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Fundamentals of
Agile Methodologies - I
Compiled By:
Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan
Agile Coach & Process Transformation Specialist
Contact Information:
e-mail: gopi@rgopinath.com
LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/gopinathr
Twitter: @gpnth
Website: www.rgopinath.com
Note
The contents of the following slides are
compiled from public domain works of
several persons/ organizations.
Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged
their copyrights and trademarks are
duly recognized.
Acknowledgements
• Agile 42: www.agile42.com
• Agile Alliance: www.agilealliance.org
• Agile Transformation Inc: www.agiletransformation.com
• Dzone: www.dzone.com
• Gear Stream: www.gearstream.com
• Henrik Kniberg: www.crisp.se/henrik.kniberg
• Jeff Sutherland : scrum.jeffsutherland.com
• Ken Schwaber: kenschwaber.wordpress.com/
• Kent Beck: www.threeriversinstitute.org
• Mike Cohn: www.mountaingoatsoftware.com
• Pete Deemer: www.goodagile,com
• Roman Pichler: www.romanpichler.com
• Ron Jeffries: xprogramming.com
• Scrum Alliance: www.scrumalliance.org
• Scrum.org: www.scrum.org
• Wikipedia: www.wikipedia.org
Contents
1. Overview of Agile
 Limitations of Traditional Software Development
 Origin of Agile Methodologies
 Agile Manifesto, Principles & Practices
 Agile Vs Traditional Methods
 So What is Agile ?
2. Overview of Scrum
 Empirical Process Control
 Scrum Lifecycle & Framework
 Scrum Roles
 3 Pillars of Scrum
 Transparency , Inspection and Adaptation
3. Product Vision and Product Roadmap
 Five Levels of Planning
 Product Vision – Example & Template
 Product Roadmap – Example & Template
Contents (contd..)
4. Release Planning
 Product Backlog – Examples and Attributes
 Product Backlog Creation Steps
 User Stories – Writing, INVEST criteria, Splitting
Techniques
 User Story Estimation – Story Points, Planning Poker
 Product Backlog Prioritization and Ordering
 Release Plan Creation
1: Overview of Agile
Limitations of Traditional Software Development
Origin of Agile Methodologies
Agile Manifesto, Principles & Practices
Agile Vs Traditional Methods
So What is Agile ?
Software Development - 1970s
• Cowboy Coding (Adhoc Code & Fix approach)
 Project Failures
• Computing Time Costly
 Failure Not an Option
• Birth of Software Engineering Discipline
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Software Engineering Discipline
• Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
models
– Waterfall, V-Model, Spiral, Incremental, Iterative
• Standards & Process Frameworks
– DOD Standards, CMM, ISO, SPICE
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Traditional SDLC– Waterfall Model
Source : http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Waterfall_model.svg
SDLC – Software Development Life Cycle
Traditional SDLC - Limitations
• Change Management difficult
• Heavy Documentation not read and
understood
• Big Upfront Planning cannot predict
uncertainties
• Hand-offs foster adversarial relationship
• Late Availability of Working Software leads to
delayed customer feedback
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Business Scenario – 1990s onwards
S ource : http://www.stratabridge.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/VUCA-Definition.jpg
Standish Group – CHAOS Report 1994
• 84 % Projects Challenged or Failures
– Only 16 % Projects Successful
• Top Reasons for Failure
– Incomplete Requirements
– Lack of User Involvement
– Lack of Resources
– Unrealistic Expectations
– Lack of Executive Support
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Origin of Agile Methodologies
Emergence of Lightweight
Methodologies
• 1992 – Crystal Methods
• 1994 – DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development
Method)
• 1995 – Scrum
• 1997 – FDD (Feature Driven Development)
• 1999 – ASD (Adaptive Software Development),
XP (Extreme Programming)
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Feb 11-13, 2001 - 17 Thought Leaders
@ Snowbird Ski Resort, Utah
http://setandbma.wordpress.com/2012/03/23/agile-history
Agile Manifesto –
Values & Principles
The Agile Manifesto
We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it
and helping others to do it.
Through this work we have come to value:
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items
on the left more.
Agile Alliance Members
http://www.agilemanifesto.org/
Source :http://cdn.dzone.com/static/images/mails/agileposter-v3a.jpg
Source:
http://www.lynnecazaly.com.au/the-visual-agile-manifesto/
12 Agile Principles
1. Customer Satisfaction
2. Welcome Changing Requirements
3. Deliver Working Software Frequently
4. Business People and Developers to Work Together
5. Motivated Individuals
6. Face-to-Face Conversations
7. Working Software is the Primary Measure of Progress
8. Sustained Pace of Development
9. Technical Excellence and Good Design
10. Simplicity is Essential
11. Self-organizing Team
12. Regular Tunings and Adjustments of Team Behavior
Agile Vs Traditional Methods
Agile Vs Traditional Methods
Traditional Method Agile Method
Changes Resisted and Controlled Welcomed and
Adapted to
Contracts Binding Flexible
Customer Interaction During selected
milestones
Continuous
Delivery One-time Iterative and
Incremental
Orientation Process People
Process Heavyweight Lightweight
Requirements
Architecture & Design
Defined Upfront Evolves
Roles More Less
Success Criteria Conformance to the
Requirements
Business value delivered
to the customer
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Waterfall Projects Vs Agile Projects
Project Success Scenario in 2009
• Standish Group - CHAOS Report 1994
– Only 16 % Projects Successful
• Standish Group - CHAOS Report 2009
– 32 % Projects Succeeded
• Project Success Rate doubled in 15 years
• Coincides with the Agile emergence
• Still a long way to go !
