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Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Sustainable food systems
Sustainable
food system
Vibrant local
economy
Good health
Culturally
appropriate
Social equity
Environmentally
sustainable
www.ipes-food.org
Transdisciplinary - Political economy
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
What is wrong with our food systems?
Triple burden of malnutrition
• Hunger, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity &NCDs
Environmentally unsustainable
• Biodiversity losses, water pollution, soil degradation, GHG
emissions, unsustainable use of natural resources, low resilience …
Social inequities
• Poverty, disempowerment …
Neglect of cultural values
 Directly associated with current food systems based
on industrial agriculture
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Industrial vs diversified agroecology
CONVENTIONAL/INDUSTRIAL
Mainly monocultures,
concentrated animal feedlots
Genetically uniform varieties and
specialized breeds
Vertical and horizontal segregation
of product chains
Highly mechanized, labour saving
with use of seasonal labourers at
peak times (e.g. harvest)
DIVERSIFIED AGROECOLOGICAL
Temporal & spatial diversification
at plot, farm & landscape level
Less uniform, locally adapted
varieties and breeds
Integrated systems with natural
synergies
More labour intensive, all year
round employment with better
employment conditions
Industrial vs diversified agroecology
CONVENTIONAL/INDUSTRIAL
Maximization of yield/ha from a
single/few product(s)
Intensive use of external/synthetic
inputs
Large volumes of homogenous
products for national and
international markets through long
value chains
DIVERSIFIED AGROECOLOGICAL
Maximization of multiple
outputs/products
Low external inputs, nutrient
cycling, circular economy
Wide range of products of more
diverse products often destined at
short value chains. Multiple
sources of production, income and
livelihoods
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
From Uniformity to Diversity
The report :
• First compares the outcomes of two different models:
• industrial agriculture and
• diversified agroecological systems
• Then takes a political economy perspective and asks:
What is keeping industrial agriculture in place?
• Highlights positive changes and
• Finally asks how can the balance be shifted?
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
What diversified agrocecological
systems can bring
◦ Economic
◦ Productivity and income
◦ Resilience and stability
◦ Environmental
◦ Ecosystem services
◦ Biodiversity
◦ Health: better nutrition and healthy environment
◦ Social: Employment
◦ Cultural: respect for cultural preferences
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Outcomes of diversified grasslands:
productivity
NB: As there are little data comparing diversified agroecological systems
with conventional/industrial agriculture, we use diversity and/or organic
agriculture or other alternative systems as proxys
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Outcomes of organic agriculture:
productivity
“Overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields. But these
yield differences are highly contextual …, and range from 5% lower organic yields
to 34% lower yields”. (Seufert et al. 2012)
Increased yield in 17% of comparisons for organic agriculture and 87% of
comparisons for SRI (Garbach et al. 2016)
But most comparisons are done over short periods!
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Outcomes of diversified agroecological
systems: productivity & resilience
30 years comparison of organic/conventional
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Environmental outcomes
◦ Keep/put carbon in the soil: turns agriculture
into a solution rather than a problem
◦ Restore degraded land
◦ Improve ecosystem services
◦ Water and nutrient cycling
◦ Pollination
◦ Pest and disease management
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Ecosystem services & yield
Source: Garbach et al., 2016
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Outcomes of diversified agroecological
systems: boosting biodiversity
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Outcomes of diversified agroecological
systems: Virtuous cycles
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Nutrition and health
◦ Avoids the negative health outcomes of industrial
agriculture: pesticides/antibiotics
◦ Diverse, healthy diets
◦ Increased levels of beneficial nutrients, such as
omega 3 fatty acids, and antioxidants such as
polyphenols…
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Social and Cultural
 Social:
 More employment
 Employment throughout the year
 Closer links with consumers
Cultural:
 Cultivation of diversity of traditional crops
 Integration of traditional knowledge
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
A major question
Why do we not see a major transition towards
diversified agroecological systems, given the
expanding evidence that they can deliver on all
dimensions of sustainable food systems?
 The political economy of food systems
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
What prevents change: 8 Lock-ins
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Market concentration in multiple sectors
• 3 companies control 50% of commercial seed market.
