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Reduzindo os custos da manutenção e
  aumentando os ganhos da produtividade no
     segmento de O&G pela galvanização

Reducing the costs of maintaining and increasing
 the productivity gains in the segment of oil and
                gas by galvanizing

                Frank E Goodwin
                      IZA
The O&G Challenges


• Provide durable
  corrosion protection
  with manageable
  maintenance costs
• Minimize production-
  related costs
  (downtime)
• Minimize safety and
  environmental issues   Petrobras Paulínia
                         (SP) Replan refinery
                         The largest in Brazil,
                         365,000 bpd
Risk of corrosion damage



•   Need to predict performance of
    the corrosion protection system
•   Need to predict performance
    and behavior of the structure
    being protected
•   In theory, most corrosion
    protection systems can be
    maintained during service
•   In practice, corrosion protection
    maintenance is often highly
    problematical
                                        Petrobras XXIII
                                        dynamic positioned deep
                                        water-drilling platform
Unpainted Galvanized
                                      Coating Service Life
                                          (5% Rust)
                           Relationship between coating thickness and life

                      90
                      80                                                rural inland, C2
service life, years




                      70
                      60                                                urban inland/mild coastal,
                      50                                                C3
                      40                                                industrial inland/urban
                      30                                                coastal, C4
                      20                                                polluted industrial/coastal,
                      10                                                C5
                       0
                           0   10   20    30   40   50   60   70   80
                                         thickness, um
Layered Structure of
                Galvanized Coatings
                                       Eta Layer
                                       Relatively pure zinc outer layer

                                       Zeta Layer
                                       Zinc-Iron Alloy Layer: 5.8-6.2% Zinc

                                       Delta Layer
                                       Zinc-Iron Alloy Layer: 7-12% Zinc

     85-250µm                          Gamma Layer
                                       Thin molecular layer: 21-26% Zinc

                                       Base Steel



Key Factors

•   Metallurgical (diffusion) bond at Steel-Coating interface
•   Hardness of alloy layers significantly greater than base steel
•   Cathodic protection at defects in coating
•   Thickness at edges greater than at surface
                                                                              5
Corrosion rates for Zn based
                               upon atmospheric conditions
                               as defined by ISO 9223
Class   Description                      Corrosion rate   Corrosion      Life of        Life of
                                         (1st year for    rate (steady   coating,       coating,
                                         Zn g/m2 year)    state for Zn   thickness      thickness
                                                          µm/y)          55μm           100μm


 C1     Interior: dry                        ≤ 0.7           ≤ 0.05      100 yrs+       100 yrs+
 C2     Interior: occasional                0.7 – 5        0.05 – 0.5    80 – 100 yrs   100+
             condensation
        Exterior: exposed rural
             inland


 C3     Interior: high humidity,             5 – 15          0.5 - 2     25 – 80 yrs    50 – 100 yrs
             some air pollution
        Exterior: urban inland or
             mild coastal


 C4     Interior: swimming pools,           15 – 30           2-4        12 – 25 yrs    25 – 50 yrs
             chemical plant, etc.
        Exterior: industrial inland or
             urban coastal



 C5     Exterior: industrial with high      30 - 60          4 - 10      7 – 12 yrs     12 – 25 yrs
             humidity or high
             salinity coastal
Typical Life Cycle Costs

                 11000


                 10000

                  9000
(Present Value




                 8000
                                                       Painted Steel
 Costs per Ton




                 7000
    Index)




                 6000                                                       ∆LCC
                                                                            (/Year)
                 5000

                 4000
                                                Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel
                 3000

                 2000

                 1000


                         0      5     10       15         20           25


                                      Service Period
                                         (Years)
Probability of Steel Failure

                  1.0
Definite

Almost Certain
                  0.9

Highly Probable
                  0.8
Good Chance

Likely            0.7
                        Liability?
Quite Likely                                  Painted Steel (no maintenance)
                  0.6
Probable

