for female speakers
Yet, The Odds That a Panel Would
'Randomly' Be All Men Are Astronomical
• One mathematician’s formula suggests that all-male lineups don’t “just
happen,” despite what conferenceorganizers might claim.
The gender gap in public
speaking is not random
• It is the consequence of internalized
cultural norms:
– Women’s lower encline to speak in public
and/or self promote.
– Men’s greater visibility towards public eye
– Conference organizers’ unconscious bias
Taking a stand on
visibility of women
at forums
You too may have noted that too many
panel appearances and speaking
engagements are offered to men.
Too few are offered to women. The
imbalance continues.
The Male Champions of Change,
Chief Executive Women and Women’s
Leadership Institute Australia are
committed to calling out imbalances and
pushing for an improvement. As business
leaders, we pledge that whenever we
are invited to be involved in or sponsor a
panel or conference, we will inquire about
organiser efforts to ensure women leaders
are represented. This “Panel Pledge”
is effective and simple to implement.
It serves as a reminder at an opportune
moment of influence.
Where are the women?
Many high-profile conferences, events and taskforces lack
gender balance, despite there often being no shortage of
qualified women. It is estimated less than 15% of panellists in
Australia are women. Less than 12% of experts cited in business
newspapers are women. Such optics have consequences.
15%
of panellists in Australia are women
Consequences of
(in)visibility
The absence of women at public
professional forums is a problem.
Because speakers are usually
male, audiences are given a narrow
perspective. The lack of diversity limits
the quality of the conversation and
potential outcomes.
Moreover, when visible role models
are male, the absence of women
perpetuates absence of women. Fewer
women choose to speak, and fewer are
chosen.
Without the opportunity for women to
serve on panels as thought leaders,
women lack profile-building speaking
opportunities, an important contributor
to experience and recognition.
In the rare instances women do
present at events, entrenched gender
biases often surface, leading to
negative experiences for the presenter.
Women who speak up may encounter
derogatory comments or be perceived
as arrogant.
Conferences are a business and the
social media backlash can be drastic
• Example of a tech conference in the US:
– It was pointed out on Twitter that the lineup so far
is white males.
– This became frenzied and shared with allegations
of racism/sexism.
– This put the sponsors in an awkward position
regarding commitment to the conference.
– This meant the venue contract couldn't be signed
because of a potential lack of financial security.
– Since the team can't be personally liable for the
costs, there was a hard decision to be made.
– That decision was: cancel.
And some websites start to
“make fun” of this situation
So what can you do?
The Women’s Leadership Institute in Australia put
together a handy toolkit for those who want to say no
The #Panel Pledge movement
started in Australia
• It’s easy! When you’re invited to participate on a
panel, ask the organizers who else is speaking.
• Tell them you’ve made a pledge to avoid all-male
panels and can’t speak if there are no women
going.
• Then suggest some women that might be great
for the event.
• Reserve the right to bail out at the last minute if
your requirements aren’t met.
• And speak up about the need for a diversity of
voices!
In Sweden and Norway, male speakers are now
refusing to participate in conferences and panel
discussions without female representation.
• 70- 80 percent of all the experts in media today
are men, and if we continue to organize all- male
panels and jurys we keep reproducing the image
of an expert as a man.
• Saying no to all-male panels is an easy way to let
more people contribute to a concrete change.
• The Norwegian initiator Benja Stig Fagerland,
Founder and CEO of Women Sp3akers, sees the
Say No campaign as part of a new, international
wave of feminism that is driven by social media.
If you attend a conference
• Leverage social
media!
• Point out gender
imbalances when you
see them
• #allmalepanels
If you are a conference organizer
• The ingredients are simple :
– Open an inviting call for presentations (CFP).
– Select talks anonymously, and state in the CFP
that you do so.
– Encourage people from under-represented
groups to submit to the CFP.
When President Obama held his last
news conference of 2014, he called on
eight reporters — all women.
• It made headlines worldwide. Had a
politician given only men a chance to ask
questions, it would not have been news; it
would have been a regular day.
Actively look for women
speakers
For women speakers: dare!
Join our speakers bureau!
Gender gap in public speaking

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Gender gap in public speaking

  • 1. Gender gap in public speaking @asalvaire
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Historically, women have been silenced
  • 5. Even if we are socialized to think women talk more
  • 6. Good girls are taught to be quiet and well behaved
  • 7. The silent sex: a 4,000-year campaign • Homer labeled speech as “the business of men” and Sophocles wrote that “silence is a woman’s garment” • The first laws to have come down to us included a speech code for women. The people responsible for these laws were the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, in now modern Iraq. • It says that a woman who speaks out of turn to a man will have her teeth smashed by a burnt brick.
