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The French Revolution Essay
The French Revolution
The French Revolution last from 1789 to 1799. This war had many causes that began the revolution.
Its causes ranged from the American Revolution, the economic crisis in France, social injustices to
the immediate causes like the fall of Bastille, the Convening of he Estate–General, and the Great
Fear. As a result of this revolution there many effects , immediate and long term. The immediate
effects were the declaration of rights of man, abolishing of olds reign, execution of king and queen,
the reign of terror, and war and forming of the citizen–army. The long term effects were the rise of
Napoleon, spread of revolutionary ideas, growth of nationalism, and the conservative reaction.
The contributing factors to...show more content...
In this way the privileged classes had combined to outvote the third estate, which included more than
90 percent of the population. Another cause was the fall of Bastille. The falling of the Bastille
marked a turning point–attempts at reform had become a full–scale revolution. One of the causes
was the economic problems of many common people had become worse, because poor weather
conditions had ruined the harvest. As a result, the price of bread, the most important food of the
poorer classes had increased. Violence grew in both the cities and the countryside during the
spring and summer. While hungry artisans revolted in urban areas, starved peasants searched the
provinces for food and work. These vagrants were rumored to be armed agents of landlords hired
to destroy crops and harass the common people. Many rural peasants began to panic, known as the
Great Fear. They attacked the homes of their landlords to protect local grain supplies and reducing
rents on their land. Also Lewis XVI gave in so reluctantly, for example, taking months to approve the
Declaration of Rights, which made hostility of the crown only increased.
The immediate effects of the French Revolution Was the Declaration of the Rights of Man. This was
one of the most constructive achievements of the French Revolution. The Rights of Man said that
there would be equality of all persons before the law; equitable taxation; protection against loss of
property through arbitrary
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The Causes Of The French Revolutionary War
The French Revolutionary War took place around April 20, 1792– March 25, 1802. The outbreak of
the French Revolution War confused nearly all the Europeans. Researching and listening to the
video gave me a understanding of how the causes of the French Revolutionary War came upon
around 1792. It was so complicated that it was divided into Three Estates or Orders. The First
Estate consisted of the clergy and the Second Estate the nobility however, the two estates I
mentioned accounted for 500,000 individuals. The Third Estate which basically meant everybody
else, or about 25 million people. The first estate was said to be that you the clergy was divided into
the lower and upper clergy. Members of the lower clergy were usually humble, poorly paid
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The French Revolution was a time of great social, political and economic tumult in the closing
years of the Eighteenth Century. The motivators pushing French citizenry toward revolution are
varied in scope and origin. They range from immediate economic woes to an antiquarian class
structure. Modern historians still debate the value of the changes that the revolution brought to
modern society. The middle class made gains that would never be rescinded, but do revolutions
always end in tyranny? In the years before the revolution citizens were rigidly constrained by the
estates of the realm. These social strata had been in place since the medieval ages. The people were
divided into three groups; clergy, nobility and everyone else. The clergy...show more content...
The high costs of maintaining the army and navy exacerbated the situation, along with the lavish
lifestyle of King Louis XVI and his queen, Marie–Antoinette. Louis appointed Charles de Calonne as
comptroller–general to solve France's financial crisis. Calonne knew that the only way to get
France out of debt was to fairly distribute the tax burden among the three estates. Of course, this
did sit well with the nobility and Calonne was dismissed after giving his presentation at the
Assembly of Notables. In a desperate act, Louis called the Estates General. The Estates General
was an ancient practice that had not been called since 1614. Events there would prove to be the
beginning of the revolution proper. France suffered under years of inept and self–serving monarchs.
Louis XVI was preceded by his grandfather, Louis XV. It was his loss of public opinion and war
spending that put his grandson in such a precarious position in the years after his reign. The rule
of Louis XVI would prove to be a doomed one. He was ousted after a comparatively short 17
years. The outdated political system gave way to a constitutional monarchy, and when that failed,
the French Republic. This Republic however would not prove to last. Feudalism was the whole of
existence for rural commoners in the time before the revolution. Farmers had no right to the land
they worked and lived on. Serfs were beholden to their manor lord
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Essay about Causes of the French Revolution
The French Revolution was caused by many factors; some were significant and played a large role
while others were of minor consequence. France was one of the richest and most powerful nations
even though they were facing some economic difficulties. The French Revolution was a pivotal
period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. During this period of time there
was the formation of republicanism which replaced the absolute monarchy in France. Before the
French Revolution Louis XVI was in power, but in due time his old regime of absolute monarchy
was brought down. Some people were in favor of this revolution wanting equality and some were
not. One person who was in favor of this desire for equality and change was...show more content...
When prices got so high that peasants and other third estate citizens couldn't afford food there was
an inevitable uprising. The peasantry became a class with the ambition to counteract social inequity
and put a stop to escalating food prices. This unrest caused a riot, known as the bread riot, which
became a central cause to the French Revolution.
