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THEORIES OF DISCRIMINATION:
CASTE AND GENDER
DISCRIMINATION IN INDIA
PRESENTED BY VANDANA SINGH
MA SECOND SEMESTER
SOCIAL SECTOR AND ENVIRONMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
VASANTA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
DISCRIMINATION
 Discrimination is the process of making unfair or prejudicial distinctions between
people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or
are perceived to belong, such as race, gender, age, religion, physical
attractiveness or sexual orientation.
 Discrimination typically leads to groups being unfairly treated on the basis of
perceived statuses based on ethnic, racial, gender or religious categories. It
involves depriving members of one group of opportunities or privileges that are
available to members of another group.
Types of Discrimination
 Ageism
 Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the
grounds of someone's age. it is a set of beliefs, norms, and values which used
to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person's age.[15] Ageism is
most often directed toward elderly people, or adolescents and children.
 Disability discrimination
 Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is
called ableism or disablism. Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled
individuals as the standard of 'normal living', results in public and private places
and services, educational settings, and social services that are built to serve
'standard' people, thereby excluding those with various disabilities. Studies
have shown that disabled people not only need employment in order to be
provided with the opportunity to earn a living but they also need employment in
order to sustain their mental health and well-being.
 Linguistic discrimination
 Linguistic discrimination is unfair treatment of people which is based on their
use of language and the characteristics of their speech, including their first
language, their accent, the perceived size of their vocabulary (whether or not
the speaker uses complex and varied words), their modality, and
their syntax.For example, an Occitan speaker in France will probably be treated
differently from a French speaker.[26] Based on a difference in use of language,
a person may automatically form judgments about another
person's wealth, education, social status, character or other traits, which may
lead to discrimination.
 Nationality
 Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment
laws(see above section for employment discrimination specifically). It is
sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination[40] although it
can be separate. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on
nationality, asking questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced
retirement, compensation and pay, etc., based on nationality.
 Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a "level of acceptance"
in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who
differ from the nationality of the majority of team members.[41]
 Caste
 According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination affects an
estimated 250 million people worldwide and is mainly prevalent in parts of Asia
(India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Japan) and Africa.As of 2011,
there were 200 million Dalits or Scheduled Castes (formerly known as
"untouchables") in India.
 Racial Discrimination
 Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real
and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of
the ethnic penalty. It can also refer to the belief that groups of humans possess
different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be
divided based on the superiority of one race over another.It may also
mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people
because they are of a different race or ethnicity.Modern variants of racism are
often based in social perceptions of biological differences between peoples.
These views can take the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political
systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to
each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or
qualities.[47][48][50] It has been official government policy in several countries,
such as South Africa during the apartheid era.
 Geographic discrimination
 Regional or geographic discrimination is a form of discrimination that is based on
the region in which a person lives or the region in which a person was born. It differs
from national discrimination because it may not be based on national borders or the
country in which the victim lives, instead, it is based on prejudices against a specific
region of one or more countries. Examples include discrimination against Chinese
people who were born in regions of the countryside that are far away from cities that
are located within China, and discrimination against Americans who are from
the southern or northern regions of the United States. It is often accompanied by
discrimination that is based on accent, dialect, or cultural differences.
 Religious Discrimination
 Religious discrimination is valuing or treating people or groups differently because of
what they do or do not believe in or because of their feelings towards a
given religion. For instance, the Jewish population of Germany, and indeed a large
portion of Europe, was subjected to discrimination under Adolf Hitler and his Nazi
party between 1933 and 1945. They were forced to live in ghettos, wear an
identifying star of David on their clothes, and sent to concentration and death camps
in rural Germany and Poland, where they were to be tortured and killed, all because
of their Jewish religion. Many laws (most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935)
separated those of Jewish faith as supposedly inferior to the Christian population.
 Gender Discrimination
 Sexism is a form of discrimination based on a person's sex or gender. It has
been linked to stereotypes and gender roles,[59][60] and may include the belief
that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another. Extreme sexism may
foster sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of sexual violence. Gender
discrimination may encompass sexism and is discrimination toward people
based on their gender identity[63] or their gender or sex differences.[64] Gender
discrimination is especially defined in terms of workplace inequality.[64] It may
arise from social or cultural customs and norms
Dealing with Discrimination
 Finding healthy ways to deal with discrimination is important, for your physical
health and your mental well-being.
