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Future of Life Sciences:
The great convergence of life and technology
Melanie Swan
Research Associate
MS Futures Group
m@melanieswan.com
www.melanieswan.com
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga/slideshows
2
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Agenda
1. Introduction: convergence of life and technology
2. Status of relevant high-impact research
3. Future implications
3
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Source: http://www.kurzweilai.net/pps/Unither
Full human brain neural simulation est: 2018
Average human: an
estimated 20,000 trillion IPS
and 1,000 TB memory2
IBM Roadrunner: 1
petaflop/s (>1,000 trillion
IPS) and 80 TB memory1
1
http://www.top500.org/lists/2008/11, http://www.top500.org/system/8968
2
http://paula.univ.gda.pl/~dokgrk/bre01.html
4
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Engineering life into technology
2029
Machine
Human
Human′ ?
Capability
Year
Intelligence convergence: Life and Technology
5
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Agenda
1. Introduction: convergence of life and technology
2. Status of relevant high-impact research
 Evolving concept of life sciences
 Genomic era
 Synthetic biology
 Nanomedicine
 Intelligence research
 Longevity
1. Future implications
6
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Evolving concept of life sciences
Model and
simulate
Enumerate
and
experiment
Build
BioSpice.org
SimTK.org
PartsRegistry.org
7
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Cure
Improvement
Normalization
Prevention
Enhancement
Self-
expression
Conditions
Symptoms
Genome Biomarkers Behavior Environment
Health
outcomes
Measure
Research
Treat
Intervene
Experiment
Track
Measure
Actions
Self
Professionals
Peers
Evolving definition of health
Source: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/2/492
A new model of health and health care
8
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Evolving computing models
Current model extensibility
Linear, von
Neumann
Linear, von
Neumann
ParallelParallel
Cloud, grid,
distributed
Cloud, grid,
distributed
Biological models
Novel models
Traditional model
QuantumQuantum
Optical
computing
Optical
computing
Cell
broadband
engine
Cell
broadband
engine Liquid
computer
Liquid
computer
New
materials
New
materials
3D chip
stacking
3D chip
stacking
Molecular
electronics
Molecular
electronics
Solar
transistors
Solar
transistors
DNA
nanotech
DNA
nanotech
DNA
computing
DNA
computing
BiosensorsBiosensors
Cellular
colonies
Cellular
colonies
Bacterial
intelligence
Bacterial
intelligence
Bioparadigm
discovery
Bioparadigm
discovery
9
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Genomic era Carlson curves: 12 mo speedups
 Sequencing
 (reading)
 Synthesizing
 (writing)
Source: http://www.synthesis.cc/graphics/carlson_cost_per_base_nov_08.jpg
10
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Direct-to-consumer genomics: 23andme
580,000 SNPs scanned and mapped to 78 conditions
Source: http://www.23andme.com; open source genomes http://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Genomes
11
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
23andme colorectal cancer marker
Source: http://www.23andme.com
12
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Next-gen sequencing: Pacific Biosciences
Sources: http://www.pacificbiosciences.com/video_lg.html,
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/323/5910/133,
Science 2 January 2009: Vol. 323. no. 5910, pp. 133 – 138, DOI: 10.1126/science.1162986
Phospholinked nucleotides
DNA polymerase wrapped around
DNA chain
Phospholinked nucleotide binds, fluoresces
and detaches as nucleotide base is read
1
2
3a
3b
13
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Next-gen biotech: synthetic biology
 Engineering biological
systems
 Parts Registry
 BioBricks Foundation
 iGEM competition
 Key work: Drew Endy, Jay
Keasling, Craig Venter,
Christina Smolke, Tom
Knight
Sources: http://openwetware.org, http://bbf.openwetware.org,
http://www.igem.org, http://partsregistry.org
14
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Registry of Standard Biological Parts
Source: http://partsregistry.org
 Modular building block components
15
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Parts Registry: select measurement system
Source: http://partsregistry.org
16
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Parts Registry: obtain and print sequence