Economics also played an important role in the French Revolution. In France there was an
abundance of debt and taxation. The French monarchy managed their fiscal affairs by using an
unequal system of taxation, borrowing money, or selling noble titles and other privileges. This led to
a long running fiscal debt. France could not solely rely on tariffs to generate income. Although other
countries had higher taxation rates, the burden on the common people was greater in France.
Peasants and other third estates were taxed harshly which in good times was burdensome and in bad
times it was devastating. Nobility and clergy were exempted from paying taxes. This left the
peasants, wage earners, and the professional and business classes with the burden of taxes. This
burden caused the unrest, which eventually led to the French Revolution.
Many things caused the French Revolution. I believe that absolutism and privilege, famine, and
economics were three of the most significant factors causing the French Revolution. These three
elements led people to be unhappy with the current government and want to overthrow it.
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The Causes Of The French Revolution
Good morning/Good afternoon I am Ella Nagle here to present to you the French Revolution.
Through violent and bloody means, the French revolution influenced modern law making through
the will power of the people. While it was only semi–successful in achieving all of its goals, it
provided drastic change to the society's social structure in France. The Revolution was a major
turning point in modern European history which began in 1789 lasting in to the late 1790's. "During
this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country's political landscape, uprooting
centuries–old institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system." (Staff, history.com,
2009). The movement ended with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. Similar to the American
Revolution it was an era of change and empowerment to the people of France. Towards the end of the
18th century Frances expensive involvement in the American Revolution brought the country to the
edge of bankruptcy. King Louis XVI(1754–1793) and his predecessor depleted the royal Coffers and
with the aid of "Twenty years of drought, poor cereal harvests, cattle diseases and skyrocketing
bread prices ignited unrest among the urban poor and peasants." (Staff, history.com, 2009) One of
the main causes of the Revolution was the rising wealth amongst the middle class known as the
bourgeoisie which consisted of wealthy commoners aspiring to political power. This increase was
due to a surge in peasants owning land which increased
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Causes of the French Revolution Essay
Causes of the French Revolution There were many causes and events leading up to the French
Revolution in 1789. Before the Revolution, France had been involved in many expensive wars,
especially the American War of Independence, causing financial difficulties and debts which were
increased through the expensive upkeep of the Royal Family and their courts. At this time the Age
of Enlightenment was occurring and new ideas, challenging the Ancien Regime and the Absolute
right to rule, were emerging. The monarch of the time, King Louis XVI, was a weak monarch
who was incapable of making decisions and sticking to them. King Louis XIV was also incapable of
using his powers in a way to spark fear and gain control of those under his power. As a...show more
content...
This meant that they were heavily taxed like the rest of the Third Estate, but many avaided taxes.
Some of the bourgeois were envious of the nobility and had resentment towards the First and
Second Estates, many against the Ancien Regime and well educated a large proportion of the
bourgeois knew of the discoveries happening during the Age of Enlightenment. The Ancien
Regime prioritised the people of France in order of Estates, with the King being above all, as a
result of the system keeping 97% of the population in one category the system did not satisfy
many of the bourgeois of the time resulting in them supporting the revolution. Before the
revolution France was ruled under the Ancien Regime system, meaning the country and all its
people were under the reign of an absolute monarch. This was a tradition that had been upheld
through the years and the Royal family had enjoyed a life funded by the people of France, the
royal family's lifestyle unaffected by the situation outside their palace. The Palace, Versailles, was
built by king Louis XIV and the expenses for building this "village" was very high, and in later
years the cost for its upkeep would play a significant role in Frances financial difficulties. In order
for these difficulties to be overcome France needed a tax reform. The government had a very high
tax rate on the poorest of their people, the Third Estate, and they were still not getting enough money
to get out of their
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Causes of the French Revolution Essay
The French Revolution was incited by a variety of reasons. At the time, the government was in a
serious deficit resulting in great taxations. They had spent huge sums of money on the French and
Indian War, and the king and nobility consumed much money to keep up with their lavish lifestyles.
In addition, there was a severe economic depression at the time. In areas of agriculture,
manufacturing, and trade, there were great downturns. Also, revolutionary ideas were instilled
within the people during the Enlightenment. Together, the financial condition of the government, the
economic depression, and the Enlightenment ideas played a pivotal role in causing the French
Revolution. In the late 1800s, the condition of the French government was...show more content...
They were against taxation without representation. In the government, the third estate was only
given one vote and was always overruled by the first two estates despite the fact they made up
ninety–seven percent of the population. The third estate wrote complaints regarding taxing, the
king, and voting in the estates general in a list called the Cahiers (Document 3). When King Louis
XVI failed to take action after receiving the list, the third estate called itself the National Assembly
and tried to work for the welfare of France. They made a pledge called the Tennis Court Oath and
started challenging the absolute monarchy in France; the French Revolution would soon follow.