 Focus on your strengths. Focusing on your core values, beliefs, and
perceived strengths can motivate people to succeed, and may even buffer the
negative effects of bias. Overcoming hardship can also make people more
resilient and better able to face future challenges.
 Seek support systems. One problem with discrimination is that people can
internalize others’ negative beliefs, even when they’re false. You may start to
believe you’re not good enough. But family and friends can remind you of your
worth and help you reframe those faulty beliefs.
 Family and friends can also help counteract the toll that microaggressions and
other examples of daily discrimination can take.
 Get involved. Support doesn’t have to come from people in your family or
circle of friends. You can get involved with like-minded groups and
organizations, whether locally or online. It can help to know there are other
people who have had similar experiences to yours. And connecting with those
people might help you figure out how to address situations and respond to
experiences of discrimination in ways you haven’t thought of.
 Don’t dwell. When you’ve experienced discrimination, it can be really hard to
just shake it off. People often get stuck on episodes of discrimination, in part
because they’re not sure how to handle those experiences. You might want to
speak out or complain, but you’re not sure how to go about it, or are afraid of
the backlash. So instead, you end up ruminating, or thinking over and over
about what you should have done.
 In a calmer moment, it might be helpful to talk over the ways you can cope with
similar experiences in the future. Try to come up with a plan for how you might
respond or what you could do differently next time. Once you’ve determined
how to respond, try to leave the incident behind you as you go on with your day.
 Seek professional help. Discrimination is difficult to deal with, and is often
associated with symptoms of depression. Psychologists are experts in helping
people manage symptoms of stress and depression, and can help you find
healthy ways to cope. You can find a psychologist in your area by using
APA’s Psychologist Locator Service.
 Help yourself think clearly. Being the target of discrimination can stir up a lot
of strong emotions including anger, sadness, and embarrassment. Such
experiences often trigger a physiological response, too; they can increase your
blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature.
Gender Discrimination in India:
A Persistent Barrier to
Progress
 Gender discrimination refers to the unequal treatment or opportunities of individuals
based on their gender. This can take many forms, including discrimination in the workplace,
in education, and in other areas of life. It can involve unequal pay, lack of access to
education or other resources, or being subjected to violence or harassment because of
one’s gender.
 Gender discrimination is a significant issue in India, and women in particular face
numerous forms of discrimination and inequality. Some specific examples of gender
discrimination in India include:
 Unequal pay: Women in India often earn less than men for doing the same work, and
they are also underrepresented in higher-paying jobs. According to the World Inequality
Report 2022, men in India earn 82% of the labour income while the share of women’s
earnings stands at a mere 18%.
 Lack of education: Girls in India often do not get the same education as boys, which
causes a big difference in literacy rates between men and women. In India, 187 million
women are illiterate, making up a third of all illiterate people in the world. There is a 24
percentage point difference in literacy rates between men and women in India: about 75%
of men are literate,
while only 51% of women are literate.
 Violence against women: Violence against women is a major problem in India. According
to the National Crime Records Bureau, there were over 371 503 reported cases of
violence against women in India in 2020. This includes cases of sexual assault, domestic
violence, and other forms of abuse. The actual number of cases is likely much higher, as
many incidents of violence against women go unreported. One reason for this is that there
is often a strong cultural stigma attached to women who have been victims of violence,
which can discourage them from speaking out or seeking help.
 Health care discrimination: Health care discrimination is a serious issue that affects many
women in India. Women may have difficulty accessing quality health care due to a number
of factors, including poverty, lack of education, and lack of access to transportation. In
addition, women in India are often more likely to experience discrimination and
mistreatment when seeking medical treatment, which can further discourage them from
seeking the care they need.
 Restrictions on women’s freedom: Women in India face numerous restrictions on
their freedom. This can include societal norms and expectations that limit their choices
and opportunities, as well as legal barriers that discriminate against them. These
restrictions can make it difficult for women to participate fully in society and make their
own decisions. It is important for the government and society to address these issues and
work towards equality and inclusion for women. This can include implementing laws and
policies to protect women’s rights, as well as changing cultural attitude.
CLOUDIA GOLDINE : NOBLE PRIZE WINNER OF 2023
GENDER GAP AT WORK PLACE
 Her book Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American
Women (1990) told the story of women's employment in the U.S. from the
late eighteenth century to the late twentieth century.