Possible          0.5
Improbable
                          Asset
                  0.4
Unlikely
                                               Painted Steel (with maintenance)
Highly Unlikely
                  0.3
Seldom
                  0.2
 Rare
                                                       Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel)
 Impossible       0.1
Probability of
Steel Failure       0
                                     5   10            15           20             25

                                         Service Period
                                            (Years)

                                                                                        8
What is a DUPLEX Coating?


• HDG as a firm base - HDG is an ideal primer
  for paint providing

  - Barrier Protection

  - Sacrificial Protection

• Top Paint Coating

  - Barrier Protection

  - Aesthetics & Color


                             “W” Tower, Vancouver Canada
How does a Duplex System Work?


• Zn products of Corrosion (WHITE) far less
  massive than RED Rust (Fe)
• Blistering (corrosion creep) of paint therefore
  far less than when it is direct onto steel
• Zinc products of corrosion tend to seal the
  pores in the top paint coating
Results in the “Synergistic effect”,
              which is:
Duplex Service Life = Factor x (Zn Life + Paint Life)


 e.g. Service Life = 1.5 x (9 years + 5 years)
                             = 21 years to 5% rust

            Synergistic factors
       Industrial/Marine      1.8 to 2.0
       Sea water (immersion) 1.5 to 1.6
       Non-aggressive climate 2.0 to 2.7
The main job of Zn in
painted duplex coatings
 is to protect the paint
after the paint has failed

   Acrylic painted
   galvanized steel - panel
   scribed through to steel
   substrate and salt spray
   tested


    Acrylic painted steel -
    panel scribed through
    to steel substrate and
    salt spray tested
Atmospheric corrosive
                         environments classified in terms
                                  of ISO 9223

Class   Description                         Corrosion   Typical life yrs   Typical life in   Typical life in yrs
                                            rate (av.       to 1ST         yrs to 1ST        of a DUPLEX
                                            loss for     Maintenance       Maintenance       System
                                            Zn µm/y)
                                                        (Z275 ±20µm)       (85µm Zn in
                                                                           HDG)
C1      Interior: dry                       ≤ 0.05      200                >200+             Not
                                                                                             Required
C2      Interior: occasional condensation   0.05 to     40 to 200          >170              Not
        Exterior: exposed rural inland      0.5                                              Required
C3      Interior: swimming pools,           0.5 to 2    5 to 10            21 to 42          Not
        chemical plant, etc.                                                                 Required
        Exterior: industrial inland or
        urban coastal
C4      Interior: swimming pools,           2 to 4      5 to 10            21 to 42          42 to 84
        chemical plant, etc.
        Exterior: industrial inland or
        urban coastal
C5      Exterior: industrial with high      4 to 10     3 to 5             10 to 21          18 to 37
        humidity or high salinity coastal
Gb2011 frank e.goodwin_iza
* S e le c t a n IS O 1 2 9 4 4 c o m p lia nt s ys te m
                                                                                                                                                                                                            E N IS O 1 2 9 4 4 -5 : 1 9 9 8
      T a b le A 9 : P a in t s y s te m s c o rro s iv ity c a te g o rie s C 2 to C 5 -I a n d C 5 -M
                             S u b s tra te : H o t-d ip -g a lv a n iz e d s te e l¹)

     T h e p a in t s y ste m s g ive n in th e fo llo w in g ta b le a re o n ly e x am p le s ,. O th e r p a in t s ys te m s h a v in g th e s a m e p e rfo rm a n c e
     a re p o s s ib le .
     If th e s e e x am p le s a re u s e d , it s h a ll b e e n s u re d th a t th e p a in t s ys te m s c h o s e n c o m p ly w ith th e in d ic a te d d u ra b ility w h e n e xe c u t



       Paint                        Priming coat(s)                       Top coat(s)) including                                  Paint system                                                  Expected durability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2)6)