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Agile projects -
3 times more successful
Source : http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/blog/agile-succeeds-three-times-
more-often-than-waterfall
Agile Methodologies - Characteristics
• Business Value Focus
• Iterative
• Incremental
• Time-boxed
• Feedback
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Agile Methodologies
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/RichardPDoerer/what-isagile-henrik-kniberg-august-20-2013
Agile is….
• A set of Engineering Practices that
– enable rapid delivery
• Project Management that
– encourages frequent inspection and adaptation
• A Business Approach that
– aligns development with customer needs and company
goals
• Leadership that encourages
– teamwork, self-organization and accountability
• A set of Values and Principles that should be
– internalized by every Agile Practitioner
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
2: Overview of Scrum
Empirical Process Control
Scrum Lifecycle & Framework
Scrum Roles
3 Pillars of Scrum
Transparency , Inspection and Adaptation
Empirical Process Control
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/gamsjo/empirical-processcontrol
Assembly Line Manufacturing Research and Development
ource: http://www.slideshare.net/gamsjo/empirical-processcontrol
Empirical Process Control
• Knowledge comes from experience
• Making decisions based on what is known.
• Iterative & Incremental approach
– to optimize predictability and control risk.
• Empirical Process Control Theory is the
foundation of Scrum
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Scrum Lifecycle
Scrum
Cancel
Gift wrap
Return
Sprint
2-4 weeks
Return
Sprint goal
Sprint
backlog
Potentially shippable
product increment
Product
backlog
CouponsGift wrap
Coupons
Cancel
24 hours
Putting it all together
Image available at
www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/scrum
Sequential vs. overlapping
development
Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and
Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.
Rather than doing all of
one thing at a time...
...Scrum teams do a little of
everything all the time
Requirements Design Code Test
No changes during a sprint
• Plan sprint durations around how long you can
commit to keeping change out of the sprint
Change
Scrum Framework
Scrum framework
•Product owner
•ScrumMaster
• Development Team
Roles
•Sprint planning
•Daily Scrum
•Sprint review
•Sprint retrospective
Ceremonies
•Product backlog
•Sprint backlog
•Increment
Artifacts
Scrum Roles
Scrum framework
•Sprint planning
•Daily scrum meeting
•Sprint review
•Sprint retrospective
Ceremonies
•Product backlog
•Sprint backlog
•Increment
Artifacts
•Product owner
•ScrumMaster
• Development Team
Roles
Product owner
• Define the features of the product
• Make scope vs schedule decisions
• Be responsible for the profitability of the
product (ROI)
• Prioritize features according to market value
• Adjust features and priority every iteration, as
needed
• Accept or reject work results
The ScrumMaster
• Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices
• Removes impediments
• Coaches the team to their best possible performance
• Ensure that the team is fully functional and
productive
• Enable close cooperation across all roles and
functions
• Shield the team from external interferences
The Development Team
• Typically 5-9 people
• Cross-functional:
– Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.
• Members should be full-time
– May be exceptions (e.g., database administrator)
• Teams are self-organizing
– Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility
• Membership should change only between sprints
Source: http://www.adventureswithagile.com/empiricism-and-complexity-in-software-development/
Transparency
• Significant aspects of the process visible
– to those responsible for the outcome
• Aspects be defined by a common standard
– to share a common understanding
• For e.g.
– A common language referring to the process
– A common definition of “Done”1
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Inspection
• Frequently inspect to detect undesirable
variances
– Not so frequent to get in the way of the work
– Most beneficial when diligently performed by
skilled inspectors at the point of work.
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Adaptation
• Adjustment of the process or the material being
processed if
– one or more aspects of a process deviate outside
acceptable limits, and
– that the resulting product will be unacceptable
• Made as soon as possible
– to minimize further deviation.
• Four formal opportunities in Scrum for inspection
and adaptation
– Sprint Planning Meeting , Daily Scrum , Sprint Review
Meeting , Sprint Retrospective
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Scrum - Summary
© 2010 Pete Deemer, Gabrielle Benefield, Craig Larman, Bas Vodde
http://www.goodagile.com/scrumprimer/scrumprimer.pdf
3: Product Vision and Roadmap
Five Levels of Planning
Product Vision – Example & Template
Product Roadmap – Example & Template
Fundamentals of Agile Methodologies - Part I
Product Vision and Product Roadmap
Product Vision
• Visualizes the Released Product
• Guides Product Development
• Overarching Goal that Everyone Shares
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Vision (contd..)