  • 8. Suppressing of women’s voices is still part of everyday life • Male doctors invariably interrupt patients when they speak, especially female patients, but patients rarely interrupt doctors in return. Unless the doctor is a woman. • Parents interrupt girls twice as often and hold them to stricter politeness norms. • Teachers engage boys, who correctly see disruptive speech as a marker of dominant masculinity, more often and more dynamically than girls.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. On Twitter, people retweet men two times as often as women. • Social media is dominated by women, and Twitter is no exception, but it appears that when it comes to sharing information on our favourite micro-blogging network, men are far more likely to be retweeted than women.
  • 12. A new tool called Twee-Q (“Twitter Equality Quotient”) lets you scan the Twitter profile of any user to determine the frequency that they retweet men and women on the network. • Throughout Twitter, the results are both conclusive and pretty shocking – over more than 11,000 tests, and almost half a million retweets, men have been retweeted almost twice as often as women, with close to 63 percent of all retweets those of male users.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. The larger the group, the more likely men are to speak • Scholars at Brigham Young University and Princeton examined whether women speak less than men when a group collaborates to solve a problem. • In most groups that they studied, the time that women spoke was significantly less than their proportional representation – amounting to less than 75 percent of the time that men spoke.
  • 16. Having a seat at the table is not the same as having a voice http://arementalkingtoomuch.com/
  • 17. Authority and power are linked to male voices • A study by a Yale psychologist, Victoria L. Brescoll, found that male senators with more power (as measured by tenure, leadership positions and track record of legislation passed) spoke more on the Senate floor than their junior colleagues. • It is also clear that the more powerful men become, the more they speak. This would seem a natural correlation, but the same is not true for women. • But for female senators, power was not linked to significantly more speaking time.
  • 18. Male students tend towards greater talkativeness than female students • The male tendency to dominate in some classes did not surprise us, since talkativeness studies in general have concluded that men dominate mixed discussion groups everywhere -- both within the classroom and beyond. • What did surprise us was the degree to which male domination appeared to depend on gender demographics: when the teacher was male and the students in a particular class were predominantly male, then male students dominated the discussions. • In none of the demographic circumstances studied did women students talk as much as men.
  • 19. Women don’t dare to speak
  • 20.
  • 21. Why don't women talk as much as men? • Women's lower self-esteem translates in language patterns. • Women are verbally less assertive than men, in the sense that they are more likely to use hedges, qualifiers and questioning intonations. • Women use more phrases like “kind of,” “probably” or “maybe,” as well as more fillers like “um,” “ah” and “I mean.” • They also turn sentences into questions, seeking affirmation: “Isn’t it?”
  • 22.
  • 23. Women worry about “negative consequences” and backlash if they are more voluble • Powerful women are in fact correct in assuming that they will incur backlash as a result of talking more than others • Troublingly, the study found that their fears were well founded, as both male and female listeners were quick to think these women were talking too much, too aggressively. • In other words, men are rewarded for speaking, while women are punished.
  • 24. Another explanation is that women prove to be extremely vulnerable to interruption. • Numerous studies have demonstrated that in mixed-sex conversations, women are interrupted far more frequently than men are. By men AND by women. • Women’s "bursts" last only a few seconds, while male students typically kept on talking until they had finished. • Moreover, once interrupted, women sometimes stayed out of the discussion for the remainder of the conversation.
  • 25. “Interruptions can be used to display or gain dominance” • A man may be more likely to see conversation as “a competitive game while “the woman see discussions as being collaborative, hence expects and gives space for interruption.” • “Men are used to talking more in other contexts and women being in lower status positions and this bleeds into the meeting context.”
  • 26. And it even has a name…
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. How To Mansplain In 6 Easy Steps – Kristy Sammis • First: Call her by her first name. • Next: State your opinion as fact. • Third: Respond as though her facts are opinions. • Fourth: Be sure to let her know what you think of her. • Fifth: Make assumptions about her with impunity. Especially about her age and experience. – Use innuendo and flirtatious language to make sure she knows you’d never let a thing like her being wrong get in the way of your wanting to get in her pants. • Lastly: If a woman calls you out for any of the above behaviors, call her out for being overly sensitive.
  • 35. Far too many conferences feature talks exclusively hosted by men. • Just this past winter at the World Economic Forum in Davos — the business world’s super-fancy schmooze-fest in Switzerland — a stunning 20 percent of the panels were all-male. • Women were almost entirely absent from the panels this year at congressional hearings discussing the U.S.-Iran deal, even though women were key players in structuring the deal, The Brookings Institution recently noted.
  • 36. And we end up with all-male panels…
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  • 39.
  • 40. You too may have noted that too many pushing for an improvement. As business (In)visibility of women at forums matters Conferences and panels provide a platform to share experiences and perspectives. When you limit the range of perspectives, you limit the quality of the conversation. - Simon Rothery, CEO, Goldman Sachs Australia Where are the women? Many high-profile conferences, events and taskforces lack gender balance, despite there often being no shortage of qualified women. It is estimated less than 15% of panellists in Australia are women. Less than 12% of experts cited in business newspapers are women. Such optics have consequences. 15% of panellists in Australia are women Consequences of (in)visibility The absence of women at public professional forums is a problem. Because speakers are usually male, audiences are given a narrow perspective. The lack of diversity limits the quality of the conversation and potential outcomes. Moreover, when visible role models are male, the absence of women perpetuates absence of women. Fewer women choose to speak, and fewer are chosen. Without the opportunity for women to serve on panels as thought leaders, women lack profile-building speaking opportunities, an important contributor to experience and recognition. In the rare instances women do present at events, entrenched gender biases often surface, leading to negative experiences for the presenter. Women who speak up may encounter derogatory comments or be perceived as arrogant.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. Source: www.feministe.us What conference organizers answer when asked for female speakers
  • 45. Yet, The Odds That a Panel Would 'Randomly' Be All Men Are Astronomical • One mathematician’s formula suggests that all-male lineups don’t “just happen,” despite what conferenceorganizers might claim.
  • 46. The gender gap in public speaking is not random • It is the consequence of internalized cultural norms: – Women’s lower encline to speak in public and/or self promote. – Men’s greater visibility towards public eye – Conference organizers’ unconscious bias
  • 47. Taking a stand on visibility of women at forums You too may have noted that too many panel appearances and speaking engagements are offered to men. Too few are offered to women. The imbalance continues. The Male Champions of Change, Chief Executive Women and Women’s Leadership Institute Australia are committed to calling out imbalances and pushing for an improvement. As business leaders, we pledge that whenever we are invited to be involved in or sponsor a panel or conference, we will inquire about organiser efforts to ensure women leaders are represented. This “Panel Pledge” is effective and simple to implement. It serves as a reminder at an opportune moment of influence. Where are the women? Many high-profile conferences, events and taskforces lack gender balance, despite there often being no shortage of qualified women. It is estimated less than 15% of panellists in Australia are women. Less than 12% of experts cited in business newspapers are women. Such optics have consequences. 15% of panellists in Australia are women Consequences of (in)visibility The absence of women at public professional forums is a problem. Because speakers are usually male, audiences are given a narrow perspective. The lack of diversity limits the quality of the conversation and potential outcomes. Moreover, when visible role models are male, the absence of women perpetuates absence of women. Fewer women choose to speak, and fewer are chosen. Without the opportunity for women to serve on panels as thought leaders, women lack profile-building speaking opportunities, an important contributor to experience and recognition. In the rare instances women do present at events, entrenched gender biases often surface, leading to negative experiences for the presenter. Women who speak up may encounter derogatory comments or be perceived as arrogant.
  • 48. Conferences are a business and the social media backlash can be drastic • Example of a tech conference in the US: – It was pointed out on Twitter that the lineup so far is white males. – This became frenzied and shared with allegations of racism/sexism. – This put the sponsors in an awkward position regarding commitment to the conference. – This meant the venue contract couldn't be signed because of a potential lack of financial security. – Since the team can't be personally liable for the costs, there was a hard decision to be made. – That decision was: cancel.
  • 49. And some websites start to “make fun” of this situation
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  • 55. So what can you do?
  • 56. The Women’s Leadership Institute in Australia put together a handy toolkit for those who want to say no
  • 57. The #Panel Pledge movement started in Australia • It’s easy! When you’re invited to participate on a panel, ask the organizers who else is speaking. • Tell them you’ve made a pledge to avoid all-male panels and can’t speak if there are no women going. • Then suggest some women that might be great for the event. • Reserve the right to bail out at the last minute if your requirements aren’t met. • And speak up about the need for a diversity of voices!
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  • 60. In Sweden and Norway, male speakers are now refusing to participate in conferences and panel discussions without female representation. • 70- 80 percent of all the experts in media today are men, and if we continue to organize all- male panels and jurys we keep reproducing the image of an expert as a man. • Saying no to all-male panels is an easy way to let more people contribute to a concrete change. • The Norwegian initiator Benja Stig Fagerland, Founder and CEO of Women Sp3akers, sees the Say No campaign as part of a new, international wave of feminism that is driven by social media.
  • 61.
  • 62. If you attend a conference • Leverage social media! • Point out gender imbalances when you see them • #allmalepanels
  • 63. If you are a conference organizer • The ingredients are simple : – Open an inviting call for presentations (CFP). – Select talks anonymously, and state in the CFP that you do so. – Encourage people from under-represented groups to submit to the CFP.
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  • 65. When President Obama held his last news conference of 2014, he called on eight reporters — all women. • It made headlines worldwide. Had a politician given only men a chance to ask questions, it would not have been news; it would have been a regular day.
  • 66. Actively look for women speakers
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  • 70. Join our speakers bureau!