     System                                                                intermediate coat(s))                                                                                             (see 5.5 and ISO 12944-1)
         No
                        Binder 5)         Number of   NDFT
                                                                 3)
                                                                      Binder 5)            Number of            NDFT 3)                     Total NDFT 3)                       C2           C3                    C4                   C5-I              C5-M
                                             coats       µm                                   coats                 µm                                  µm
                                                                                                                                                                            L   M    H   L   M      H       L       M       H   L        M      H   H        L     H

          S9.01                                   -          -                                   1                 80            1                      80

          S9.02                                   1      40                                      1                 80            2                     120
                           PVC                                           PVC
          S9.03                                   1      80                                      1                 80            2                     160

          S9.04                                   1      80                                      2                 160           3                    240

          S9.05                                   -          -                                   1                 80            1                      80

          S9.06                                   1      40                                      1                 80            2                     120                  -
                            AY                                            AY
          S9.07                                   1      80                                      1                 80            2                     160

          S9.08                                   1      80                                      2                 160           3                    240

          S9.09                                   -          -                                   1                 80            1                      80

          S9.10                                   1      40                                      1                 80            2                     120
                            EP                                            EP
          S9.11             or                    1      80               or                     1                 80            2                     160
                           PUR                                          PUR       4)

          S9.12                                   1      80                                      2                 160           3                    240

          S9.13                                   1      80                                    2-3                 240          3-4                   320
     Binders for priming coat(s)                                         Paints (liquid)                                                          Binders for top coat(s)                                 Paints (liquid)

                                                      No of components                                 Water                                                                                              No. of components                               Water
                                                                                                       borne                                                                                                                                              borne
                                                       1-pack           2-pack                       possible                                                                                                    1-pack                2-pack           possible
     PVC               = Polyvinyl chloride               x                                                               PVC         = Polyvinyl chloride
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     x
     AY                = Acrylic                          x                                               x               AY          = Acrylic                                                                                                              x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     x
     EP                = Epoxy                                              x                             x               EP          = Epoxy                                                                                                                x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          x
     PUR               = Polyurethane                                       x                                             PUR         = Polyurethane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     x                    x



1)   T h e m e c h a n ic a l o r c h e m ic a l s u rfa c e p re p a ra tio n re rq u ire d is d e s c rib e d in IS O 1 2 9 4 4 -4 .
2)   T h e d u ra b ility is in th is c a s e re la te d to th e p a in t s ys te m a d h e s io n to th e h o t-d ip -g a lva n iz ed s u rfa c e .
3)   N D FT = N o m in a l D ry F ilm T h ic k n e s s . S e e 5 .4 fo r fu rth e r d e ta ils .
4)   If c o lo u r a n d g lo s s re te n tio n is re q u ire d , it is re c o m m e n d e d th a t th e la s t c o a t s h o u ld b e b a s e d o n a lip h a tic P U R .
5)   F o r e x pla n a tio n o f a b b re v ia tio n s , s e e fo o t o f ta b le
6)   L ig h t g re y s h a d in g in d ic a te s th a t th e p a in t s y ste m s c o n c e rn e d w o u ld n o t n o rm a lly b e u s e d fo r th e s e c o rro s iv ity c a te g o rie s .
     T h e y a re n o t lis te d in ta b le A.2 a n d /o r A.3 .
O&G Applications in
                    Petrochemical Plants-1
Ambient temperature Ducts        Dutos de temperatura ambiente
Anchor Bolts                     Parafusos de âncora
Beams                            Vigas
Belt Guards                      Cinto Guarda
Cathodic protection rectifiers   Proteção catódica retificadores
Catwalks                         Desfiles
Checker Plate                    Padronizada Placa
Co-generation Equipment          Equipamentos de cogeração
Columns                          Colunas
Conveyor Systems                 Sistemas de transporte
Cooling tower Structure          Estrutura da torre de resfriamento
Crane Supports                   Suporta guindaste
Cross bracing                    Cruz órtese
Decks                            Plataformas
Drain Pipes                      Tubos de drenagem
Drive Piling                     Driven empilhando
Electrical Conduits              Condutas elétrica
Electrical Cable Ducts           Dutos cabo elétrico
Embedded Items                   Itens incorporados
O&G Applications in
             Petrochemical Plants-2
Equipment Screens              Telas de equipamentos
Equipment Guards               Equipamentos Guarda
Fasteners                      Fixadores
Fencing                        Esgrima
Fire extinguishing Equipment   Equipamento de incêndio
Flare Towers                   Torres incendiar
Flat Plates                    Placas planas
Girts                          Girts
Gratings                       Grades
Handrail                       Corrimão
Heat exchanger Tubing          Tubulação trocador de calor
Ladders                        Escadas
Marine Terminal Structures      Estruturas Terminal Marítimo
Offshore Structures            Estruturas Offshore
Outside Switchgear             Fora Comutadores
Frames                         Frames
Pipe Ways                      Maneiras pipe
Pipe Supports                  Suporta tubulação
Pipe Racks                     Racks tubo
Pipe Bridges                   Tubo de Pontes
O&G Applications in
                    Petrochemical Plants-3