• Who is the target customer?
• What customer needs will it solve?
• What are its critical attributes?
• What are its unique selling points?
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Example- Silicon Graphics
Workstations
For movie producers and others
who depend heavily on post-production special effects
the Silicon Graphics is a range of workstations
That have capabilities to integrate digital fantasies with
actual film footage.
Unlike other general purpose computer workstations,
Our products are a no-compromise commitment to
meeting film makers' post-production needs
[Adapted from Geoffery Moore’s example in the book Crossing the Chasm]
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Vision - Template
For <target customer>
Who <statement of the need or opportunity>
The <product name> is a <product category>
That <key benefit, compelling reason to buy>
Unlike <primary competitive alternative>
Our product <statement of primary
differentiation>
[Geoffery Moore’s in the book Crossing the Chasm]
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Roadmap
• High-level strategic plan providing longer-
term outlook
• Helps to secure funds
• Sets expectations
• Aligns stakeholders
• Facilitates prioritization & coordination
• Provides Reassurance to the Customers
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Roadmap (contd..)
• Names of the releases planned
• Dates/ timeframes of releases
• Goals of each release
• Key features of each release
• Release Success Criteria
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Example – Product Roadmap of a
Dance Game
• A dance game for girls aged eight to 12 years.
• Fun and educational
• Allows the players to
– modify the characters
– change the music
– dance with remote players
– choreograph new dances.
http://www.romanpichler.com/tools/product-
roadmap/
Example – Product Roadmap of a Dance Game (contd..)
http://www.slideshare.net/romanpichler/agile-product-roadmap-tutorial
4: Release Planning
Product Backlog – Examples and Attributes
Product Backlog Creation Steps
User Stories – Writing, INVEST criteria, Splitting Techniques
User Story Estimation – Story Points, Planning Poker
Product Backlog Prioritization and Ordering
Release Plan Creation
Product Backlog
Product Backlog
• A Single, Transparent and Official List of
Requirements or Pending Activities
• Maintained by Product Owner
• Continuously Evolves throughout the product
lifecycle
– depending on changes in business requirements,
market conditions, or technology
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Backlog Items (PBIs)
• Customer-centric Features
– Epics and User Stories
• Technical Improvements
– Refactoring, Performance improvements
• Research Work (aka Spikes)
– the ones needed for implementing features
• Known Defects
– only if they are few in numbers
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
PBIs - Examples
Source : http://www.goodagile.com/scrumprimer/scrumprimer.pdf
Product Backlog – Attributes
Detailed Appropriately
Estimated
Emergent
Prioritized
Source:
Agile Product Management, Roman Pichler
Product Backlog Creation Steps
• Write User Stories and other PBIs
• Prioritize/Order based on business value
• Split/Slice the Epics (Big PBI)
• Estimate PBI size (relative estimation)
• Evaluate risks and dependencies
• Determine the order of development
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Backlog Creation -
User Story Writing
Epic
• Large Feature/Functionality in the Product
Roadmap
• Too big to be DONE in one sprint
• To be broken down into smaller
features/functionalities (User Stories)
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Story
• A smallest piece of Functionality from the User
Perspective that can be DONE in one sprint
– DONE means potentially releasable condition
• Has Business Value
• Description has 3 Parts
– User (Who ?)
– Functionality (What?)
– Business Justification (Why ?)
• Must be accompanied by an Acceptance Criteria
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Story Acceptance Criteria
• Conditions that a story must satisfy to be
accepted by PO
• A set of statements, each with a clear pass/fail
result, that specify both functional and non-
functional requirements
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
The 3 Cs of a User Story
User Roles
• Recognize and Explicitly Identify Multiple User Roles
• Avoid the word “User” in the Stories
• Don’t Write Stories from a single User Role Perspective
User story format
As a <User>
I can <Functionality>
so that <Business Justification>
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Stories - Samples
User Stories – Acceptance Criteria
• An Example
User Story – Review Criteria
Source: www.gearstream.com
User Stories - INVEST
• Independent
– Should be possible to implement in any order
– Should not overlap each other
– Example
Image Source: www.gearstream.com
User Stories – INVEST (contd..)
• Negotiable
– Should be descriptive, not prescriptive
– Not exhaustive
– Should stimulate conversation between the team
and the Product Owner or Customer
– Example
• As a book-lover, I want to download a new book so that
I can save time going to a bookshop
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Stories – INVEST (contd..)
• Valuable to Users or Customers
– Should have clear external value
Does not describe the value to the customer
Written from developer perspective
Image Source: www.gearstream.com
User Stories – INVEST (contd..)
