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Food Service Industry
BBAA - 310
Terminologies
• Diet: The food and beverages you normally eat and drink
• Nutrition: A science that studies nutrients and other
substances in foods and in the body and the way those
nutrients relate to health and disease. Nutrition also
explores why you choose particular foods and the type
of diet you eat.
• Nutrients: The nourishing substances in food that
provide energy and promote the growth and
maintenance of your body.
Diet-related Diseases
• Cardiovascular disease
• High blood pressure (hypertension)
• Cancer
• Diabetes
• And others
Healthy eating
• Eating healthy can help you to maintain a healthy body
weight as well as reduce your risk of diet-related
disorders. Eating healthy means focusing on foods such
as the following:
– Vegetables
– Fruits
– Beans and peas
– Whole grains (such as whole wheat bread or oatmeal)
– Fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
– Lean meats and poultry
– Seafood
– Nuts and seeds
Why do you eat the foods you do?
• Many factors influence what you eat:
– Flavor
– Other aspects of food (such as cost, convenience,
nutrition)
– Demographics
– Culture and religion
– Health
– Social and emotional influences
– Marketing and the media
– Environmental concerns
FLAVOR
• Flavor is an attribute of a food that includes its
taste, smell, feel in mouth or texture, temperature,
and even the sounds made when it is chewed
• Flavor is a combination of all five senses: taste,
smell, touch, sight, and sound
• The taste buds in mouth and the smell receptors in
nose work together to deliver signals to the brain
that are translated into the flavor of food
Taste
• Taste comes from 10,000 taste buds
• Taste buds, found on the tongue, cheeks,
throat, and roof of the mouth, house 60 to 100
receptor cells each
• The body regenerates taste buds about every
three days
• These taste cells bind food molecules dissolved
in saliva and alert the brain to interpret them
• Taste sensations include: sweet, salty, sour,
bitter
• Did you ever wonder why your favorite foods
taste so good?
Smell
• If you could only taste sweet, salty, sour and
bitter, how could you taste the flavor of
cinnamon, chicken, or any other food?
• This is where smell comes in. Your ability to
identify the flavors of specific foods requires
smell
• The ability to detect the strong scent of a fish
market, the antiseptic odor of a hospital, the
aroma of a ripe melon, and thousands of other
smells is possible
Touch/Mouthfeel/Texture
• All foods have texture – think of a tender cookie or
a smooth soup
• The human body is very adept at evaluating a
food’s texture. We use not only mouthfeel, but also
our other senses to evaluate the texture of foods.
• Textures can range from moist to dry, tender to
tough, fluid to solid, thick to thin, gritty/rough to
smooth, coarse to fine, hard to soft , crunchy to
soggy
• Even carbonated drinks have texture—they
tingle in your mouth as you drink them
• Textures that most people like include crispy,
crunchy, juicy, creamy, tender, and firm.
Consumers generally don’t like foods that are
tough, crumbly, lumpy, soggy, or watery.
Sight and Sound
• Appearance creates the first impression of food and
strongly influences which foods you choose to eat
• Color is very important—think of the eye appeal of a
juicy red tomato or a nicely browned loaf of bread
• Color gives us a clue about the quality of a food as
well as its flavor
• We make decisions about foods before we actually
eat them
– For example if the skin of an apple looks wrinkly, then the
apple will probably have lost its crunchy bite
• Qualities such as color, size, shape, consistency,
and arrangement all contribute to eye appeal
• Just the sight of something delicious to eat can
start your digestive juices flowing
• The sound made when a food is eaten, such as
crunch of a crispy cookie, is also part of the
enjoyment of eating
OTHER ASPECTS OF FOOD
• Food cost is a major consideration in what
foods you eat
• Convenience is also a major consideration
– convenience of foods are more expensive than their
raw counterparts
• Your food choices are also affected by
availability, familiarity, and habits
• The nutritional content of a food can be an
important factor in deciding what to eat
DEMOGRAPHICS
• Demographic factors that influence your food
choices include age, gender, educational level,
income, and cultural background
CULTURE AND RELIGION
• Culture can be defined as the behaviors and beliefs
of a certain social, ethnic, or age group
• A culture strongly influences the eating habits of its
members
• Each culture has norms about which foods are
edible, which foods have high or low status, how
often foods are consumed, what foods are eaten
together, when foods are eaten, and what foods
are served at special events and celebrations (such
as weddings)
• For many people, religion affects their day-to-
day food choices
– Muslims have their own dietary laws
HEALTH
• Obesity and overweight can increase your risk
of heart disease, diabetes, and other health
problems
• What you eat influences your health
• Even if you are healthy, you may base food
choices on a desire to prevent health problems
and/or improve your appearance
SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES
• Your food choices are influenced by the social
situations you find yourself in, such as when
you are eating with others
• Emotions are closely tied to some of our food
selections
MARKETING AND THE MEDIA
• Food industries use advertising, product
labeling and displays, and websites to sell their
products
• On a daily basis, the media (television,
newspapers, magazines, radio, Internet) portray
food in many ways
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
• There is growing concern about the environmental impacts
of our food
• Conventional farming/food production and transportation
use considerable amounts of energy and create
undesirable waste
• Consumers are clamoring for sustainable food choices and
environmentally friendly restaurants, and indeed the
restaurant industry is responding to this with practices
such as purchasing locally, using organic produce and
sustainable seafood, growing gardens, and implementing
green practices in the facility
WHAT ARE KILOCALORIES (kcal)?