Platforms                        Plataformas
Precipitator Structures          Estruturas precipitador
Prefabricated Buildings          Edifícios pré-fabricados
Process Piping                   Tubulação de Processo
Process Equipment                Equipamentos de processo
Skids                            Skids
Process Vessels                  Vasos processo
Purlins                          Terças
Railings                         Trilhos
Safety Equipment                 Equipamento de segurança
Sag Rods                         Sag Rods
Scuppers                         Embornais
Stairways                        Escadas
Stringers                        Longarinas
Transmission Poles               Pólos de transmissão
Walkways                         Passarelas
Wastewater Treatment Equipment   Equipamento do tratamento de águas
                                 residuais
Cape Town petrochemical
 plant cable ladders and
       trays survey

          Coating thickness still
          exceeds 55µm initial
          thickness requirement
          after 25 years!
          Corrosion severity=C4
Hydrocarbon Storage
                Facility, Port Boynton,
                   South Australia
•Allowed fast-tracking of construction
because of damage resistance of HDG

•800 tons of HDG used in pipe racks
alone




All-HDG
Compressor
House
Shell Oil Corio Bay Refinery
         Geelong, Vic. Australia




 Built 1954: All Structural Steelwork is now HDG




HDG pipe bridge       Galvanized sheet covering insulated pipes
•Shell used 2500 tons of
structural steel in this Corio Long
Residue Catalytic Cracking Unit
after having had experience of
15 years with NO maintenance
at the No. 4 Distiller

• Measurements showed another
30 years maintenance free life is
possible (70 µm Zn remaining)
Formosa Plastics Naptha
                    Cracking Plant

                                                        Severity >>ISO C5!




This industry development zone used
300 000 tons of galvanized steel including Deep-water
Port, Refinery, Co-gen plant…….
Ampol
    Petroleum                      Refineries Ltd.
resources Australia                New Reformer
IsomerisationUnit,
                                   Unit, Brisbane
   Adelaide, SA                   65m high structure all HDG
 10,000 bpd of high octane fuel
 Required 130 tons of HDG
Galvanized steel
chosen due to:
•Schedules
•Quality
•Project controls
•Contract Coordination
•Risk reduction
•Benefits during operation