DNA Synthesizer
Source: http://partsregistry.org
17
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Nanomedicine
 Nanoparticles
 DNA nanotechnology
 DNA walker
 Programmable matter
 Quantum dots
 Nanomachines
Respirocytes Microbivore Artery cleaner
Nanoparticles
Sources: Nanoparticles: http://www.unithertechnologyconference.com
DNA Nanotechnology: http://www.pnas.org/content/101/3/717.full.pdf
Nanorobots: http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/gallery/index.html#ExhibitCat
VasculocyteClottocytes
DNA walkerStructural DNA:
Holliday junction
Quantum dot dyes
18
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Radiosurgery and on-demand physicians
Teleradiology
da Vinci Robotic SurgeryOR-Live.com
On-demand consultation: American Well Accuray radiosurgery delivery path
Accuray cyberknife radiosurgery
19
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Simulation, modeling and virtual health
Entelos virtual patient biosimulation
Testis tour: OSU Medicine
Sources: http://biospice.org, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1YuRSyzBAE,
secondlife://PalomarWest%20Hospital/36/125/34/, secondlife://NHS%20London/248/11/26
Second Health Operating Theatre
BioSPICE open source simulation software
Virtual hospital: Palomar West
20
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Intelligence research by approach
 Computer simulation
 Cortical column simulation
 Whole brain emulation
 Neuroimaging & connectomics
 KESM tissue volumes
 Integration
 Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)
 Body area networks (BANs)
 IEEE standard 802.15.6
 Robotics and AI
Blue Brain rat cortical column
Mouse brain block and cortex slice
Sources: http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/out_of_the_blue,
http://www.mcb.harvard.edu/lichtman/ATLUM/ATLUM_web.htm,
http://research.cs.tamu.edu/bnl/kesm.html
Vesicle
21
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Longevity: extending lifespan and
healthspan
 Aging as a multidisciplinary pathology
 Aubrey de Grey: Strategies for Engineered
Negligible Senescence (SENS)
 Nucleic and mitochondrial mutations
 Intracellular and extracellular junk
 Cell loss and senescence
 Extracellular crosslinks
 Solutions and escape velocity
 Biomedical remediation
 Mutation anti-suppressors
 Cell strengthening
 RealAge.com estimation tests
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1850 1900 1950 2000 2050
U.S. Life Expectancy, 1850 – 2050e
83
77
69
50
39
Source: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005140.html
Source: http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/population-health/variable-379.html
Sources: http://www.mfoundation.org/index.php?pagename=mj_sens_sens,
http://pimm.wordpress.com/2007/09/03/sens3-program-john-schloendorn-medical-bioremediation,
http://www.mfoundation.org/files/sens/manu16.pdf, http://www.lmrf.org/LysoSENS.html
LysoSENS: stained lysosomes
22
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Agenda
1. Introduction: convergence of life and technology
2. Status of relevant high-impact research
3. Future implications
23
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Engineering life into technology
2029
Machine
Human
Human′ ?
Capability
Year
Convergence: Life and Technology
 Evolving concept of life
sciences
 Genomic era
 Synthetic biology
 Nanomedicine
 Intelligence
 Longevity
Foundations of Convergence
24
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
What can be expected in the short-term?
Image: Natasha Vita-More, Primo Posthuman
 Onboard computation and
communication
 Whole human genome scan
 Era of personalized medicine
 Next-gen biotech, the new cleantech
 Focus on key cures: obesity, cancer
 Peer-to-peer health
 Health social networks
 Long tail of medicine
 Culture of biohacking
25
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Ultimate possibilities for life and technology
 All matter (including life) designed to spec
 Purpose-driven form factor, elective embodiment
 Issues
 Multiple persistent copies
 Transhumanism, posthumanism
 Utility functions and emotion
 Intelligence
 Ultimate possibilities for life and
technology once joined?
 Aesthetics?
 Analytics?
26
CONTACT 2009
April 3, 2009
Resources
 Conferences, podcasts and video
 http://www.unithertechnologyconference.com
 http://www.usc.edu/medicine/bcc
 http://www.cs.duke.edu/~reif/FNANO
 http://www.onemedplace.com
 http://www.or-live.com
 Journals, news, blogs, advocacy groups, etc.