• 7 companies control majority of fertilizer sales.
• 5 companies share 68% of agrochemical market.
• 4 firms account for 97% of private R&D in poultry.
• 4 firms control up to 90% of the global grain trade.
65% ?
X
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
All have a common interest: maintaining industrial
agriculture
…. But things are changing
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
8 Emerging opportunities for a transition
to diversified agroecological systems
• Global recognition (MEA, IAASTD, FAO, 10YFP)
• Changing policies (CAP, Brazil, Cuba, France)
• Emerging multi-stakeholder initiatives (FPCs, JRC, NL)
• Integrated landscape thinking (City region, ILM, LPFN)
• Integrated food systems science (FSCs)
• Peer-to-peer action research (CaC, FFS …)
• Healthy Eating and Sustainable Sourcing (OA, FT …)
• Short supply chains
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Changing the
paradigm
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Measuring what matters
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Recommendations
1. Develop new indicators for sustainable food systems.
2. Shift public support towards diversified agroecological production
systems.
3. Support short circuits & alternative retail infrastructures.
4. Use public procurement to support local agroecological produce.
5. Strengthen movements that unify diverse constituencies around
agroecology.
6. Mainstream agroecology and holistic food systems approaches into
education and research agendas.
7. Develop food planning processes and ‘food policies’ at all levels.
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Different pathways, common goal
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Key messages
• Industrial agriculture provides calories to global
markets, but with many negative outcomes
• Problems are linked specifically to industrial
agriculture
• Industrial agriculture is locked in place by a series of
vicious cycles
• Tweaking practices can improve some of the specific
outcomes, but will not provide long-term solutions to
the multiple problems
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Key messages (cont’d)
• What is required is a fundamentally different
model of agriculture: diversified agroecological
systems
•These systems can compete with industrial
agriculture in terms of total outputs, performing
particularly strongly under environmental stress
• Change is already happening
• A series of modest steps can collectively shift the
centre of gravity in food systems
Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD
Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
Thank you!
www.ipes-food.org

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From uniformity to diversity - Emile Frison (IPES food)

  • 1. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
  • 2. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Sustainable food systems Sustainable food system Vibrant local economy Good health Culturally appropriate Social equity Environmentally sustainable www.ipes-food.org Transdisciplinary - Political economy
  • 3. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 What is wrong with our food systems? Triple burden of malnutrition • Hunger, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity &NCDs Environmentally unsustainable • Biodiversity losses, water pollution, soil degradation, GHG emissions, unsustainable use of natural resources, low resilience … Social inequities • Poverty, disempowerment … Neglect of cultural values  Directly associated with current food systems based on industrial agriculture
  • 4. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
  • 5. Industrial vs diversified agroecology CONVENTIONAL/INDUSTRIAL Mainly monocultures, concentrated animal feedlots Genetically uniform varieties and specialized breeds Vertical and horizontal segregation of product chains Highly mechanized, labour saving with use of seasonal labourers at peak times (e.g. harvest) DIVERSIFIED AGROECOLOGICAL Temporal & spatial diversification at plot, farm & landscape level Less uniform, locally adapted varieties and breeds Integrated systems with natural synergies More labour intensive, all year round employment with better employment conditions
  • 6. Industrial vs diversified agroecology CONVENTIONAL/INDUSTRIAL Maximization of yield/ha from a single/few product(s) Intensive use of external/synthetic inputs Large volumes of homogenous products for national and international markets through long value chains DIVERSIFIED AGROECOLOGICAL Maximization of multiple outputs/products Low external inputs, nutrient cycling, circular economy Wide range of products of more diverse products often destined at short value chains. Multiple sources of production, income and livelihoods
  • 7. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 From Uniformity to Diversity The report : • First compares the outcomes of two different models: • industrial agriculture and • diversified agroecological systems • Then takes a political economy perspective and asks: What is keeping industrial agriculture in place? • Highlights positive changes and • Finally asks how can the balance be shifted?