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Gb2011 frank e.goodwin_iza

  • 1. Reduzindo os custos da manutenção e aumentando os ganhos da produtividade no segmento de O&G pela galvanização Reducing the costs of maintaining and increasing the productivity gains in the segment of oil and gas by galvanizing Frank E Goodwin IZA
  • 2. The O&G Challenges • Provide durable corrosion protection with manageable maintenance costs • Minimize production- related costs (downtime) • Minimize safety and environmental issues Petrobras Paulínia (SP) Replan refinery The largest in Brazil, 365,000 bpd
  • 3. Risk of corrosion damage • Need to predict performance of the corrosion protection system • Need to predict performance and behavior of the structure being protected • In theory, most corrosion protection systems can be maintained during service • In practice, corrosion protection maintenance is often highly problematical Petrobras XXIII dynamic positioned deep water-drilling platform
  • 4. Unpainted Galvanized Coating Service Life (5% Rust) Relationship between coating thickness and life 90 80 rural inland, C2 service life, years 70 60 urban inland/mild coastal, 50 C3 40 industrial inland/urban 30 coastal, C4 20 polluted industrial/coastal, 10 C5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 thickness, um
  • 5. Layered Structure of Galvanized Coatings Eta Layer Relatively pure zinc outer layer Zeta Layer Zinc-Iron Alloy Layer: 5.8-6.2% Zinc Delta Layer Zinc-Iron Alloy Layer: 7-12% Zinc 85-250µm Gamma Layer Thin molecular layer: 21-26% Zinc Base Steel Key Factors • Metallurgical (diffusion) bond at Steel-Coating interface • Hardness of alloy layers significantly greater than base steel • Cathodic protection at defects in coating • Thickness at edges greater than at surface 5
  • 6. Corrosion rates for Zn based upon atmospheric conditions as defined by ISO 9223 Class Description Corrosion rate Corrosion Life of Life of (1st year for rate (steady coating, coating, Zn g/m2 year) state for Zn thickness thickness µm/y) 55μm 100μm C1 Interior: dry ≤ 0.7 ≤ 0.05 100 yrs+ 100 yrs+ C2 Interior: occasional 0.7 – 5 0.05 – 0.5 80 – 100 yrs 100+ condensation Exterior: exposed rural inland C3 Interior: high humidity, 5 – 15 0.5 - 2 25 – 80 yrs 50 – 100 yrs some air pollution Exterior: urban inland or mild coastal C4 Interior: swimming pools, 15 – 30 2-4 12 – 25 yrs 25 – 50 yrs chemical plant, etc. Exterior: industrial inland or urban coastal C5 Exterior: industrial with high 30 - 60 4 - 10 7 – 12 yrs 12 – 25 yrs humidity or high salinity coastal
  • 7. Typical Life Cycle Costs 11000 10000 9000 (Present Value 8000 Painted Steel Costs per Ton 7000 Index) 6000 ∆LCC (/Year) 5000 4000 Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel 3000 2000 1000 0 5 10 15 20 25 Service Period (Years)
  • 8. Probability of Steel Failure 1.0 Definite Almost Certain 0.9 Highly Probable 0.8 Good Chance Likely 0.7 Liability? Quite Likely Painted Steel (no maintenance) 0.6 Probable Possible 0.5 Improbable Asset 0.4 Unlikely Painted Steel (with maintenance) Highly Unlikely 0.3 Seldom 0.2 Rare Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel) Impossible 0.1 Probability of Steel Failure 0 5 10 15 20 25 Service Period (Years) 8
  • 9. What is a DUPLEX Coating? • HDG as a firm base - HDG is an ideal primer for paint providing - Barrier Protection - Sacrificial Protection • Top Paint Coating - Barrier Protection - Aesthetics & Color “W” Tower, Vancouver Canada