• A unit of measure used to express the amount
of energy found in different foods
Basal metabolism
• The minimum energy needed by the body for vital
functions when at rest and awake
• Basal metabolic rate (BMR) depends on the following
factors:
– Gender: Men have a higher BMR than women do because
men have a higher proportion of muscle tissue (muscle
requires more energy for metabolism than fat does)
– Age: As you get older, you generally gain fat tissue and lose
muscle tissue
– Growth: Children, pregnant women, and lactating women
have higher BMRs
• Height: Tall people have more body surface than shorter
people do and lose body heat faster. Their BMR is
therefore higher
• Temperature: BMR increases in both hot and cold
environments, to keep the temperature inside the body
constant
• Fever and stress: Both of these increase BMR. The body
reacts to stress by secreting hormones that speed up
metabolism so that the body can respond quickly and
efficiently.
• Exercise: Exercise increases BMR for several
hours afterward
• Smoking and caffeine: Both cause increased
energy expenditure
• Sleep: Your BMR is at its lowest when you are
sleeping
WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS?
• There are about 50 nutrients that can be
arranged into six groups:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fats
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
• Foods rarely contain just one nutrient. Most foods
provide a mix of nutrients.
• Carbohydrates, fats, and protein are called energy-
yielding nutrients because they can be burned as
fuel to provide energy for the body. They provide
kcalories as follows:
– Carbohydrates: 4 kcalories per gram
– Fats: 9 kcalories per gram
– Protein: 4 kcalories per gram
• Micronutrients: Nutrients needed by the body
in small amounts, including vitamins and
minerals.
• Macronutrients: Nutrients needed by the body
in large amounts, including carbohydrates, fats,
and proteins.
Carbohydrates
• A large class of nutrients, including sugars, starch,
and fibers, that function as the body’s primary
source of energy.
• Sugar in its refined forms, such as table sugar and
high-fructose corn syrup, which are used in soft
drinks, cookies, cakes, pies, candies, jams, jellies,
and other sweetened foods.
• You also find sugar in its natural form in fruits and
milk (even though milk does not taste sweet)
• Starch is found in breads, breakfast cereals,
pastas, potatoes, and beans. Both sugar and
starch are important sources of energy for the
body.
• Good sources of fiber include legumes (dried beans and
peas), fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, and whole-
grain foods such as whole-wheat bread and cereal
• Fiber can’t be broken down in your digestive tract, and
so it is mostly excreted. It therefore does not provide
energy for the body
• However, fiber does a number of good things in the
body, such as improve the health of the digestive tract.
Fat
• Fats provide a rich source of energy to cells
• Familiar fats and oils are found in butter, margarine,
vegetable oils, mayonnaise, and salad dressings
• Fats are also found in the fatty streaks in meat, the fat
under the skin of poultry, the fat in milk and cheese
(except fat-free milk and products made with them),
baked goods such as cakes, fried foods, nuts, and many
processed foods, such as canned soups and frozen
dinners
• Most breads, cereals, pasta, fruits, and vegetables have
little or no fat
Protein
• Most of the kcalories we eat come from carbohydrates or fats. Only
about 15 percent of total kcalories come from protein.
• This doesn’t mean that protein is less important. On the contrary,
protein is part of every cell, tissue, and organ in the body. Besides its
role as an important part of cells, protein regulates processes in your
body and can be burned to provide energy (although the body prefers
to burn carbohydrates and fat so protein can be used to build new
cells)
• You probably know some of the good sources of protein, which are
typically animal foods such as beef, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and
cheese.
• Protein appears in plant foods, such as grains, beans, and vegetables,
but in smaller quantities. Fruits contain only very small amounts of
protein.
Vitamins
• There are 13 different vitamins in food. Vitamins are found in
a wide variety of foods. They are essential in small quantities
to regulate body processes, maintain the body, and allow
growth and reproduction
• Instead of being burned to provide energy for the body,
vitamins work as helpers. They assist in the processes of the
body that keep you healthy
• For example, vitamin A is needed by the eyes for vision in
dim light.
• Vitamins are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, dairy
products, and other foods. Unlike other nutrients, many
vitamins are susceptible to being destroyed by heat, light,
and other agents.
Minerals
• Minerals are also required by the body in small
amounts and do not provide energy Like vitamins,
they regulate body processes, maintain the body,
and allow growth and reproduction
• Some minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus,
become part of the body’s structure by building
bones and teeth
• Unlike vitamins, minerals are indestructible
Water
• Although deficiencies of energy or nutrients can be
sustained for months or even years, a person can survive
only a few days without water
• Experts rank water second only to oxygen as essential to
life. Water plays a vital role in all bodily processes and
makes up just over half the body’s weight
• It supplies the medium in which various chemical
changes of the body occur and aids digestion and
absorption, circulation, and lubrication of body joints
• For example, as a major component of blood, water
helps deliver nutrients to body cells and removes waste
to the kidneys for excretion.
Thanks

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Fundamentals of nutrition & food

  • 2. Terminologies • Diet: The food and beverages you normally eat and drink • Nutrition: A science that studies nutrients and other substances in foods and in the body and the way those nutrients relate to health and disease. Nutrition also explores why you choose particular foods and the type of diet you eat. • Nutrients: The nourishing substances in food that provide energy and promote the growth and maintenance of your body.
  • 3. Diet-related Diseases • Cardiovascular disease • High blood pressure (hypertension) • Cancer • Diabetes • And others
  • 4. Healthy eating • Eating healthy can help you to maintain a healthy body weight as well as reduce your risk of diet-related disorders. Eating healthy means focusing on foods such as the following: – Vegetables – Fruits – Beans and peas – Whole grains (such as whole wheat bread or oatmeal) – Fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products – Lean meats and poultry – Seafood – Nuts and seeds
  • 5. Why do you eat the foods you do? • Many factors influence what you eat: – Flavor – Other aspects of food (such as cost, convenience, nutrition) – Demographics – Culture and religion – Health – Social and emotional influences – Marketing and the media – Environmental concerns
  • 6. FLAVOR • Flavor is an attribute of a food that includes its taste, smell, feel in mouth or texture, temperature, and even the sounds made when it is chewed • Flavor is a combination of all five senses: taste, smell, touch, sight, and sound • The taste buds in mouth and the smell receptors in nose work together to deliver signals to the brain that are translated into the flavor of food
  • 7. Taste • Taste comes from 10,000 taste buds • Taste buds, found on the tongue, cheeks, throat, and roof of the mouth, house 60 to 100 receptor cells each • The body regenerates taste buds about every three days
  • 8. • These taste cells bind food molecules dissolved in saliva and alert the brain to interpret them • Taste sensations include: sweet, salty, sour, bitter • Did you ever wonder why your favorite foods taste so good?
  • 9. Smell • If you could only taste sweet, salty, sour and bitter, how could you taste the flavor of cinnamon, chicken, or any other food? • This is where smell comes in. Your ability to identify the flavors of specific foods requires smell
  • 10. • The ability to detect the strong scent of a fish market, the antiseptic odor of a hospital, the aroma of a ripe melon, and thousands of other smells is possible
  • 11. Touch/Mouthfeel/Texture • All foods have texture – think of a tender cookie or a smooth soup • The human body is very adept at evaluating a food’s texture. We use not only mouthfeel, but also our other senses to evaluate the texture of foods. • Textures can range from moist to dry, tender to tough, fluid to solid, thick to thin, gritty/rough to smooth, coarse to fine, hard to soft , crunchy to soggy
  • 12. • Even carbonated drinks have texture—they tingle in your mouth as you drink them • Textures that most people like include crispy, crunchy, juicy, creamy, tender, and firm. Consumers generally don’t like foods that are tough, crumbly, lumpy, soggy, or watery.
  • 13. Sight and Sound • Appearance creates the first impression of food and strongly influences which foods you choose to eat • Color is very important—think of the eye appeal of a juicy red tomato or a nicely browned loaf of bread • Color gives us a clue about the quality of a food as well as its flavor • We make decisions about foods before we actually eat them – For example if the skin of an apple looks wrinkly, then the apple will probably have lost its crunchy bite
  • 14. • Qualities such as color, size, shape, consistency, and arrangement all contribute to eye appeal • Just the sight of something delicious to eat can start your digestive juices flowing • The sound made when a food is eaten, such as crunch of a crispy cookie, is also part of the enjoyment of eating
  • 15. OTHER ASPECTS OF FOOD • Food cost is a major consideration in what foods you eat • Convenience is also a major consideration – convenience of foods are more expensive than their raw counterparts • Your food choices are also affected by availability, familiarity, and habits • The nutritional content of a food can be an important factor in deciding what to eat
  • 16. DEMOGRAPHICS • Demographic factors that influence your food choices include age, gender, educational level, income, and cultural background
  • 17. CULTURE AND RELIGION • Culture can be defined as the behaviors and beliefs of a certain social, ethnic, or age group • A culture strongly influences the eating habits of its members • Each culture has norms about which foods are edible, which foods have high or low status, how often foods are consumed, what foods are eaten together, when foods are eaten, and what foods are served at special events and celebrations (such as weddings)
  • 18. • For many people, religion affects their day-to- day food choices – Muslims have their own dietary laws
  • 19. HEALTH • Obesity and overweight can increase your risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other health problems • What you eat influences your health • Even if you are healthy, you may base food choices on a desire to prevent health problems and/or improve your appearance
  • 20. SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES • Your food choices are influenced by the social situations you find yourself in, such as when you are eating with others • Emotions are closely tied to some of our food selections
  • 21. MARKETING AND THE MEDIA • Food industries use advertising, product labeling and displays, and websites to sell their products • On a daily basis, the media (television, newspapers, magazines, radio, Internet) portray food in many ways
  • 22. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS • There is growing concern about the environmental impacts of our food • Conventional farming/food production and transportation use considerable amounts of energy and create undesirable waste • Consumers are clamoring for sustainable food choices and environmentally friendly restaurants, and indeed the restaurant industry is responding to this with practices such as purchasing locally, using organic produce and sustainable seafood, growing gardens, and implementing green practices in the facility
  • 23. WHAT ARE KILOCALORIES (kcal)? • A unit of measure used to express the amount of energy found in different foods
  • 24. Basal metabolism • The minimum energy needed by the body for vital functions when at rest and awake • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) depends on the following factors: – Gender: Men have a higher BMR than women do because men have a higher proportion of muscle tissue (muscle requires more energy for metabolism than fat does) – Age: As you get older, you generally gain fat tissue and lose muscle tissue – Growth: Children, pregnant women, and lactating women have higher BMRs
  • 25. • Height: Tall people have more body surface than shorter people do and lose body heat faster. Their BMR is therefore higher • Temperature: BMR increases in both hot and cold environments, to keep the temperature inside the body constant • Fever and stress: Both of these increase BMR. The body reacts to stress by secreting hormones that speed up metabolism so that the body can respond quickly and efficiently.
  • 26. • Exercise: Exercise increases BMR for several hours afterward • Smoking and caffeine: Both cause increased energy expenditure • Sleep: Your BMR is at its lowest when you are sleeping
  • 27. WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS? • There are about 50 nutrients that can be arranged into six groups: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Protein 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water
  • 28. • Foods rarely contain just one nutrient. Most foods provide a mix of nutrients. • Carbohydrates, fats, and protein are called energy- yielding nutrients because they can be burned as fuel to provide energy for the body. They provide kcalories as follows: – Carbohydrates: 4 kcalories per gram – Fats: 9 kcalories per gram – Protein: 4 kcalories per gram
  • 29. • Micronutrients: Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts, including vitamins and minerals. • Macronutrients: Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • 30. Carbohydrates • A large class of nutrients, including sugars, starch, and fibers, that function as the body’s primary source of energy. • Sugar in its refined forms, such as table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, which are used in soft drinks, cookies, cakes, pies, candies, jams, jellies, and other sweetened foods. • You also find sugar in its natural form in fruits and milk (even though milk does not taste sweet)
  • 31. • Starch is found in breads, breakfast cereals, pastas, potatoes, and beans. Both sugar and starch are important sources of energy for the body.
  • 32. • Good sources of fiber include legumes (dried beans and peas), fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, and whole- grain foods such as whole-wheat bread and cereal • Fiber can’t be broken down in your digestive tract, and so it is mostly excreted. It therefore does not provide energy for the body • However, fiber does a number of good things in the body, such as improve the health of the digestive tract.