  • 8. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 What diversified agrocecological systems can bring ◦ Economic ◦ Productivity and income ◦ Resilience and stability ◦ Environmental ◦ Ecosystem services ◦ Biodiversity ◦ Health: better nutrition and healthy environment ◦ Social: Employment ◦ Cultural: respect for cultural preferences
  • 9. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Outcomes of diversified grasslands: productivity NB: As there are little data comparing diversified agroecological systems with conventional/industrial agriculture, we use diversity and/or organic agriculture or other alternative systems as proxys
  • 10. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Outcomes of organic agriculture: productivity “Overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields. But these yield differences are highly contextual …, and range from 5% lower organic yields to 34% lower yields”. (Seufert et al. 2012) Increased yield in 17% of comparisons for organic agriculture and 87% of comparisons for SRI (Garbach et al. 2016) But most comparisons are done over short periods!
  • 11. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Outcomes of diversified agroecological systems: productivity & resilience 30 years comparison of organic/conventional
  • 12. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Environmental outcomes ◦ Keep/put carbon in the soil: turns agriculture into a solution rather than a problem ◦ Restore degraded land ◦ Improve ecosystem services ◦ Water and nutrient cycling ◦ Pollination ◦ Pest and disease management
  • 13. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Ecosystem services & yield Source: Garbach et al., 2016
  • 14. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Outcomes of diversified agroecological systems: boosting biodiversity
  • 15. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Outcomes of diversified agroecological systems: Virtuous cycles
  • 16. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Nutrition and health ◦ Avoids the negative health outcomes of industrial agriculture: pesticides/antibiotics ◦ Diverse, healthy diets ◦ Increased levels of beneficial nutrients, such as omega 3 fatty acids, and antioxidants such as polyphenols…
  • 17. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Social and Cultural  Social:  More employment  Employment throughout the year  Closer links with consumers Cultural:  Cultivation of diversity of traditional crops  Integration of traditional knowledge
  • 18. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 A major question Why do we not see a major transition towards diversified agroecological systems, given the expanding evidence that they can deliver on all dimensions of sustainable food systems?  The political economy of food systems
  • 19. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 What prevents change: 8 Lock-ins
  • 20. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Market concentration in multiple sectors • 3 companies control 50% of commercial seed market. • 7 companies control majority of fertilizer sales. • 5 companies share 68% of agrochemical market. • 4 firms account for 97% of private R&D in poultry. • 4 firms control up to 90% of the global grain trade. 65% ? X
  • 21. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
  • 22. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 All have a common interest: maintaining industrial agriculture …. But things are changing
  • 23. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 8 Emerging opportunities for a transition to diversified agroecological systems • Global recognition (MEA, IAASTD, FAO, 10YFP) • Changing policies (CAP, Brazil, Cuba, France) • Emerging multi-stakeholder initiatives (FPCs, JRC, NL) • Integrated landscape thinking (City region, ILM, LPFN) • Integrated food systems science (FSCs) • Peer-to-peer action research (CaC, FFS …) • Healthy Eating and Sustainable Sourcing (OA, FT …) • Short supply chains
  • 24. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Changing the paradigm
  • 25. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Measuring what matters
  • 26. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Recommendations 1. Develop new indicators for sustainable food systems. 2. Shift public support towards diversified agroecological production systems. 3. Support short circuits & alternative retail infrastructures. 4. Use public procurement to support local agroecological produce. 5. Strengthen movements that unify diverse constituencies around agroecology. 6. Mainstream agroecology and holistic food systems approaches into education and research agendas. 7. Develop food planning processes and ‘food policies’ at all levels.
  • 27. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Different pathways, common goal
  • 28. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016
  • 29. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Key messages • Industrial agriculture provides calories to global markets, but with many negative outcomes • Problems are linked specifically to industrial agriculture • Industrial agriculture is locked in place by a series of vicious cycles • Tweaking practices can improve some of the specific outcomes, but will not provide long-term solutions to the multiple problems
  • 30. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Key messages (cont’d) • What is required is a fundamentally different model of agriculture: diversified agroecological systems •These systems can compete with industrial agriculture in terms of total outputs, performing particularly strongly under environmental stress • Change is already happening • A series of modest steps can collectively shift the centre of gravity in food systems
  • 31. Emile A. Frison – IPES FOOD Journées agriculture, Brussels, 21 November 2016 Thank you! www.ipes-food.org