• Estimatable
– Should be descriptive enough to be estimated
• Small
– Should require no more than 4 days and no less
than ½ day of work to implement
• Testable
– Should be able to prove that it is truly DONE
– Acceptance Criteria is defined
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
INVEST - Summary
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/thomasjeffreyandersontwin/lean-agile-stack-training-kanban-scrum-user-stories
Good Acceptance Criteria
• State an intent not a solution
– e.g. “The user can choose an account” rather than
“The user can select the account from a drop-down”
• Are independent of implementation
– discuss WHAT is expected, and not HOW the
functionality will be implemented
• Are relatively high level
– more details (if needed) are captured in team
member’s internal notes or in automated acceptance
tests
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Backlog Creation Steps
• Write User Stories and other PBIs
• Prioritize/Order based on business value
• Split/Slice the Epics (Big PBI)
• Estimate PBI size (relative estimation)
• Evaluate risks and dependencies
• Determine the order of development
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Backlog Creation -
User Story Splitting/Slicing
Why Split User Stories ?
• To create smaller stories that are
potentially shippable by the end of a sprint
• More focus
• Flexibility to reconfigure and adapt to new
discoveries and changes
• More feedback opportunities
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Story Splitting - Horizontal
http://www.deltamatrix.com/horizontal-and-vertical-user-stories-slicing-the-cake
User Story Splitting - Vertical
http://www.deltamatrix.com/horizontal-and-vertical-user-stories-slicing-the-cake
User Story – Basis of Various Splitting
Techniques
• Requirements Options
– Ellen Gottesdiener & Mary Gorman
• Incremental build up of quality
– Gerard Mezzaros and Jeff Patton
• Nine Patterns of Functional Complexity
– Richard Lawrence
• Twenty Ways based on Big Picture, User Experience, “illities”, and
Features
– Bill Wake
The above techniques have overlaps and are not mutually exclusive
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Story Splitting –
Requirements Options
Source: “Slicing Requirements for Agile Success”, Ellen Gottesdiener and Mary Gorman , Better Software , July/August 2010
Fundamentals of Agile Methodologies - Part I
© Jeff Patton, all rights reserved, www.AgileProductDesign.com
User Story Splitting – Incremental build
up of quality
• Bare Necessity
– For the feature to be minimally demonstrable – but not releasable, what is the minimal
functionality
– Example: A form with only necessary fields and no validation
• Capability & Flexibility
– What would add the ability to perform the user task in different ways? Adding in sub tasks
that are optionally performed?
– Example: a form with optional fields, date lookup tools, input translation on dates
• Safety
– What would make this feature safer for me to use? For both the user, and for the business
paying for the software?
– Example: input validation, enforcement of business rules such as credit card validation
• Usability, Performance, Jazziness
– What would make this feature easier to use? More desirable to use? Faster to use?
– Example: auto-completion, jazzy visual design, speed keys
•Adapted from Gerard Meszaros’ “Storyotypes” in
http://www.agileproductdesign.com/downloads/patton_user_story_mapping.ppt(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
User Story Splitting –
Functional Complexity Patterns
• Workflow steps
• Business rule variations
• Major effort
• Simple/complex
• Variations in data
• Data display /entry methods
• Defer performance
• Operations (e.g. CRUD)
• ‘Spike’ it
Source:
http://www.richardlawrence.info/2009/10/28/patterns-for-splitting-
user-stories
Fundamentals of Agile Methodologies - Part I
Fundamentals of Agile Methodologies - Part I
User Story Splitting – Twenty Ways
Source :Bill Wake, http://xp123.com/articles/twenty-ways-to-split-stories
Product Backlog Creation - User
Story Estimation
User Story Estimation
• Estimation Unit – Story Point (SP)
• Basis of Estimation
– Size,
– Complexity
– Uncertainty
– Effort
• Estimation Scale
– 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20 ,40, 100
• Relative Estimation
• Collaborative & Consensus Based
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Estimation Techniques
• Planning Poker
• Affinity Sizing
• Complexity Buckets
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Planning Poker
• Estimation from Multiple Perspectives
• Discussion Oriented
• Fun
Image Source : https://www.crisp.se/bocker-och-produkter/planning-poker
Affinity Sizing/Triangulation of
Estimates
For e.g. An User Story of 2 SPs must be roughly twice as big/complex as an User Story
of 1 SP and less than half as big/complex as an User Story of 5 SP
Source: Agile Estimation and Planning by Mike Cohn
Complexity Buckets
Story Point Estimates - Benefits
• A pure measure of size
– Easier to provide relative estimates
• Estimates do not change
– when team’s understanding of the technology
and the domain improves
• Estimating process help in driving cross-
functional behavior
– During estimation all specialists discuss and arrive
at a single story point estimate
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Product Backlog Creation –
Prioritization / Ordering
Product Backlog –
Prioritization/Development Order Criteria
• Business Value
• Risks
• Size/Complexity
• Infrastructure needs
• Dependencies
• Return on Investment
• Grouping based on ease of development
Release Plan Creation
Release Plan
• Maps Major Features to Specific Releases
• More Detailed than Product Roadmap, Less
Detailed than Sprint (Iteration) Plan
• Continuously updated based on rate of
progress
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Velocity
• Measure of Rate of Progress
• Sum of Story Points of the Stories DONE in an
iteration
• Story Points of the Work-in-Progress Stories
not counted
• Useful for Forecasting
– Final Delivery Dates for a Fixed Scope of Features
– Features that can be delivered on a Fixed Date
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Estimating Velocity
• Use Past Data
• Run an Iteration and Use the Velocity of that
Iteration
• Take a Guess
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Release Planning Steps
• Select Iteration Length : 2-4 weeks
• Estimate Iteration Velocity
• Allocate Stories to Iterations as per Priority
and Velocity
(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
Release Plan – An Example
Source: www.gearstream.com

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Fundamentals of Agile Methodologies - Part I

  • 1. Fundamentals of Agile Methodologies - I Compiled By: Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan Agile Coach & Process Transformation Specialist Contact Information: e-mail: gopi@rgopinath.com LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/gopinathr Twitter: @gpnth Website: www.rgopinath.com
  • 2. Note The contents of the following slides are compiled from public domain works of several persons/ organizations. Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged their copyrights and trademarks are duly recognized.
