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       From Theory        to Practice: Helping every    Learner Succeed Faculty Training Presented by Maria Keckler
Theory Coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena: i.e., Einstein's theory of relativity.
Behaviorism (Skinner) Learning = change in overt behavior Stimulus  Response (S-R) Reinforcement vs.  Aversive stimuli Free will and Social Control
Cognitive Development (Piaget) Key idea: Making Sense of Your World
Constructivist (Vygotsky) Key idea: Collaboration or Scaffolding Social Development Full cognitive development requires social interaction
Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Key idea:  Modeling       Observational learning (organizing, rehearsing, modeling) Modeling behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others
Social Learning Cont…
Activity: Take out a piece of paper to write your name. ,[object Object],Now switch your pen or pencil to your opposite hand and write your name again ,[object Object],[object Object]
Learning Styles Considerations Focus Observe Listen Experiment Learn
Keys to Unlocking  Learning Styles
How you view the world… How you use Information…
Characteristics of Four Mind-Styles
Lighting Time of Day Temperature Study Design
Visual: Seeing is Important Kinesthetic: Movement is Important Auditory:Hearing is Important
OR Analytic: Breaks the component into smaller parts Global: Tends to grasp the overall situation
The “He-Who” Principle I thank my God every time I remember you.  In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel from the first day until now, being confident of this, that HE whobegan a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus.  Philippians 1:3-6
Your Turn
Resources  The Way They Learn: How to Discover and Teach to Your Child’s Strengths* Cynthia Ulrich Tobias Tyndale House Publishers Wheaton, IL   1994 Every Child Can Succeed* Cynthia Ulrich Tobias Tyndale House Publishers Wheaton, IL   1996 Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database http://tip.psychology.org/index.html
From Theory to Practice: Every Learner Can Succeed

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From Theory to Practice: Every Learner Can Succeed

  • 1. From Theory to Practice: Helping every Learner Succeed Faculty Training Presented by Maria Keckler
  • 2. Theory Coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena: i.e., Einstein's theory of relativity.
  • 3. Behaviorism (Skinner) Learning = change in overt behavior Stimulus  Response (S-R) Reinforcement vs. Aversive stimuli Free will and Social Control
  • 4. Cognitive Development (Piaget) Key idea: Making Sense of Your World
  • 5.
  • 6. Constructivist (Vygotsky) Key idea: Collaboration or Scaffolding Social Development Full cognitive development requires social interaction
  • 7. Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Key idea: Modeling Observational learning (organizing, rehearsing, modeling) Modeling behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others
  • 9.
  • 10. Learning Styles Considerations Focus Observe Listen Experiment Learn
  • 11. Keys to Unlocking Learning Styles
  • 12. How you view the world… How you use Information…
  • 13. Characteristics of Four Mind-Styles
  • 14. Lighting Time of Day Temperature Study Design
  • 15. Visual: Seeing is Important Kinesthetic: Movement is Important Auditory:Hearing is Important
  • 16. OR Analytic: Breaks the component into smaller parts Global: Tends to grasp the overall situation
  • 17.
  • 18. The “He-Who” Principle I thank my God every time I remember you. In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel from the first day until now, being confident of this, that HE whobegan a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus. Philippians 1:3-6
  • 20. Resources The Way They Learn: How to Discover and Teach to Your Child’s Strengths* Cynthia Ulrich Tobias Tyndale House Publishers Wheaton, IL 1994 Every Child Can Succeed* Cynthia Ulrich Tobias Tyndale House Publishers Wheaton, IL 1996 Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database http://tip.psychology.org/index.html

Editor's Notes

  1. Disclaimer: I’m providing my speaker notes for your reference. I don’t proofread the notes extensively as I normally don’t share them. Please excuse typos.
  2. “Theory” is defined as a coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena. Einstein's theory of relativity is one example.Why do we study theory? Theories serve a number of important purposes. They provide a framework for understanding human behavior, thought, and development. By having a broad base of understanding about the how's and why's of human behavior, we can better understand ourselves and others.Is important to know that theories are dynamic and always changing. As new discoveries are made, theories are modified and adapted to account for new information. And although Christian education is based on Biblical principles and absolutes, various learning theories can provide a good starting point from which we can begin planning our instruction.
  3. Overview: The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforces -- any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from adversive stimuli -- punishment -- which result in reduced responses). Application: Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings for behavior modification as well as inclassroom management.
  4. Piaget's Model of Cognitive DevelopmentIn the 1920s Piaget observed children reasoning and understanding differently, depending on their age. He proposed that all children progress through a series of cognitive stages of development, just as they progress through a series of physical stages of development. According to Piaget, the rate at which children pass through these cognitive stages may vary, but they eventually pass through all of them in the same order. Piaget introduced several other important concepts. According to Piaget, cognitive development occurs from two processes: adaptation and equilibrium. Adaptation involves the child's changing to meet situational demands. Equilibrium is the search for “balance” between self and the world. A need to Make sense of the world is the key idea.
  5. You can pause the narration to examine the following chart. Here are some application for Piaget’s theory:Applying Piaget's theory results in specific recommendations for a given stage of cognitive development. For example, with children in the sensorimotor stage, teachers should try to provide a rich and stimulating environment with ample objects to play with. On the other hand, with children in the concrete operational stage, learning activities should involve problems of classification, ordering, location, conservation using concrete objects. Principles: 1. Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of cognitive development. 2. Cognitive development is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation and accomodation. 3. Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of given age; avoid asking students to perform tasks that are beyond their currrent cognitive capabilities. 4. Use teaching methods that actively involve students and present challenges.
  6. Example: Vygotsky provided the example of pointing a finger. Initially, this behavior begins as a meaningless grasping motion; however, as people react to the gesture, it becomes a movement that has meaning. In particular, the pointing gesture represents an interpersonal connection between individuals. Principles: 1. Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age. 2. Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
  7. Overview: The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.Example: The most common (and pervasive) examples of social learning situations are television commercials. Commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people. Depending upon the component processes involved (such as attention or motivation), we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised.
  8. Here’s a simple way to illustrate the principles of Social Learning Theory:1. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing. 2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. 3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
  9. This activity may give you an idea of what some of students in your classroom feel when you move them out of their style of learning.
  10. The first question is How do you communicate what you know?As you become a master observer, there are two things to look for:The way in which we view the world… And the way we use information we perceive… Could you think of how the four possible combinations would view and use information differently? Take a look at the following characteristics (next slide)
  11. Refer to the Multiple Intelligences resources. Remember that they are also an important part of your instruction planning process.
  12. Now it’s your turn. Theories are abstract until you begin putting them into practice. And the way you put them into practice is by incorporating them into the planning of your lessons. And that’s what you will be doing next.
  13. For future study