  • 10. How does a Duplex System Work? • Zn products of Corrosion (WHITE) far less massive than RED Rust (Fe) • Blistering (corrosion creep) of paint therefore far less than when it is direct onto steel • Zinc products of corrosion tend to seal the pores in the top paint coating
  • 11. Results in the “Synergistic effect”, which is: Duplex Service Life = Factor x (Zn Life + Paint Life) e.g. Service Life = 1.5 x (9 years + 5 years) = 21 years to 5% rust Synergistic factors Industrial/Marine 1.8 to 2.0 Sea water (immersion) 1.5 to 1.6 Non-aggressive climate 2.0 to 2.7
  • 12. The main job of Zn in painted duplex coatings is to protect the paint after the paint has failed Acrylic painted galvanized steel - panel scribed through to steel substrate and salt spray tested Acrylic painted steel - panel scribed through to steel substrate and salt spray tested
  • 13. Atmospheric corrosive environments classified in terms of ISO 9223 Class Description Corrosion Typical life yrs Typical life in Typical life in yrs rate (av. to 1ST yrs to 1ST of a DUPLEX loss for Maintenance Maintenance System Zn µm/y) (Z275 ±20µm) (85µm Zn in HDG) C1 Interior: dry ≤ 0.05 200 >200+ Not Required C2 Interior: occasional condensation 0.05 to 40 to 200 >170 Not Exterior: exposed rural inland 0.5 Required C3 Interior: swimming pools, 0.5 to 2 5 to 10 21 to 42 Not chemical plant, etc. Required Exterior: industrial inland or urban coastal C4 Interior: swimming pools, 2 to 4 5 to 10 21 to 42 42 to 84 chemical plant, etc. Exterior: industrial inland or urban coastal C5 Exterior: industrial with high 4 to 10 3 to 5 10 to 21 18 to 37 humidity or high salinity coastal
  • 15. * S e le c t a n IS O 1 2 9 4 4 c o m p lia nt s ys te m E N IS O 1 2 9 4 4 -5 : 1 9 9 8 T a b le A 9 : P a in t s y s te m s c o rro s iv ity c a te g o rie s C 2 to C 5 -I a n d C 5 -M S u b s tra te : H o t-d ip -g a lv a n iz e d s te e l¹) T h e p a in t s y ste m s g ive n in th e fo llo w in g ta b le a re o n ly e x am p le s ,. O th e r p a in t s ys te m s h a v in g th e s a m e p e rfo rm a n c e a re p o s s ib le . If th e s e e x am p le s a re u s e d , it s h a ll b e e n s u re d th a t th e p a in t s ys te m s c h o s e n c o m p ly w ith th e in d ic a te d d u ra b ility w h e n e xe c u t Paint Priming coat(s) Top coat(s)) including Paint system Expected durability 2)6) System intermediate coat(s)) (see 5.5 and ISO 12944-1) No Binder 5) Number of NDFT 3) Binder 5) Number of NDFT 3) Total NDFT 3) C2 C3 C4 C5-I C5-M coats µm coats µm µm L M H L M H L M H L M H H L H S9.01 - - 1 80 1 80 S9.02 1 40 1 80 2 120 PVC PVC S9.03 1 80 1 80 2 160 S9.04 1 80 2 160 3 240 S9.05 - - 1 80 1 80 S9.06 1 40 1 80 2 120 - AY AY S9.07 1 80 1 80 2 160 S9.08 1 80 2 160 3 240 S9.09 - - 1 80 1 80 S9.10 1 40 1 80 2 120 EP EP S9.11 or 1 80 or 1 80 2 160 PUR PUR 4) S9.12 1 80 2 160 3 240 S9.13 1 80 2-3 240 3-4 320 Binders for priming coat(s) Paints (liquid) Binders for top coat(s) Paints (liquid) No of components Water No. of components Water borne borne 1-pack 2-pack possible 1-pack 2-pack possible PVC = Polyvinyl chloride x PVC = Polyvinyl chloride x AY = Acrylic x x AY = Acrylic x x EP = Epoxy x x EP = Epoxy x x PUR = Polyurethane x PUR = Polyurethane x x 1) T h e m e c h a n ic a l o r c h e m ic a l s u rfa c e p re p a ra tio n re rq u ire d is d e s c rib e d in IS O 1 2 9 4 4 -4 . 2) T h e d u ra b ility is in th is c a s e re la te d to th e p a in t s ys te m a d h e s io n to th e h o t-d ip -g a lva n iz ed s u rfa c e . 3) N D FT = N o m in a l D ry F ilm T h ic k n e s s . S e e 5 .4 fo r fu rth e r d e ta ils . 4) If c o lo u r a n d g lo s s re te n tio n is re q u ire d , it is re c o m m e n d e d th a t th e la s t c o a t s h o u ld b e b a s e d o n a lip h a tic P U R . 5) F o r e x pla n a tio n o f a b b re v ia tio n s , s e e fo o t o f ta b le 6) L ig h t g re y s h a d in g in d ic a te s th a t th e p a in t s y ste m s c o n c e rn e d w o u ld n o t n o rm a lly b e u s e d fo r th e s e c o rro s iv ity c a te g o rie s . T h e y a re n o t lis te d in ta b le A.2 a n d /o r A.3 .