  • 3. Acknowledgements • Agile 42: www.agile42.com • Agile Alliance: www.agilealliance.org • Agile Transformation Inc: www.agiletransformation.com • Dzone: www.dzone.com • Gear Stream: www.gearstream.com • Henrik Kniberg: www.crisp.se/henrik.kniberg • Jeff Sutherland : scrum.jeffsutherland.com • Ken Schwaber: kenschwaber.wordpress.com/ • Kent Beck: www.threeriversinstitute.org • Mike Cohn: www.mountaingoatsoftware.com • Pete Deemer: www.goodagile,com • Roman Pichler: www.romanpichler.com • Ron Jeffries: xprogramming.com • Scrum Alliance: www.scrumalliance.org • Scrum.org: www.scrum.org • Wikipedia: www.wikipedia.org
  • 4. Contents 1. Overview of Agile  Limitations of Traditional Software Development  Origin of Agile Methodologies  Agile Manifesto, Principles & Practices  Agile Vs Traditional Methods  So What is Agile ? 2. Overview of Scrum  Empirical Process Control  Scrum Lifecycle & Framework  Scrum Roles  3 Pillars of Scrum  Transparency , Inspection and Adaptation 3. Product Vision and Product Roadmap  Five Levels of Planning  Product Vision – Example & Template  Product Roadmap – Example & Template
  • 5. Contents (contd..) 4. Release Planning  Product Backlog – Examples and Attributes  Product Backlog Creation Steps  User Stories – Writing, INVEST criteria, Splitting Techniques  User Story Estimation – Story Points, Planning Poker  Product Backlog Prioritization and Ordering  Release Plan Creation
  • 6. 1: Overview of Agile Limitations of Traditional Software Development Origin of Agile Methodologies Agile Manifesto, Principles & Practices Agile Vs Traditional Methods So What is Agile ?
  • 7. Software Development - 1970s • Cowboy Coding (Adhoc Code & Fix approach)  Project Failures • Computing Time Costly  Failure Not an Option • Birth of Software Engineering Discipline (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 8. Software Engineering Discipline • Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) models – Waterfall, V-Model, Spiral, Incremental, Iterative • Standards & Process Frameworks – DOD Standards, CMM, ISO, SPICE (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 9. Traditional SDLC– Waterfall Model Source : http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Waterfall_model.svg SDLC – Software Development Life Cycle
  • 10. Traditional SDLC - Limitations • Change Management difficult • Heavy Documentation not read and understood • Big Upfront Planning cannot predict uncertainties • Hand-offs foster adversarial relationship • Late Availability of Working Software leads to delayed customer feedback (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 11. Business Scenario – 1990s onwards S ource : http://www.stratabridge.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/VUCA-Definition.jpg
  • 12. Standish Group – CHAOS Report 1994 • 84 % Projects Challenged or Failures – Only 16 % Projects Successful • Top Reasons for Failure – Incomplete Requirements – Lack of User Involvement – Lack of Resources – Unrealistic Expectations – Lack of Executive Support (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 13. Origin of Agile Methodologies
  • 14. Emergence of Lightweight Methodologies • 1992 – Crystal Methods • 1994 – DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method) • 1995 – Scrum • 1997 – FDD (Feature Driven Development) • 1999 – ASD (Adaptive Software Development), XP (Extreme Programming) (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 15. Feb 11-13, 2001 - 17 Thought Leaders @ Snowbird Ski Resort, Utah http://setandbma.wordpress.com/2012/03/23/agile-history
  • 17. The Agile Manifesto We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others to do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Agile Alliance Members http://www.agilemanifesto.org/
  • 20. 12 Agile Principles 1. Customer Satisfaction 2. Welcome Changing Requirements 3. Deliver Working Software Frequently 4. Business People and Developers to Work Together 5. Motivated Individuals 6. Face-to-Face Conversations 7. Working Software is the Primary Measure of Progress 8. Sustained Pace of Development 9. Technical Excellence and Good Design 10. Simplicity is Essential 11. Self-organizing Team 12. Regular Tunings and Adjustments of Team Behavior
  • 22. Agile Vs Traditional Methods Traditional Method Agile Method Changes Resisted and Controlled Welcomed and Adapted to Contracts Binding Flexible Customer Interaction During selected milestones Continuous Delivery One-time Iterative and Incremental Orientation Process People Process Heavyweight Lightweight Requirements Architecture & Design Defined Upfront Evolves Roles More Less Success Criteria Conformance to the Requirements Business value delivered to the customer (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 23. Waterfall Projects Vs Agile Projects
  • 24. Project Success Scenario in 2009 • Standish Group - CHAOS Report 1994 – Only 16 % Projects Successful • Standish Group - CHAOS Report 2009 – 32 % Projects Succeeded • Project Success Rate doubled in 15 years • Coincides with the Agile emergence • Still a long way to go ! (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 25. Agile projects - 3 times more successful Source : http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/blog/agile-succeeds-three-times- more-often-than-waterfall
  • 26. Agile Methodologies - Characteristics • Business Value Focus • Iterative • Incremental • Time-boxed • Feedback (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 28. Agile is…. • A set of Engineering Practices that – enable rapid delivery • Project Management that – encourages frequent inspection and adaptation • A Business Approach that – aligns development with customer needs and company goals • Leadership that encourages – teamwork, self-organization and accountability • A set of Values and Principles that should be – internalized by every Agile Practitioner (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 29. 2: Overview of Scrum Empirical Process Control Scrum Lifecycle & Framework Scrum Roles 3 Pillars of Scrum Transparency , Inspection and Adaptation