 http://www.nature.com/nbt/index.html
 http://www.nbtc.cornell.edu
 http://www.eyeonDNA.com
 http://phylogenomics.blogspot.com
 http://www.personalizedmedicinecoalition.org
 Ethics and biotechnology industry watch groups
 http://www.bioethics.net (American Journal of Bioethics)
 http://www.etcgroup.org
Thank you
Melanie Swan
Research Associate
MS Futures Group
m@melanieswan.com
www.melanieswan.com
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga/slideshows
Creative Commons 3.0 license

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Future of Life Sciences

  • 1. Future of Life Sciences: The great convergence of life and technology Melanie Swan Research Associate MS Futures Group m@melanieswan.com www.melanieswan.com CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga/slideshows
  • 2. 2 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Agenda 1. Introduction: convergence of life and technology 2. Status of relevant high-impact research 3. Future implications
  • 3. 3 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Source: http://www.kurzweilai.net/pps/Unither Full human brain neural simulation est: 2018 Average human: an estimated 20,000 trillion IPS and 1,000 TB memory2 IBM Roadrunner: 1 petaflop/s (>1,000 trillion IPS) and 80 TB memory1 1 http://www.top500.org/lists/2008/11, http://www.top500.org/system/8968 2 http://paula.univ.gda.pl/~dokgrk/bre01.html
  • 4. 4 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Engineering life into technology 2029 Machine Human Human′ ? Capability Year Intelligence convergence: Life and Technology
  • 5. 5 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Agenda 1. Introduction: convergence of life and technology 2. Status of relevant high-impact research  Evolving concept of life sciences  Genomic era  Synthetic biology  Nanomedicine  Intelligence research  Longevity 1. Future implications
  • 6. 6 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Evolving concept of life sciences Model and simulate Enumerate and experiment Build BioSpice.org SimTK.org PartsRegistry.org
  • 7. 7 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Cure Improvement Normalization Prevention Enhancement Self- expression Conditions Symptoms Genome Biomarkers Behavior Environment Health outcomes Measure Research Treat Intervene Experiment Track Measure Actions Self Professionals Peers Evolving definition of health Source: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/2/492 A new model of health and health care
  • 8. 8 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Evolving computing models Current model extensibility Linear, von Neumann Linear, von Neumann ParallelParallel Cloud, grid, distributed Cloud, grid, distributed Biological models Novel models Traditional model QuantumQuantum Optical computing Optical computing Cell broadband engine Cell broadband engine Liquid computer Liquid computer New materials New materials 3D chip stacking 3D chip stacking Molecular electronics Molecular electronics Solar transistors Solar transistors DNA nanotech DNA nanotech DNA computing DNA computing BiosensorsBiosensors Cellular colonies Cellular colonies Bacterial intelligence Bacterial intelligence Bioparadigm discovery Bioparadigm discovery
  • 9. 9 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Genomic era Carlson curves: 12 mo speedups  Sequencing  (reading)  Synthesizing  (writing) Source: http://www.synthesis.cc/graphics/carlson_cost_per_base_nov_08.jpg
  • 10. 10 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Direct-to-consumer genomics: 23andme 580,000 SNPs scanned and mapped to 78 conditions Source: http://www.23andme.com; open source genomes http://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Genomes
  • 11. 11 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 23andme colorectal cancer marker Source: http://www.23andme.com
  • 12. 12 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Next-gen sequencing: Pacific Biosciences Sources: http://www.pacificbiosciences.com/video_lg.html, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/323/5910/133, Science 2 January 2009: Vol. 323. no. 5910, pp. 133 – 138, DOI: 10.1126/science.1162986 Phospholinked nucleotides DNA polymerase wrapped around DNA chain Phospholinked nucleotide binds, fluoresces and detaches as nucleotide base is read 1 2 3a 3b
  • 13. 13 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Next-gen biotech: synthetic biology  Engineering biological systems  Parts Registry  BioBricks Foundation  iGEM competition  Key work: Drew Endy, Jay Keasling, Craig Venter, Christina Smolke, Tom Knight Sources: http://openwetware.org, http://bbf.openwetware.org, http://www.igem.org, http://partsregistry.org
  • 14. 14 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Registry of Standard Biological Parts Source: http://partsregistry.org  Modular building block components
  • 15. 15 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Parts Registry: select measurement system Source: http://partsregistry.org
  • 16. 16 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Parts Registry: obtain and print sequence DNA Synthesizer Source: http://partsregistry.org