 She said at a press conference at Harvard that women had throughout history
often been "hidden from view and uncompensated" for doing the same labour
that men were paid for.
 "They have over time left that arena of home or family farm or family
business and moved to the broader arena of market production," she said.
"They've become workers, they've begun earning a living for themselves and
for their families. Their lives have greatly changed, but the labour market
and the policies of governments are often slower to respond."
 Discrimination in choosing subject in school
 Discrimination in choosing career in various field eg. Less women go for
career in science and technology
 In medical field girls are more inclined to be gynecologist rather than
surgeon.
 SDG Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all
women and girls. Gender equality is not only a fundamental human
right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable
world. There has been progress over the last decades, but the world is not on
track to achieve gender equality by 2030.
 What the law says about caste discrimination?
 According to article 14 of the Indian constitution, the state shall not deny
equality to any person before the law or the equal protection of the laws within
the territory of India. Article 15 prohibits the state from discriminating any citizen
on ground of any religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
 Article 17 states that untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form
is forbidden. The ‘Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955’ was the first Indian law
that came into force to provide punishment for the preaching and practice of
‘Untouchability’ and for any mater connected with it.
 VICIOUS CASTE CYCLE IN EDUCATION
While the Right to Education Act guarantees education for students aged 6 to 14, the
quality of that education is usually determined by caste. Students that belong to lower
castes receive poor quality and inadequate education in schools that lack basic facilities.
facilities. This makes it difficult for them to cope at higher levels of education.
Ostensibly fair systems such as entrance tests don’t take into account existing disparities
disparities that prevent poor lower-caste students from attending coaching classes,
studying without frequent interruptions, and preparing adequately for these tests.
 According to data by the education ministry,
 presented in 2019 in Lok Sabha, out of 6,043 faculty
members at the 23 IITs, only 149 were SCs and 21 were STs-
accounting for less than 3% of the total faculty members.
Similarly, out of the 642 faculty members across 13 Indian
Institute of Management (IIM’s), only four belong to SC and
one faculty member belongs to ST.
 Impact of Caste System Discrimination on Individuals and Communities
 For someone living within it, a caste system can restrict education,
occupation, and the ability to practice one’s religion. It may also hinder
whom a person can eat with, live with, or marry. Practically, at the
community level, this means caste can fuel inequality, as the system allows
for the control of resources by a few castes.7
 There is a strong gender element to the ramifications of caste as well. For
example, women who belong to a “scheduled caste”—one that falls lower in
the hierarchy—suffer higher incidents of domestic violence, according to a
study in the National Library of Medicine.
THANKYOU…

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Gender and caste discrimination in india

  • 1. THEORIES OF DISCRIMINATION: CASTE AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN INDIA PRESENTED BY VANDANA SINGH MA SECOND SEMESTER SOCIAL SECTOR AND ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS VASANTA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
  • 2. DISCRIMINATION  Discrimination is the process of making unfair or prejudicial distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong, such as race, gender, age, religion, physical attractiveness or sexual orientation.  Discrimination typically leads to groups being unfairly treated on the basis of perceived statuses based on ethnic, racial, gender or religious categories. It involves depriving members of one group of opportunities or privileges that are available to members of another group.
  • 3. Types of Discrimination  Ageism  Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone's age. it is a set of beliefs, norms, and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person's age.[15] Ageism is most often directed toward elderly people, or adolescents and children.  Disability discrimination  Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism. Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of 'normal living', results in public and private places and services, educational settings, and social services that are built to serve 'standard' people, thereby excluding those with various disabilities. Studies have shown that disabled people not only need employment in order to be provided with the opportunity to earn a living but they also need employment in order to sustain their mental health and well-being.
  • 4.  Linguistic discrimination  Linguistic discrimination is unfair treatment of people which is based on their use of language and the characteristics of their speech, including their first language, their accent, the perceived size of their vocabulary (whether or not the speaker uses complex and varied words), their modality, and their syntax.For example, an Occitan speaker in France will probably be treated differently from a French speaker.[26] Based on a difference in use of language, a person may automatically form judgments about another person's wealth, education, social status, character or other traits, which may lead to discrimination.  Nationality  Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment laws(see above section for employment discrimination specifically). It is sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination[40] although it can be separate. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality, asking questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced retirement, compensation and pay, etc., based on nationality.  Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a "level of acceptance" in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team members.[41]
  • 5.  Caste  According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide and is mainly prevalent in parts of Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Japan) and Africa.As of 2011, there were 200 million Dalits or Scheduled Castes (formerly known as "untouchables") in India.  Racial Discrimination  Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of the ethnic penalty. It can also refer to the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another.It may also mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity.Modern variants of racism are often based in social perceptions of biological differences between peoples. These views can take the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities.[47][48][50] It has been official government policy in several countries, such as South Africa during the apartheid era.