  • 33. Empirical Process Control • Knowledge comes from experience • Making decisions based on what is known. • Iterative & Incremental approach – to optimize predictability and control risk. • Empirical Process Control Theory is the foundation of Scrum (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 35. Scrum Cancel Gift wrap Return Sprint 2-4 weeks Return Sprint goal Sprint backlog Potentially shippable product increment Product backlog CouponsGift wrap Coupons Cancel 24 hours
  • 36. Putting it all together Image available at www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/scrum
  • 37. Sequential vs. overlapping development Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986. Rather than doing all of one thing at a time... ...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time Requirements Design Code Test
  • 38. No changes during a sprint • Plan sprint durations around how long you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint Change
  • 40. Scrum framework •Product owner •ScrumMaster • Development Team Roles •Sprint planning •Daily Scrum •Sprint review •Sprint retrospective Ceremonies •Product backlog •Sprint backlog •Increment Artifacts
  • 42. Scrum framework •Sprint planning •Daily scrum meeting •Sprint review •Sprint retrospective Ceremonies •Product backlog •Sprint backlog •Increment Artifacts •Product owner •ScrumMaster • Development Team Roles
  • 43. Product owner • Define the features of the product • Make scope vs schedule decisions • Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI) • Prioritize features according to market value • Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed • Accept or reject work results
  • 44. The ScrumMaster • Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices • Removes impediments • Coaches the team to their best possible performance • Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive • Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions • Shield the team from external interferences
  • 45. The Development Team • Typically 5-9 people • Cross-functional: – Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc. • Members should be full-time – May be exceptions (e.g., database administrator) • Teams are self-organizing – Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility • Membership should change only between sprints
  • 47. Transparency • Significant aspects of the process visible – to those responsible for the outcome • Aspects be defined by a common standard – to share a common understanding • For e.g. – A common language referring to the process – A common definition of “Done”1 (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 48. Inspection • Frequently inspect to detect undesirable variances – Not so frequent to get in the way of the work – Most beneficial when diligently performed by skilled inspectors at the point of work. (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 49. Adaptation • Adjustment of the process or the material being processed if – one or more aspects of a process deviate outside acceptable limits, and – that the resulting product will be unacceptable • Made as soon as possible – to minimize further deviation. • Four formal opportunities in Scrum for inspection and adaptation – Sprint Planning Meeting , Daily Scrum , Sprint Review Meeting , Sprint Retrospective (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 50. Scrum - Summary © 2010 Pete Deemer, Gabrielle Benefield, Craig Larman, Bas Vodde http://www.goodagile.com/scrumprimer/scrumprimer.pdf
  • 51. 3: Product Vision and Roadmap Five Levels of Planning Product Vision – Example & Template Product Roadmap – Example & Template
  • 53. Product Vision and Product Roadmap
  • 54. Product Vision • Visualizes the Released Product • Guides Product Development • Overarching Goal that Everyone Shares (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 55. Product Vision (contd..) • Who is the target customer? • What customer needs will it solve? • What are its critical attributes? • What are its unique selling points? (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 56. Example- Silicon Graphics Workstations For movie producers and others who depend heavily on post-production special effects the Silicon Graphics is a range of workstations That have capabilities to integrate digital fantasies with actual film footage. Unlike other general purpose computer workstations, Our products are a no-compromise commitment to meeting film makers' post-production needs [Adapted from Geoffery Moore’s example in the book Crossing the Chasm] (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 57. Product Vision - Template For <target customer> Who <statement of the need or opportunity> The <product name> is a <product category> That <key benefit, compelling reason to buy> Unlike <primary competitive alternative> Our product <statement of primary differentiation> [Geoffery Moore’s in the book Crossing the Chasm] (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 58. Product Roadmap • High-level strategic plan providing longer- term outlook • Helps to secure funds • Sets expectations • Aligns stakeholders • Facilitates prioritization & coordination • Provides Reassurance to the Customers (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 59. Product Roadmap (contd..) • Names of the releases planned • Dates/ timeframes of releases • Goals of each release • Key features of each release • Release Success Criteria (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 60. Example – Product Roadmap of a Dance Game • A dance game for girls aged eight to 12 years. • Fun and educational • Allows the players to – modify the characters – change the music – dance with remote players – choreograph new dances.
