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Gadgets for Management of
Stored Product Insects
By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
 Insects play a major role in the deterioration of food grains causing both
quantitative and qualitative losses
 Well proved that no granaries can be filled with grains without insects as the
harvested produce contain egg (or) larvae (or) pupae (or) adult insect in them
because of field carryover infestation which cannot be avoided in developing
countries like India
 Simple technologies for timely detection of insects in the stored produce and
thereby plan timely control measures
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
 Many devices have been developed for monitoring and mass trapping stored grain insect
 Some are popularly used across the country in households / farms / godowns
I. TNAU Insect probe trap
II. TNAU Pitfall trap
III. TNAU Two-in-one trap for pulse beetle
IV. TNAU Indicator Device
V. TNAU Automatic insect removal bin
VI. TNAU UV – Light trap for warehouse
VII. TNAU Stored grain insect pest management kit
VIII.TNAU Insect egg remover
IX. TNAU Stack probe trap
X. Entoleter
XI. CIPHET Mechanical device
 Even a single live insect in food grain cannot be tolerated as they build up and cause
enormous loss in storage due to their high reproductive rate
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
 Use of trap is relatively a new method of detecting, trapping insects in stored
grains
 Basic components of a TNAU probe trap consists of two parts
 A main insect trapping tube and a detachable cone at bottom
 Equispaced perforations of 2 mm diameter - made in main tube
Concept:
 Insects love “AIR” and move towards air. This behaviour is exploited
Method of working:
 Trap has to be kept in the grain (rice, wheat etc., ) vertically with the white cone
downside as shown the figure. Top red cap must be with level of the grain
 Insects will move towards air in main tube and enter through hole. Once insect
enters the hole it falls down into detachable white cone at the bottom. There is
no way to escape and insects are trapped forever. White detachable cone can be
unscrewed once in a week and insects can be destroyed.
 No chemicals; No side effects and No maintenance cost
TNAU Insect probe trap
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
 Used for capturing insects active on grain surface and in other
layers of grain (Monitoring and mass trapping tool)
Standard Model
 Standard model of pitfall trap has 2 parts, perforated lid (2 mm (or)
3 mm) and a cone shaped bottom portion
 Application of special coating with sticky material on the inner side
of cone to hold trapped insects - necessary
 This procedure is tedious.
TNAU Model
 TNAU model has perforated lid, cone shaped bottom which tapers
into a funnel shaped trapping tube.
 Hence sticky coating is not necessary- easy to handle
 Commercial model - in plastic, simple and economical (cost per
trap is Rs. 25/- only).
TNAU Pit fall trap
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
 Probe trap containing components namely perforated tube,
pitfall mechanism, a collection tube and cone shaped pitfall
trap with a perforated lid combined as a single unit
 Combination of probe and pitfall increase trapping efficiency
of insects
 Best suited for pulse beetles as they are seen only on grain
surface wandering here and there
 Not require tedious procedures like coating inner surface of
pitfall cone with sticky materials before trapping to hold pulse
beetles
 Beetles are captured alive in this trap- facilitate release of
pheromone and there by attract more insects
TNAU Two-in-one model trap
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
 Consists of a cone shaped perforated cup (3mm perforation) with a lid at top
 Cup is fixed at the bottom with a container and circular dish, which are to be
smeared with sticky material like vaseline
 Farmers, before storing their pulses, should take 200 g of pulses to be stored
and put them in the cup
 When field carried over beetles start emerging, due to their wandering
behaviour, they enter perforations and get slipped off and fall into trapping
portions. As they stick on to sticky materials, farmers can easily locate
beetles and can take out bulk-stored pulses for sun drying.