  • 33. Fat • Fats provide a rich source of energy to cells • Familiar fats and oils are found in butter, margarine, vegetable oils, mayonnaise, and salad dressings • Fats are also found in the fatty streaks in meat, the fat under the skin of poultry, the fat in milk and cheese (except fat-free milk and products made with them), baked goods such as cakes, fried foods, nuts, and many processed foods, such as canned soups and frozen dinners • Most breads, cereals, pasta, fruits, and vegetables have little or no fat
  • 34. Protein • Most of the kcalories we eat come from carbohydrates or fats. Only about 15 percent of total kcalories come from protein. • This doesn’t mean that protein is less important. On the contrary, protein is part of every cell, tissue, and organ in the body. Besides its role as an important part of cells, protein regulates processes in your body and can be burned to provide energy (although the body prefers to burn carbohydrates and fat so protein can be used to build new cells) • You probably know some of the good sources of protein, which are typically animal foods such as beef, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. • Protein appears in plant foods, such as grains, beans, and vegetables, but in smaller quantities. Fruits contain only very small amounts of protein.
  • 35. Vitamins • There are 13 different vitamins in food. Vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods. They are essential in small quantities to regulate body processes, maintain the body, and allow growth and reproduction • Instead of being burned to provide energy for the body, vitamins work as helpers. They assist in the processes of the body that keep you healthy • For example, vitamin A is needed by the eyes for vision in dim light. • Vitamins are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, dairy products, and other foods. Unlike other nutrients, many vitamins are susceptible to being destroyed by heat, light, and other agents.
  • 36. Minerals • Minerals are also required by the body in small amounts and do not provide energy Like vitamins, they regulate body processes, maintain the body, and allow growth and reproduction • Some minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, become part of the body’s structure by building bones and teeth • Unlike vitamins, minerals are indestructible
  • 37. Water • Although deficiencies of energy or nutrients can be sustained for months or even years, a person can survive only a few days without water • Experts rank water second only to oxygen as essential to life. Water plays a vital role in all bodily processes and makes up just over half the body’s weight • It supplies the medium in which various chemical changes of the body occur and aids digestion and absorption, circulation, and lubrication of body joints • For example, as a major component of blood, water helps deliver nutrients to body cells and removes waste to the kidneys for excretion.

Editor's Notes

  1. Taste buds are sensory organs that are found on your tongue and allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste buds work? Well, stick out your tongue and look in the mirror. See all those bumps? Those are called papillae (say: puh-PILL-ee), and most of them contain taste buds. Taste buds have very sensitive microscopic hairs called microvilli (say: mye-kro-VILL-eye). Those tiny hairs send messages to the brain about how something tastes, so you know if it's sweet, sour, bitter, or salty. The average person has about 10,000 taste buds and they're replaced every 2 weeks or so. But as a person ages, some of those taste cells don't get replaced. An older person may only have 5,000 working taste buds. That's why certain foods may taste stronger to you than they do to adults. Smoking also can reduce the number of taste buds a person has. But before you give taste buds all the credit for your favorite flavors, it's important to thank your nose. Olfactory (say: ahl-FAK-tuh-ree) receptors inside the uppermost part of the nosecontain special cells that help you smell. They send messages to the brain. Here's how it works: While you're chewing, the food releases chemicals that immediately travel up into your nose. These chemicals trigger the olfactory receptors inside the nose. They work together with your taste buds to create the true flavor of that yummy slice of pizza by telling the brain all about it! When you have a cold or allergies, and your nose is stuffy, you might notice that your food doesn't seem to have much flavor. That's because the upper part of your nose isn't clear to receive the chemicals that trigger the olfactory receptors (that inform the brain and create the sensation of flavor). Try holding your nose the next time you eat something. You'll notice that your taste buds are able to tell your brain something about what you're eating — that it's sweet, for instance — but you won't be able to pick the exact flavor until you let go of your nose. So the next time you chomp on an apple or slurp up some soup, thank your tongue — and your nose! Without them, life wouldn't have any flavor.
  2. Emotions are closely tied to some of our food selections. As a child, you may have been given something sweet to eat, such as cake or candy, whenever you were unhappy or upset. As an adult, you may gravitate to those kinds of foods, called comfort foods, when in a stressful situation such as studying and taking fi nal exams. Carbohydrates, such as in cake or candy, tend to have calming effects. Eating in response to emotions can lead to overeating and overweight.