  • 62. Example – Product Roadmap of a Dance Game (contd..) http://www.slideshare.net/romanpichler/agile-product-roadmap-tutorial
  • 63. 4: Release Planning Product Backlog – Examples and Attributes Product Backlog Creation Steps User Stories – Writing, INVEST criteria, Splitting Techniques User Story Estimation – Story Points, Planning Poker Product Backlog Prioritization and Ordering Release Plan Creation
  • 65. Product Backlog • A Single, Transparent and Official List of Requirements or Pending Activities • Maintained by Product Owner • Continuously Evolves throughout the product lifecycle – depending on changes in business requirements, market conditions, or technology (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 66. Product Backlog Items (PBIs) • Customer-centric Features – Epics and User Stories • Technical Improvements – Refactoring, Performance improvements • Research Work (aka Spikes) – the ones needed for implementing features • Known Defects – only if they are few in numbers (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 67. PBIs - Examples Source : http://www.goodagile.com/scrumprimer/scrumprimer.pdf
  • 68. Product Backlog – Attributes Detailed Appropriately Estimated Emergent Prioritized Source: Agile Product Management, Roman Pichler
  • 69. Product Backlog Creation Steps • Write User Stories and other PBIs • Prioritize/Order based on business value • Split/Slice the Epics (Big PBI) • Estimate PBI size (relative estimation) • Evaluate risks and dependencies • Determine the order of development (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 70. Product Backlog Creation - User Story Writing
  • 71. Epic • Large Feature/Functionality in the Product Roadmap • Too big to be DONE in one sprint • To be broken down into smaller features/functionalities (User Stories) (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 72. User Story • A smallest piece of Functionality from the User Perspective that can be DONE in one sprint – DONE means potentially releasable condition • Has Business Value • Description has 3 Parts – User (Who ?) – Functionality (What?) – Business Justification (Why ?) • Must be accompanied by an Acceptance Criteria (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 73. User Story Acceptance Criteria • Conditions that a story must satisfy to be accepted by PO • A set of statements, each with a clear pass/fail result, that specify both functional and non- functional requirements (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 74. The 3 Cs of a User Story
  • 75. User Roles • Recognize and Explicitly Identify Multiple User Roles • Avoid the word “User” in the Stories • Don’t Write Stories from a single User Role Perspective
  • 76. User story format As a <User> I can <Functionality> so that <Business Justification> (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 77. User Stories - Samples
  • 78. User Stories – Acceptance Criteria • An Example
  • 79. User Story – Review Criteria Source: www.gearstream.com
  • 80. User Stories - INVEST • Independent – Should be possible to implement in any order – Should not overlap each other – Example Image Source: www.gearstream.com
  • 81. User Stories – INVEST (contd..) • Negotiable – Should be descriptive, not prescriptive – Not exhaustive – Should stimulate conversation between the team and the Product Owner or Customer – Example • As a book-lover, I want to download a new book so that I can save time going to a bookshop (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 82. User Stories – INVEST (contd..) • Valuable to Users or Customers – Should have clear external value Does not describe the value to the customer Written from developer perspective Image Source: www.gearstream.com
  • 83. User Stories – INVEST (contd..) • Estimatable – Should be descriptive enough to be estimated • Small – Should require no more than 4 days and no less than ½ day of work to implement • Testable – Should be able to prove that it is truly DONE – Acceptance Criteria is defined (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 84. INVEST - Summary Source: http://www.slideshare.net/thomasjeffreyandersontwin/lean-agile-stack-training-kanban-scrum-user-stories
  • 85. Good Acceptance Criteria • State an intent not a solution – e.g. “The user can choose an account” rather than “The user can select the account from a drop-down” • Are independent of implementation – discuss WHAT is expected, and not HOW the functionality will be implemented • Are relatively high level – more details (if needed) are captured in team member’s internal notes or in automated acceptance tests (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 86. Product Backlog Creation Steps • Write User Stories and other PBIs • Prioritize/Order based on business value • Split/Slice the Epics (Big PBI) • Estimate PBI size (relative estimation) • Evaluate risks and dependencies • Determine the order of development (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 87. Product Backlog Creation - User Story Splitting/Slicing