  • 17. 17 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Nanomedicine  Nanoparticles  DNA nanotechnology  DNA walker  Programmable matter  Quantum dots  Nanomachines Respirocytes Microbivore Artery cleaner Nanoparticles Sources: Nanoparticles: http://www.unithertechnologyconference.com DNA Nanotechnology: http://www.pnas.org/content/101/3/717.full.pdf Nanorobots: http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/gallery/index.html#ExhibitCat VasculocyteClottocytes DNA walkerStructural DNA: Holliday junction Quantum dot dyes
  • 18. 18 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Radiosurgery and on-demand physicians Teleradiology da Vinci Robotic SurgeryOR-Live.com On-demand consultation: American Well Accuray radiosurgery delivery path Accuray cyberknife radiosurgery
  • 19. 19 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Simulation, modeling and virtual health Entelos virtual patient biosimulation Testis tour: OSU Medicine Sources: http://biospice.org, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1YuRSyzBAE, secondlife://PalomarWest%20Hospital/36/125/34/, secondlife://NHS%20London/248/11/26 Second Health Operating Theatre BioSPICE open source simulation software Virtual hospital: Palomar West
  • 20. 20 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Intelligence research by approach  Computer simulation  Cortical column simulation  Whole brain emulation  Neuroimaging & connectomics  KESM tissue volumes  Integration  Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)  Body area networks (BANs)  IEEE standard 802.15.6  Robotics and AI Blue Brain rat cortical column Mouse brain block and cortex slice Sources: http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/out_of_the_blue, http://www.mcb.harvard.edu/lichtman/ATLUM/ATLUM_web.htm, http://research.cs.tamu.edu/bnl/kesm.html Vesicle
  • 21. 21 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Longevity: extending lifespan and healthspan  Aging as a multidisciplinary pathology  Aubrey de Grey: Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS)  Nucleic and mitochondrial mutations  Intracellular and extracellular junk  Cell loss and senescence  Extracellular crosslinks  Solutions and escape velocity  Biomedical remediation  Mutation anti-suppressors  Cell strengthening  RealAge.com estimation tests 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 U.S. Life Expectancy, 1850 – 2050e 83 77 69 50 39 Source: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005140.html Source: http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/population-health/variable-379.html Sources: http://www.mfoundation.org/index.php?pagename=mj_sens_sens, http://pimm.wordpress.com/2007/09/03/sens3-program-john-schloendorn-medical-bioremediation, http://www.mfoundation.org/files/sens/manu16.pdf, http://www.lmrf.org/LysoSENS.html LysoSENS: stained lysosomes
  • 22. 22 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Agenda 1. Introduction: convergence of life and technology 2. Status of relevant high-impact research 3. Future implications
  • 23. 23 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Engineering life into technology 2029 Machine Human Human′ ? Capability Year Convergence: Life and Technology  Evolving concept of life sciences  Genomic era  Synthetic biology  Nanomedicine  Intelligence  Longevity Foundations of Convergence
  • 24. 24 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 What can be expected in the short-term? Image: Natasha Vita-More, Primo Posthuman  Onboard computation and communication  Whole human genome scan  Era of personalized medicine  Next-gen biotech, the new cleantech  Focus on key cures: obesity, cancer  Peer-to-peer health  Health social networks  Long tail of medicine  Culture of biohacking
  • 25. 25 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Ultimate possibilities for life and technology  All matter (including life) designed to spec  Purpose-driven form factor, elective embodiment  Issues  Multiple persistent copies  Transhumanism, posthumanism  Utility functions and emotion  Intelligence  Ultimate possibilities for life and technology once joined?  Aesthetics?  Analytics?
  • 26. 26 CONTACT 2009 April 3, 2009 Resources  Conferences, podcasts and video  http://www.unithertechnologyconference.com  http://www.usc.edu/medicine/bcc  http://www.cs.duke.edu/~reif/FNANO  http://www.onemedplace.com  http://www.or-live.com  Journals, news, blogs, advocacy groups, etc.  http://www.nature.com/nbt/index.html  http://www.nbtc.cornell.edu  http://www.eyeonDNA.com  http://phylogenomics.blogspot.com  http://www.personalizedmedicinecoalition.org  Ethics and biotechnology industry watch groups  http://www.bioethics.net (American Journal of Bioethics)  http://www.etcgroup.org
  • 27. Thank you Melanie Swan Research Associate MS Futures Group m@melanieswan.com www.melanieswan.com Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga/slideshows Creative Commons 3.0 license

Editor's Notes

  1. New paradigm discovery: e.g.; ciliate