 Device with 2mm perforations -used for cereals. Help in eliminating initial
population, which acts as major source for further build up
 Timely detection will help farmers to preserve their valuable pulses during
storage. Device is being popularised
TNAU Indicator device
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
TNAU Automatic insect removal bin
• Remove insect automatically
• Structure has 4 major parts namely outer container, inner perforated
container, collection vessel and lid
• Model exploits wandering behaviour of stored product insects as well
as movement of these insects towards well aerated regions
• Grains are held in the specially designed inner perforated container
• Space between inner and outer container provides good aeration for
the insects
• Available in different capacities – 2kg, 5kg, 25kg, 100kg, 500kg.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
TNAU UV – Light trap for ware house
 Consists of an ultra-violet source (4 W lamp) -produces
ultra-violet rays of peak emission around 250 nano meter
 Light - fitted at centre of a funnel of 310 mm dia at the top
and 35 mm dia at the bottom
 Bottom end of funnel - attached with a transparent plastic
container for collecting trapped insects- To hang unit at
desired points, three hooks are provided at periphery of
funnel.-unit also provided with a tripod stand
 Trap - placed in food grain storage godowns at 1.5 m
above ground level, in places around warehouse corners- as
insect tends to move towards these places during evening
hours- trap operated during night hours
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
TNAU UV – Light trap for ware house
 Trap attracts stored product insects of paddy like lesser grain
borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
and saw toothed beetle, Oryzaephilus surnamensis in large numbers
 Psocids -great nuisance in godowns are also attracted in large
numbers
 Two numbers of trap per 60 x 20 m (L x B) godown with 5 m height-
suggested
 Ideal for use in godowns meant for long term storage of grains,
whenever infested stocks arrive in godowns and during post
fumigation periods to trap resistant strains and left over insects to
prevent build up of the pest populations
 In godowns of frequent transactions, trap can be used for
monitoring Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
TNAU Stored grain insect pest management kit
• A “KIT” named as TNAU-Stored Grain Insect Pest
Management Kit contains prototypes of all devices
along with a CD-Rom (Compact Disc – Read Only
Memory) about devices and how to use them
• Kit will be of use in popularization of technologies
across the country
• Kit will be an ideal tool for Education “hands – on
training”, Extension centers (KVK, Plant clinic) and
also for private ware housing
• TNAU kit is the first of its kind in the world
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
TNAU Insect egg remover (Patent No. 198434)
 Gadget has outer container and an inner perforated
container with a rotating rod having fixed with plastic
brushes on all sides
 Seeds with eggs are packed in the perforated container
and rod is rotated
 Due to the splashing action of brush in rotating rod, eggs
get crushed and thus damage is prevented
 Treatment does not affect germination of seeds
 Machine has capacity of cleaning efficiency around 200
Kg/hr with 1 HP motor- can crush eggs present in grains
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
TNAU- Stack probe trap (Patent No. 284727)
 Device to monitor insects in bag stacks in warehouse
 Made of plastic (PVC) comprises a main hollow tube
having a diameter in the range of 1.8 to 2.0 cm with equi-
spaced perforation in the range of 1.8 to 2 mm on upper
portion with a bend at one end which ends in a
transparent collection unit to collect insects falling down
from bend, other end of main tube being closed
 Useful to validate effect of fumigation by using
immediately after fumigation, in different layers of the
fumigated stacks
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Entoleter
 Used in milling process to minimize infestation in end product
 Simple application - containing a horizontal disc with vertical pins
assembled concentrically in a closed container
 When flour passes through disc which is rotating on high speed
of 2500 rpm, flour particle collide with pins impact kills any
insects and destroys their eggs
 Ideal machine for flour mills and grain processing plant to destroy
all forms of insects and all stages of growth contained in cereal
grains and flours
 The Entoleters (Scourer-Aspirator) is standard grain cleaning
equipment in flour mills around the world
 Have unique centrifugal impact processing and selective grain
cleaning system
 A machine used to disinfest cereals and other foods
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
CIPHET Mechanical device
 Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana, Punjab
has developed a mechanical device for detection of insects in stored grains
 Capable of instant detection and a fair quantification, of insect infestation in stored food
grains
 Facilitate detection of presence or absence of live or dead insects in stored grain and also
allows to visualize egg infestation in the grain sample-further provide a fair quantification of
insect infestation level
 Mechanical device, simple in design and fabrication, portable and in-expensive that provides
a unique movement to the grain sample
 As a result of the unique movement of clock-wise and anticlock-wise, hiding insects
frightened, scared, wander and then screened out from the grain sample
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
CIPHET Mechanical device
 To detect grain borer, rice weevil, red flour beetle, rusty grain beetle, and saw-tooth grain beetle in
different types of cereals, pulses and oilseeds and similar commodity that become infested during
storage
 Device consists of two separate units
 A set of insect detecting boxes and
 A mechanical system to provide desirable
motion to the set of insect detecting boxes
 Insect detecting boxes has four major parts
 Upper container for grain samples
 Magnifying glass at the top lid
 Circular sieves of different sizes and
 Insect collecting chamber at the bottom
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)

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  • 1. Gadgets for Management of Stored Product Insects By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • 2.  Insects play a major role in the deterioration of food grains causing both quantitative and qualitative losses  Well proved that no granaries can be filled with grains without insects as the harvested produce contain egg (or) larvae (or) pupae (or) adult insect in them because of field carryover infestation which cannot be avoided in developing countries like India  Simple technologies for timely detection of insects in the stored produce and thereby plan timely control measures Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 3.  Many devices have been developed for monitoring and mass trapping stored grain insect  Some are popularly used across the country in households / farms / godowns I. TNAU Insect probe trap II. TNAU Pitfall trap III. TNAU Two-in-one trap for pulse beetle IV. TNAU Indicator Device V. TNAU Automatic insect removal bin VI. TNAU UV – Light trap for warehouse VII. TNAU Stored grain insect pest management kit VIII.TNAU Insect egg remover IX. TNAU Stack probe trap X. Entoleter XI. CIPHET Mechanical device  Even a single live insect in food grain cannot be tolerated as they build up and cause enormous loss in storage due to their high reproductive rate Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 4.  Use of trap is relatively a new method of detecting, trapping insects in stored grains  Basic components of a TNAU probe trap consists of two parts  A main insect trapping tube and a detachable cone at bottom  Equispaced perforations of 2 mm diameter - made in main tube Concept:  Insects love “AIR” and move towards air. This behaviour is exploited Method of working:  Trap has to be kept in the grain (rice, wheat etc., ) vertically with the white cone downside as shown the figure. Top red cap must be with level of the grain  Insects will move towards air in main tube and enter through hole. Once insect enters the hole it falls down into detachable white cone at the bottom. There is no way to escape and insects are trapped forever. White detachable cone can be unscrewed once in a week and insects can be destroyed.  No chemicals; No side effects and No maintenance cost TNAU Insect probe trap Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 5.  Used for capturing insects active on grain surface and in other layers of grain (Monitoring and mass trapping tool) Standard Model  Standard model of pitfall trap has 2 parts, perforated lid (2 mm (or) 3 mm) and a cone shaped bottom portion  Application of special coating with sticky material on the inner side of cone to hold trapped insects - necessary  This procedure is tedious. TNAU Model  TNAU model has perforated lid, cone shaped bottom which tapers into a funnel shaped trapping tube.  Hence sticky coating is not necessary- easy to handle  Commercial model - in plastic, simple and economical (cost per trap is Rs. 25/- only). TNAU Pit fall trap Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 6.  Probe trap containing components namely perforated tube, pitfall mechanism, a collection tube and cone shaped pitfall trap with a perforated lid combined as a single unit  Combination of probe and pitfall increase trapping efficiency of insects  Best suited for pulse beetles as they are seen only on grain surface wandering here and there  Not require tedious procedures like coating inner surface of pitfall cone with sticky materials before trapping to hold pulse beetles  Beetles are captured alive in this trap- facilitate release of pheromone and there by attract more insects TNAU Two-in-one model trap Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 7.  Consists of a cone shaped perforated cup (3mm perforation) with a lid at top  Cup is fixed at the bottom with a container and circular dish, which are to be smeared with sticky material like vaseline  Farmers, before storing their pulses, should take 200 g of pulses to be stored and put them in the cup  When field carried over beetles start emerging, due to their wandering behaviour, they enter perforations and get slipped off and fall into trapping portions. As they stick on to sticky materials, farmers can easily locate beetles and can take out bulk-stored pulses for sun drying.  Device with 2mm perforations -used for cereals. Help in eliminating initial population, which acts as major source for further build up  Timely detection will help farmers to preserve their valuable pulses during storage. Device is being popularised TNAU Indicator device Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 8. TNAU Automatic insect removal bin • Remove insect automatically • Structure has 4 major parts namely outer container, inner perforated container, collection vessel and lid • Model exploits wandering behaviour of stored product insects as well as movement of these insects towards well aerated regions • Grains are held in the specially designed inner perforated container • Space between inner and outer container provides good aeration for the insects • Available in different capacities – 2kg, 5kg, 25kg, 100kg, 500kg. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 9. TNAU UV – Light trap for ware house  Consists of an ultra-violet source (4 W lamp) -produces ultra-violet rays of peak emission around 250 nano meter  Light - fitted at centre of a funnel of 310 mm dia at the top and 35 mm dia at the bottom  Bottom end of funnel - attached with a transparent plastic container for collecting trapped insects- To hang unit at desired points, three hooks are provided at periphery of funnel.-unit also provided with a tripod stand  Trap - placed in food grain storage godowns at 1.5 m above ground level, in places around warehouse corners- as insect tends to move towards these places during evening hours- trap operated during night hours Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 10. TNAU UV – Light trap for ware house  Trap attracts stored product insects of paddy like lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and saw toothed beetle, Oryzaephilus surnamensis in large numbers  Psocids -great nuisance in godowns are also attracted in large numbers  Two numbers of trap per 60 x 20 m (L x B) godown with 5 m height- suggested  Ideal for use in godowns meant for long term storage of grains, whenever infested stocks arrive in godowns and during post fumigation periods to trap resistant strains and left over insects to prevent build up of the pest populations  In godowns of frequent transactions, trap can be used for monitoring Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 11. TNAU Stored grain insect pest management kit • A “KIT” named as TNAU-Stored Grain Insect Pest Management Kit contains prototypes of all devices along with a CD-Rom (Compact Disc – Read Only Memory) about devices and how to use them • Kit will be of use in popularization of technologies across the country • Kit will be an ideal tool for Education “hands – on training”, Extension centers (KVK, Plant clinic) and also for private ware housing • TNAU kit is the first of its kind in the world Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 12. TNAU Insect egg remover (Patent No. 198434)  Gadget has outer container and an inner perforated container with a rotating rod having fixed with plastic brushes on all sides  Seeds with eggs are packed in the perforated container and rod is rotated  Due to the splashing action of brush in rotating rod, eggs get crushed and thus damage is prevented  Treatment does not affect germination of seeds  Machine has capacity of cleaning efficiency around 200 Kg/hr with 1 HP motor- can crush eggs present in grains Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 13. TNAU- Stack probe trap (Patent No. 284727)  Device to monitor insects in bag stacks in warehouse  Made of plastic (PVC) comprises a main hollow tube having a diameter in the range of 1.8 to 2.0 cm with equi- spaced perforation in the range of 1.8 to 2 mm on upper portion with a bend at one end which ends in a transparent collection unit to collect insects falling down from bend, other end of main tube being closed  Useful to validate effect of fumigation by using immediately after fumigation, in different layers of the fumigated stacks Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 14. Entoleter  Used in milling process to minimize infestation in end product  Simple application - containing a horizontal disc with vertical pins assembled concentrically in a closed container  When flour passes through disc which is rotating on high speed of 2500 rpm, flour particle collide with pins impact kills any insects and destroys their eggs  Ideal machine for flour mills and grain processing plant to destroy all forms of insects and all stages of growth contained in cereal grains and flours  The Entoleters (Scourer-Aspirator) is standard grain cleaning equipment in flour mills around the world  Have unique centrifugal impact processing and selective grain cleaning system  A machine used to disinfest cereals and other foods Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 15. CIPHET Mechanical device  Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana, Punjab has developed a mechanical device for detection of insects in stored grains  Capable of instant detection and a fair quantification, of insect infestation in stored food grains  Facilitate detection of presence or absence of live or dead insects in stored grain and also allows to visualize egg infestation in the grain sample-further provide a fair quantification of insect infestation level  Mechanical device, simple in design and fabrication, portable and in-expensive that provides a unique movement to the grain sample  As a result of the unique movement of clock-wise and anticlock-wise, hiding insects frightened, scared, wander and then screened out from the grain sample Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 16. CIPHET Mechanical device  To detect grain borer, rice weevil, red flour beetle, rusty grain beetle, and saw-tooth grain beetle in different types of cereals, pulses and oilseeds and similar commodity that become infested during storage  Device consists of two separate units  A set of insect detecting boxes and  A mechanical system to provide desirable motion to the set of insect detecting boxes  Insect detecting boxes has four major parts  Upper container for grain samples  Magnifying glass at the top lid  Circular sieves of different sizes and  Insect collecting chamber at the bottom Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)