  • 88. Why Split User Stories ? • To create smaller stories that are potentially shippable by the end of a sprint • More focus • Flexibility to reconfigure and adapt to new discoveries and changes • More feedback opportunities (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 89. User Story Splitting - Horizontal http://www.deltamatrix.com/horizontal-and-vertical-user-stories-slicing-the-cake
  • 90. User Story Splitting - Vertical http://www.deltamatrix.com/horizontal-and-vertical-user-stories-slicing-the-cake
  • 91. User Story – Basis of Various Splitting Techniques • Requirements Options – Ellen Gottesdiener & Mary Gorman • Incremental build up of quality – Gerard Mezzaros and Jeff Patton • Nine Patterns of Functional Complexity – Richard Lawrence • Twenty Ways based on Big Picture, User Experience, “illities”, and Features – Bill Wake The above techniques have overlaps and are not mutually exclusive (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 92. User Story Splitting – Requirements Options Source: “Slicing Requirements for Agile Success”, Ellen Gottesdiener and Mary Gorman , Better Software , July/August 2010
  • 94. © Jeff Patton, all rights reserved, www.AgileProductDesign.com User Story Splitting – Incremental build up of quality • Bare Necessity – For the feature to be minimally demonstrable – but not releasable, what is the minimal functionality – Example: A form with only necessary fields and no validation • Capability & Flexibility – What would add the ability to perform the user task in different ways? Adding in sub tasks that are optionally performed? – Example: a form with optional fields, date lookup tools, input translation on dates • Safety – What would make this feature safer for me to use? For both the user, and for the business paying for the software? – Example: input validation, enforcement of business rules such as credit card validation • Usability, Performance, Jazziness – What would make this feature easier to use? More desirable to use? Faster to use? – Example: auto-completion, jazzy visual design, speed keys •Adapted from Gerard Meszaros’ “Storyotypes” in http://www.agileproductdesign.com/downloads/patton_user_story_mapping.ppt(c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 95. User Story Splitting – Functional Complexity Patterns • Workflow steps • Business rule variations • Major effort • Simple/complex • Variations in data • Data display /entry methods • Defer performance • Operations (e.g. CRUD) • ‘Spike’ it Source: http://www.richardlawrence.info/2009/10/28/patterns-for-splitting- user-stories
  • 98. User Story Splitting – Twenty Ways Source :Bill Wake, http://xp123.com/articles/twenty-ways-to-split-stories
  • 99. Product Backlog Creation - User Story Estimation
  • 100. User Story Estimation • Estimation Unit – Story Point (SP) • Basis of Estimation – Size, – Complexity – Uncertainty – Effort • Estimation Scale – 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20 ,40, 100 • Relative Estimation • Collaborative & Consensus Based (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 101. Estimation Techniques • Planning Poker • Affinity Sizing • Complexity Buckets (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 102. Planning Poker • Estimation from Multiple Perspectives • Discussion Oriented • Fun Image Source : https://www.crisp.se/bocker-och-produkter/planning-poker
  • 103. Affinity Sizing/Triangulation of Estimates For e.g. An User Story of 2 SPs must be roughly twice as big/complex as an User Story of 1 SP and less than half as big/complex as an User Story of 5 SP Source: Agile Estimation and Planning by Mike Cohn
  • 105. Story Point Estimates - Benefits • A pure measure of size – Easier to provide relative estimates • Estimates do not change – when team’s understanding of the technology and the domain improves • Estimating process help in driving cross- functional behavior – During estimation all specialists discuss and arrive at a single story point estimate (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 106. Product Backlog Creation – Prioritization / Ordering
  • 107. Product Backlog – Prioritization/Development Order Criteria • Business Value • Risks • Size/Complexity • Infrastructure needs • Dependencies • Return on Investment • Grouping based on ease of development
  • 109. Release Plan • Maps Major Features to Specific Releases • More Detailed than Product Roadmap, Less Detailed than Sprint (Iteration) Plan • Continuously updated based on rate of progress (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 110. Velocity • Measure of Rate of Progress • Sum of Story Points of the Stories DONE in an iteration • Story Points of the Work-in-Progress Stories not counted • Useful for Forecasting – Final Delivery Dates for a Fixed Scope of Features – Features that can be delivered on a Fixed Date (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 111. Estimating Velocity • Use Past Data • Run an Iteration and Use the Velocity of that Iteration • Take a Guess (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 112. Release Planning Steps • Select Iteration Length : 2-4 weeks • Estimate Iteration Velocity • Allocate Stories to Iterations as per Priority and Velocity (c) Dr. Gopinath Ramakrishnan, 2015
  • 113. Release Plan – An Example Source: www.gearstream.com