Also, during that time there was a huge economic depression. Manufacturing and trade were at their
all–time low leaving many people jobless. Likewise, in agriculture, years of poor harvests caused
increases in food prices. There was an increased demand for food, but there was a smaller supply
resulting in increased prices. With higher food prices and lower incomes, the people of France
were facing many hardships. Bread, the staple food of France, was nearly unaffordable to the
majority of the people at the time, peasants (Document 1). Basic necessities, such as food and
clothing, became difficult to obtain. By 1789, many people in France were hungry and jobless. As a
result, there was growing discontent among the French people against the king and the government
for allowing
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The Causes Of The French Revolution
The French Revolution The French Revolution was arguably one of the most significant and
controversial events in European history. It occurred during the years 1789–1799 when many French
citizens became enraged with society and demanded political, financial and social change. The
French people's primary goal was to put an end to monarchy and bring reform to many aspects of
French life. Inspired and motivated by the famous American Revolution, French citizens were urged
to take action in order to bring forth the change they desired. They strived to better society and instill
Enlightenment ideals, such as popular sovereignty and inalienable rights, by any means necessary;
even if it meant killing thousands who got in their way....show more content...
Members of the Third Estate were expected to pay all taxes and the rich which belonged to the
second and first estates paid none. The Third Estate saw this as highly unfair and wanted financial
reform. France's economy fell apart and people began to experience food shortages; people even
started to starve. Scarce food supply played an additional role in the start of the revolution. With
the start of the revolution, people started to discuss the change they wanted to be done to society.
The National Assembly later met in a tennis court and swore the famous Tennis Court Oath, where
they agreed to never separate until a new and just constitution had been established for France.
Louis XVI responded by sending troops to Paris mainly to stop uprisings over food shortages, but
the revolutionaries viewed this as a provocation and attacked the Bastille Prison with a large angry
mob. Rioters stormed the Bastille fortress in an attempt to secure gunpowder and weapons. The
prison was a symbol of the royal authority in France to which they were revolting. This event
became known as The Storming of the Bastille and was commemorated as the start of the French
Revolution. Fear and violence consumed the capitol as Parisians panicked when rumors of an
impending military coup began to spread. Widespread hysteria quickly swept the countryside and
The Great Fear started. This period of panic was due to the rumors of an aristocratic conspiracy by
the king
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Causes Of The French Revolution
The French Revolution was a revolt from the people in France that lasted from 1789–1799. The
people of France wanted to be treated fairly and wanted justice for the commoners the only way they
could achieve this was through a revolution. The French Revolution caused many reforms
throughout France. These reforms have affected the people of France, and the surrounding nations
of France. The French Revolution was considered a major turning point in history.
The French Revolution was an uprising from the people under Louis XVI's rule, which lasted
from 1789 to 1799. Under King Louis XVI's rule, the majority of people were in poverty, with high
taxes and scarce food supplies. A great deal of the money from taxes were going towards the Palace
of...show more content...
Speculation of Louis's intent on ending the National Assembly spread. The people wanted to be
treated fairly and wanted justice, so they decided to revolt. To achieve this they stormed the
Bastille. They killed the guards and paraded their heads on pikes; next, they wanted the king's
head. They gathered weapons and gunpowder from the Bastille and searched for the king,
however he went into hiding and was not able to be found. This became known as the Storming
of the Bastille. Robespierre wanted justice for France and did not support the king; he later
became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. To keep the public safe he encouraged
execution. He did not want anyone to support the king and if you were to be thought to support
him, you would be sentenced to a trial and execution by guillotine. This was the beginning of the
Reign of Terror. People of France were scared to leave their homes due to the amount of public
executions that were happening at this time, they did not want to be next (Doc.6). Thousands of
citizens were being executed including Marie Antoinette. Robespierre, due to his unfair ruling, was
later executed by the guillotine. After the execution of Robespierre, the Directory reigned in power
(Doc.4). The Directory had five men who served as the directors. Napoleon gained the trust of the
Directory, and then overthrew their power with the
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What Was The Causes Of The French Revolution
Many factors led to the beginning of the slave revolts of Saint–Domingue in August of 1791, a large
portion of which were brought on by the burgeoning Revolution in France. The French Revolution
was an anti–monarchist revolution, which at points would border on anarchy, but one that was
largely based on ideals of egalitarianism. As the Revolution began, the Constituent Assembly
passed a document named 'The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'. This
document, in which the first clause explicitly states: "Men are born, and always continue, free and
equal in respect to their rights. Civil distinctions, therefore, can be founded only on public utility,"
gave slave and free blacks in the French Colonies a belief that issues involving race were
progressing. Despite the progression of idea in the slave colonies, the ruling French government
only went so far as to send out a decree on May 15, 1791 that enfranchised non–whites that were
born of free parents. The Constituent and Legislative Assemblies of the Revolution continued to see
slavery as a taboo subject, and tried to differentiate between the...show more content...
He continued towards the goal of the end of slavery with the support of French General Etienne
Laveaux. Soon after, in 1795, he became the Lieutenant Governor of Saint–Domingue and effectively
ruled the country autonomously. The British Empire, seeing a weakness in the French colonial
system, sent a force to intervene, which was defeated continuously by freed black slaves. Toussaint
would continue to can popularity and support with ever victory. This continued intervention by the
British Empire "helped the growing power of the blacks and the destruction of the French slave
regime." With his continued growing power as the near–dictator of Saint–Domingue, