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Professional Elective
Electric Vehicle (ME 306D)
Unit 1 - Introduction to Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
BY
V. P. Bhaurkar
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sanjivani College of Engineering, Kopargaon
Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle
1. Electric vehicles (EVs) are the talk of the town as they are predicted to be the future of mobility.
2. EVs have revolutionised the automotive industry with advanced and innovative technology.
3. However, they are still expensive and charging infrastructure remains to be a big question.
4. Bridging the gap between conventional and electric cars are the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).
What is a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)?
1. A Hybrid Electric Vehicle is a type of vehicle that uses a combination of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine
and an electric propulsion system.
2. The electric powertrain may enhance fuel efficiency, increase performance, or independently propel the
vehicle on pure electric power, depending on the type of hybrid system.
3. In simple words, an HEV is a vehicle that comprises a conventional fuel engine and an electric powertrain,
wherein the electric motor assists the engine to extract more performance, and better fuel economy, depending
on the type of the system.
How does an HEV work?
Unlike an electric vehicle, the working mechanism of an HEV is relatively simple to understand. The below points
explain how an HEV works.
1. Powering a hybrid electric vehicle is an IC engine and an electric motor.
2. The electric motor utilises the electrical energy stored in the battery pack.
3. The battery pack gets charged via regenerative braking or through a generator that is run by the internal
combustion engine.
4. An HEV does not need to be plugged into a power source to charge the battery, otherwise it is known as PHV
(Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle)
5. The electric motor and IC engine work in conjunction to propel the vehicle.
6. The additional power from the electric motor assists the engine, and it enhances the performance and
improves the fuel economy.
7. The battery pack can also power other electrical components such as lights.
8. The electric powertrain also saves fuel via the engine start/stop technology, wherein the engine automatically
shuts off when idle and starts automatically when the driver presses the throttle pedal.
Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle
Electric Vehicles
1. Electric vehicles use a large capacity battery and electric motor(s) to drive the vehicle.
2. The battery needs to be charged from the electricity supply network when the vehicle is not in
use although some energy may be recovered during braking.
Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle
Difference between EV and HEV
Figure 1 - Difference
between Electric and Hybrid
vehicle
EV - Past, Present, Future
1. The emergence of electric cars dates back further than you think. The first ones go back as far as 1880, and they were
common into the early 20th century.
2. Thomas Parker, the man behind making the London Underground electric, was the first to create an electric car
suitable for production in 1884 using rechargeable batteries.
3. By 1900, only 22 percent of cars were powered by gasoline, while 40 percent were electric and the remaining 38
percent ran on steam.
4. Eventually, improvements in internal combustion engines and the invention of the electric starter made gasoline
powered cars a better and cheaper option.
5. Eventually, the growth of gasoline-powered cars from companies like Ford and General Motors helped lower the
prices of these vehicles to almost half the price of their electric counterparts.
6. By the 1930s, gasoline powered cars had taken over the market, with electric cars disappearing from the marketplace.
7. Fast forward to the 1950s. Growing concerns about pollution from gasoline powered cars prompted the Air Pollution
Control Act in the U.S. This garnered some interest in electric cars and by the 80s and early 90s, there was increasing
pressure and demand for fuel-efficient vehicles with the dream of a zero-emission car at some point in the future.
EV - Past, Present, Future
1. There are two different types of motors that can power an electric car, they are AC or DC. It stands for
alternating current and direct current.
2. The AC motor was invented by Nikola Tesla, while the DC motor was invention from Thomas Edison.
3. The main difference between the two motors is the voltage they need to get going. A DC motor will use 92 to
192 volts while an AC motor runs on 240 volts with a 300 volt battery pack.
4. DC motors are also cheaper, but they suffer from limitations, such as inadequate acceleration and overheating
— sometimes to the point of self-destruction — when in overdrive.
5. AC motors are easier to implement into cars, and use regenerative braking, which can deliver power back to
the battery when you hit the brakes.
Why are not we all in electric cars yet?
1. A lot of the limitations that put electric cars out of favor in the early 1900s still exist today ; batteries are too
heavy, they take too long to charge, they’re too expensive and you can’t go very far without stopping to find a
place to charge.
2. The biggest challenge the electric car industry is up against is battery power.
3. There are six major flaws in lead-acid batteries, the batteries found in electric cars. These flaws include
weight, bulk, capacity, charge, lifespan and price.
4. Heavy batteries mean heavier cars, which lowers efficiency and performance, making their high cost and short
life span unattractive to car buyers.
EV - Past, Present, Future
1. You will find that plenty of vehicles use a nickel-metal hydride (NiHM) battery, which lives longer than lead-
acid batteries, but also has a less efficient charging and discharging method.