  • 6.  Geographic discrimination  Regional or geographic discrimination is a form of discrimination that is based on the region in which a person lives or the region in which a person was born. It differs from national discrimination because it may not be based on national borders or the country in which the victim lives, instead, it is based on prejudices against a specific region of one or more countries. Examples include discrimination against Chinese people who were born in regions of the countryside that are far away from cities that are located within China, and discrimination against Americans who are from the southern or northern regions of the United States. It is often accompanied by discrimination that is based on accent, dialect, or cultural differences.  Religious Discrimination  Religious discrimination is valuing or treating people or groups differently because of what they do or do not believe in or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the Jewish population of Germany, and indeed a large portion of Europe, was subjected to discrimination under Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party between 1933 and 1945. They were forced to live in ghettos, wear an identifying star of David on their clothes, and sent to concentration and death camps in rural Germany and Poland, where they were to be tortured and killed, all because of their Jewish religion. Many laws (most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935) separated those of Jewish faith as supposedly inferior to the Christian population.
  • 7.  Gender Discrimination  Sexism is a form of discrimination based on a person's sex or gender. It has been linked to stereotypes and gender roles,[59][60] and may include the belief that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another. Extreme sexism may foster sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of sexual violence. Gender discrimination may encompass sexism and is discrimination toward people based on their gender identity[63] or their gender or sex differences.[64] Gender discrimination is especially defined in terms of workplace inequality.[64] It may arise from social or cultural customs and norms
  • 8. Dealing with Discrimination  Finding healthy ways to deal with discrimination is important, for your physical health and your mental well-being.  Focus on your strengths. Focusing on your core values, beliefs, and perceived strengths can motivate people to succeed, and may even buffer the negative effects of bias. Overcoming hardship can also make people more resilient and better able to face future challenges.  Seek support systems. One problem with discrimination is that people can internalize others’ negative beliefs, even when they’re false. You may start to believe you’re not good enough. But family and friends can remind you of your worth and help you reframe those faulty beliefs.  Family and friends can also help counteract the toll that microaggressions and other examples of daily discrimination can take.  Get involved. Support doesn’t have to come from people in your family or circle of friends. You can get involved with like-minded groups and organizations, whether locally or online. It can help to know there are other people who have had similar experiences to yours. And connecting with those people might help you figure out how to address situations and respond to experiences of discrimination in ways you haven’t thought of.
  • 9.  Don’t dwell. When you’ve experienced discrimination, it can be really hard to just shake it off. People often get stuck on episodes of discrimination, in part because they’re not sure how to handle those experiences. You might want to speak out or complain, but you’re not sure how to go about it, or are afraid of the backlash. So instead, you end up ruminating, or thinking over and over about what you should have done.  In a calmer moment, it might be helpful to talk over the ways you can cope with similar experiences in the future. Try to come up with a plan for how you might respond or what you could do differently next time. Once you’ve determined how to respond, try to leave the incident behind you as you go on with your day.  Seek professional help. Discrimination is difficult to deal with, and is often associated with symptoms of depression. Psychologists are experts in helping people manage symptoms of stress and depression, and can help you find healthy ways to cope. You can find a psychologist in your area by using APA’s Psychologist Locator Service.  Help yourself think clearly. Being the target of discrimination can stir up a lot of strong emotions including anger, sadness, and embarrassment. Such experiences often trigger a physiological response, too; they can increase your blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature.