  • 16. O&G Applications in Petrochemical Plants-1 Ambient temperature Ducts Dutos de temperatura ambiente Anchor Bolts Parafusos de âncora Beams Vigas Belt Guards Cinto Guarda Cathodic protection rectifiers Proteção catódica retificadores Catwalks Desfiles Checker Plate Padronizada Placa Co-generation Equipment Equipamentos de cogeração Columns Colunas Conveyor Systems Sistemas de transporte Cooling tower Structure Estrutura da torre de resfriamento Crane Supports Suporta guindaste Cross bracing Cruz órtese Decks Plataformas Drain Pipes Tubos de drenagem Drive Piling Driven empilhando Electrical Conduits Condutas elétrica Electrical Cable Ducts Dutos cabo elétrico Embedded Items Itens incorporados
  • 17. O&G Applications in Petrochemical Plants-2 Equipment Screens Telas de equipamentos Equipment Guards Equipamentos Guarda Fasteners Fixadores Fencing Esgrima Fire extinguishing Equipment Equipamento de incêndio Flare Towers Torres incendiar Flat Plates Placas planas Girts Girts Gratings Grades Handrail Corrimão Heat exchanger Tubing Tubulação trocador de calor Ladders Escadas Marine Terminal Structures Estruturas Terminal Marítimo Offshore Structures Estruturas Offshore Outside Switchgear Fora Comutadores Frames Frames Pipe Ways Maneiras pipe Pipe Supports Suporta tubulação Pipe Racks Racks tubo Pipe Bridges Tubo de Pontes
  • 18. O&G Applications in Petrochemical Plants-3 Platforms Plataformas Precipitator Structures Estruturas precipitador Prefabricated Buildings Edifícios pré-fabricados Process Piping Tubulação de Processo Process Equipment Equipamentos de processo Skids Skids Process Vessels Vasos processo Purlins Terças Railings Trilhos Safety Equipment Equipamento de segurança Sag Rods Sag Rods Scuppers Embornais Stairways Escadas Stringers Longarinas Transmission Poles Pólos de transmissão Walkways Passarelas Wastewater Treatment Equipment Equipamento do tratamento de águas residuais
  • 19. Cape Town petrochemical plant cable ladders and trays survey Coating thickness still exceeds 55µm initial thickness requirement after 25 years! Corrosion severity=C4
  • 20. Hydrocarbon Storage Facility, Port Boynton, South Australia •Allowed fast-tracking of construction because of damage resistance of HDG •800 tons of HDG used in pipe racks alone All-HDG Compressor House
  • 21. Shell Oil Corio Bay Refinery Geelong, Vic. Australia Built 1954: All Structural Steelwork is now HDG HDG pipe bridge Galvanized sheet covering insulated pipes
  • 22. •Shell used 2500 tons of structural steel in this Corio Long Residue Catalytic Cracking Unit after having had experience of 15 years with NO maintenance at the No. 4 Distiller • Measurements showed another 30 years maintenance free life is possible (70 µm Zn remaining)
  • 23. Formosa Plastics Naptha Cracking Plant Severity >>ISO C5! This industry development zone used 300 000 tons of galvanized steel including Deep-water Port, Refinery, Co-gen plant…….
  • 24. Ampol Petroleum Refineries Ltd. resources Australia New Reformer IsomerisationUnit, Unit, Brisbane Adelaide, SA 65m high structure all HDG 10,000 bpd of high octane fuel Required 130 tons of HDG
  • 25. Galvanized steel chosen due to: •Schedules •Quality •Project controls •Contract Coordination •Risk reduction •Benefits during operation