2. Finally, some electric cars run on a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which you might be familiar because they are
in most electronics. Now, they’re popping up in electric cars, but like the other batteries listed, they have some
limitations including a short life cycle, they are somewhat toxic and have a tendency to significantly degrade
over time.
EV - Past, Present, Future
The future of electric cars
1. It might be years before the average consumer finds themselves charging their car instead of filling up at the
pump, but it’s a real possibility.
2. Tesla has made one giant dent in the industry by introducing vehicles people actually want to drive and
turning them into a luxury option for car-buyers. And plenty of car makers are following suit, with options
like the Volkswagen e-Golf, Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt, just to name a few.
3. Ford Motor Company contracted with Helm Group, the automobile industry embraced the internal combustion
engine and ensured many profitable decades for the oil industry, an endless stream of recurring revenue at the fuel
pumps of the industrial age.
4. If we had gone directly from horse and buggy to electric vehicles, the transition to mass electrification would look
substantially different.
5. Drivers have become accustomed to the quick, efficient and familiar methods they’ve used to fuel up for nearly a
century. Because public and at-home charging infrastructure was virtually nonexistent at the outset of the EV era,
the early deployments of EV technology tended to be in closed environments like factories and industrial
complexes.
EV - Past, Present, Future
1. As we are aware that the great challenges in EV transportation, such as immaturity of motor drive technology, low
battery storage density and the inefficiency of the combined systems.
2. As these core vehicle-related technologies improved, new challenges quickly took their place: Where to charge
when not at home; who provides charging; how much can or should charging cost; how to ensure drivers are not
leaving the vehicle during fill-ups and so on.
3. More broadly, there was little understanding of how EV charging stations were performing as an asset class once
deployed. In response, automotive manufacturers have worked with a growing ecosystem of technology providers
and service partners to solve the fueling-side challenges presented by EV ownership, as well as the operations
challenges faced by charging as a business. The nature of EV charging demands that vehicles and fueling
infrastructure be connected in a way they never had to be in the petrochemical paradigm.
The Present
Public charging at scale requires a central, internet-connected management system. Physical access to charging stations
remains important but is less critical due to remote access for maintenance engineers and their ability to extract near-real-
time analytics and diagnostic data. Internet connectivity and the advancement of software and charging technology,
therefore, are foundational for EV charging to work as a mass, shared service infrastructure. In fact, the choices around
connectivity between charging and EVs made today are laying the technical foundations for a future of autonomous
vehicles.
EV - Past, Present, Future
Thank You !

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fundamentals of electric and hybrid vehicle

  • 1. Professional Elective Electric Vehicle (ME 306D) Unit 1 - Introduction to Electric and Hybrid Vehicles BY V. P. Bhaurkar Department of Mechanical Engineering Sanjivani College of Engineering, Kopargaon
  • 2. Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle 1. Electric vehicles (EVs) are the talk of the town as they are predicted to be the future of mobility. 2. EVs have revolutionised the automotive industry with advanced and innovative technology. 3. However, they are still expensive and charging infrastructure remains to be a big question. 4. Bridging the gap between conventional and electric cars are the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). What is a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)? 1. A Hybrid Electric Vehicle is a type of vehicle that uses a combination of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine and an electric propulsion system. 2. The electric powertrain may enhance fuel efficiency, increase performance, or independently propel the vehicle on pure electric power, depending on the type of hybrid system. 3. In simple words, an HEV is a vehicle that comprises a conventional fuel engine and an electric powertrain, wherein the electric motor assists the engine to extract more performance, and better fuel economy, depending on the type of the system.
  • 3. How does an HEV work? Unlike an electric vehicle, the working mechanism of an HEV is relatively simple to understand. The below points explain how an HEV works. 1. Powering a hybrid electric vehicle is an IC engine and an electric motor. 2. The electric motor utilises the electrical energy stored in the battery pack. 3. The battery pack gets charged via regenerative braking or through a generator that is run by the internal combustion engine. 4. An HEV does not need to be plugged into a power source to charge the battery, otherwise it is known as PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle) 5. The electric motor and IC engine work in conjunction to propel the vehicle. 6. The additional power from the electric motor assists the engine, and it enhances the performance and improves the fuel economy. 7. The battery pack can also power other electrical components such as lights. 8. The electric powertrain also saves fuel via the engine start/stop technology, wherein the engine automatically shuts off when idle and starts automatically when the driver presses the throttle pedal. Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle
  • 4. Electric Vehicles 1. Electric vehicles use a large capacity battery and electric motor(s) to drive the vehicle. 2. The battery needs to be charged from the electricity supply network when the vehicle is not in use although some energy may be recovered during braking. Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle
  • 5. Difference between EV and HEV Figure 1 - Difference between Electric and Hybrid vehicle
  • 6. EV - Past, Present, Future 1. The emergence of electric cars dates back further than you think. The first ones go back as far as 1880, and they were common into the early 20th century. 2. Thomas Parker, the man behind making the London Underground electric, was the first to create an electric car suitable for production in 1884 using rechargeable batteries. 3. By 1900, only 22 percent of cars were powered by gasoline, while 40 percent were electric and the remaining 38 percent ran on steam. 4. Eventually, improvements in internal combustion engines and the invention of the electric starter made gasoline powered cars a better and cheaper option. 5. Eventually, the growth of gasoline-powered cars from companies like Ford and General Motors helped lower the prices of these vehicles to almost half the price of their electric counterparts. 6. By the 1930s, gasoline powered cars had taken over the market, with electric cars disappearing from the marketplace. 7. Fast forward to the 1950s. Growing concerns about pollution from gasoline powered cars prompted the Air Pollution Control Act in the U.S. This garnered some interest in electric cars and by the 80s and early 90s, there was increasing pressure and demand for fuel-efficient vehicles with the dream of a zero-emission car at some point in the future.