  • 10. Gender Discrimination in India: A Persistent Barrier to Progress  Gender discrimination refers to the unequal treatment or opportunities of individuals based on their gender. This can take many forms, including discrimination in the workplace, in education, and in other areas of life. It can involve unequal pay, lack of access to education or other resources, or being subjected to violence or harassment because of one’s gender.  Gender discrimination is a significant issue in India, and women in particular face numerous forms of discrimination and inequality. Some specific examples of gender discrimination in India include:  Unequal pay: Women in India often earn less than men for doing the same work, and they are also underrepresented in higher-paying jobs. According to the World Inequality Report 2022, men in India earn 82% of the labour income while the share of women’s earnings stands at a mere 18%.  Lack of education: Girls in India often do not get the same education as boys, which causes a big difference in literacy rates between men and women. In India, 187 million women are illiterate, making up a third of all illiterate people in the world. There is a 24 percentage point difference in literacy rates between men and women in India: about 75% of men are literate, while only 51% of women are literate.
  • 11.  Violence against women: Violence against women is a major problem in India. According to the National Crime Records Bureau, there were over 371 503 reported cases of violence against women in India in 2020. This includes cases of sexual assault, domestic violence, and other forms of abuse. The actual number of cases is likely much higher, as many incidents of violence against women go unreported. One reason for this is that there is often a strong cultural stigma attached to women who have been victims of violence, which can discourage them from speaking out or seeking help.  Health care discrimination: Health care discrimination is a serious issue that affects many women in India. Women may have difficulty accessing quality health care due to a number of factors, including poverty, lack of education, and lack of access to transportation. In addition, women in India are often more likely to experience discrimination and mistreatment when seeking medical treatment, which can further discourage them from seeking the care they need.  Restrictions on women’s freedom: Women in India face numerous restrictions on their freedom. This can include societal norms and expectations that limit their choices and opportunities, as well as legal barriers that discriminate against them. These restrictions can make it difficult for women to participate fully in society and make their own decisions. It is important for the government and society to address these issues and work towards equality and inclusion for women. This can include implementing laws and policies to protect women’s rights, as well as changing cultural attitude.
  • 12. CLOUDIA GOLDINE : NOBLE PRIZE WINNER OF 2023 GENDER GAP AT WORK PLACE  Her book Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women (1990) told the story of women's employment in the U.S. from the late eighteenth century to the late twentieth century.  She said at a press conference at Harvard that women had throughout history often been "hidden from view and uncompensated" for doing the same labour that men were paid for.  "They have over time left that arena of home or family farm or family business and moved to the broader arena of market production," she said. "They've become workers, they've begun earning a living for themselves and for their families. Their lives have greatly changed, but the labour market and the policies of governments are often slower to respond."
  • 13.  Discrimination in choosing subject in school  Discrimination in choosing career in various field eg. Less women go for career in science and technology  In medical field girls are more inclined to be gynecologist rather than surgeon.  SDG Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. There has been progress over the last decades, but the world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030.
  • 14.  What the law says about caste discrimination?  According to article 14 of the Indian constitution, the state shall not deny equality to any person before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Article 15 prohibits the state from discriminating any citizen on ground of any religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.  Article 17 states that untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The ‘Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955’ was the first Indian law that came into force to provide punishment for the preaching and practice of ‘Untouchability’ and for any mater connected with it.  VICIOUS CASTE CYCLE IN EDUCATION While the Right to Education Act guarantees education for students aged 6 to 14, the quality of that education is usually determined by caste. Students that belong to lower castes receive poor quality and inadequate education in schools that lack basic facilities. facilities. This makes it difficult for them to cope at higher levels of education. Ostensibly fair systems such as entrance tests don’t take into account existing disparities disparities that prevent poor lower-caste students from attending coaching classes, studying without frequent interruptions, and preparing adequately for these tests.
  • 15.  According to data by the education ministry,  presented in 2019 in Lok Sabha, out of 6,043 faculty members at the 23 IITs, only 149 were SCs and 21 were STs- accounting for less than 3% of the total faculty members. Similarly, out of the 642 faculty members across 13 Indian Institute of Management (IIM’s), only four belong to SC and one faculty member belongs to ST.  Impact of Caste System Discrimination on Individuals and Communities  For someone living within it, a caste system can restrict education, occupation, and the ability to practice one’s religion. It may also hinder whom a person can eat with, live with, or marry. Practically, at the community level, this means caste can fuel inequality, as the system allows for the control of resources by a few castes.7  There is a strong gender element to the ramifications of caste as well. For example, women who belong to a “scheduled caste”—one that falls lower in the hierarchy—suffer higher incidents of domestic violence, according to a study in the National Library of Medicine.