  • 7. EV - Past, Present, Future 1. There are two different types of motors that can power an electric car, they are AC or DC. It stands for alternating current and direct current. 2. The AC motor was invented by Nikola Tesla, while the DC motor was invention from Thomas Edison. 3. The main difference between the two motors is the voltage they need to get going. A DC motor will use 92 to 192 volts while an AC motor runs on 240 volts with a 300 volt battery pack. 4. DC motors are also cheaper, but they suffer from limitations, such as inadequate acceleration and overheating — sometimes to the point of self-destruction — when in overdrive. 5. AC motors are easier to implement into cars, and use regenerative braking, which can deliver power back to the battery when you hit the brakes.
  • 8. Why are not we all in electric cars yet? 1. A lot of the limitations that put electric cars out of favor in the early 1900s still exist today ; batteries are too heavy, they take too long to charge, they’re too expensive and you can’t go very far without stopping to find a place to charge. 2. The biggest challenge the electric car industry is up against is battery power. 3. There are six major flaws in lead-acid batteries, the batteries found in electric cars. These flaws include weight, bulk, capacity, charge, lifespan and price. 4. Heavy batteries mean heavier cars, which lowers efficiency and performance, making their high cost and short life span unattractive to car buyers. EV - Past, Present, Future
  • 9. 1. You will find that plenty of vehicles use a nickel-metal hydride (NiHM) battery, which lives longer than lead- acid batteries, but also has a less efficient charging and discharging method. 2. Finally, some electric cars run on a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which you might be familiar because they are in most electronics. Now, they’re popping up in electric cars, but like the other batteries listed, they have some limitations including a short life cycle, they are somewhat toxic and have a tendency to significantly degrade over time. EV - Past, Present, Future
  • 10. The future of electric cars 1. It might be years before the average consumer finds themselves charging their car instead of filling up at the pump, but it’s a real possibility. 2. Tesla has made one giant dent in the industry by introducing vehicles people actually want to drive and turning them into a luxury option for car-buyers. And plenty of car makers are following suit, with options like the Volkswagen e-Golf, Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt, just to name a few. 3. Ford Motor Company contracted with Helm Group, the automobile industry embraced the internal combustion engine and ensured many profitable decades for the oil industry, an endless stream of recurring revenue at the fuel pumps of the industrial age. 4. If we had gone directly from horse and buggy to electric vehicles, the transition to mass electrification would look substantially different. 5. Drivers have become accustomed to the quick, efficient and familiar methods they’ve used to fuel up for nearly a century. Because public and at-home charging infrastructure was virtually nonexistent at the outset of the EV era, the early deployments of EV technology tended to be in closed environments like factories and industrial complexes. EV - Past, Present, Future
  • 11. 1. As we are aware that the great challenges in EV transportation, such as immaturity of motor drive technology, low battery storage density and the inefficiency of the combined systems. 2. As these core vehicle-related technologies improved, new challenges quickly took their place: Where to charge when not at home; who provides charging; how much can or should charging cost; how to ensure drivers are not leaving the vehicle during fill-ups and so on. 3. More broadly, there was little understanding of how EV charging stations were performing as an asset class once deployed. In response, automotive manufacturers have worked with a growing ecosystem of technology providers and service partners to solve the fueling-side challenges presented by EV ownership, as well as the operations challenges faced by charging as a business. The nature of EV charging demands that vehicles and fueling infrastructure be connected in a way they never had to be in the petrochemical paradigm. The Present Public charging at scale requires a central, internet-connected management system. Physical access to charging stations remains important but is less critical due to remote access for maintenance engineers and their ability to extract near-real- time analytics and diagnostic data. Internet connectivity and the advancement of software and charging technology, therefore, are foundational for EV charging to work as a mass, shared service infrastructure. In fact, the choices around connectivity between charging and EVs made today are laying the technical foundations for a future of autonomous vehicles. EV - Past, Present, Future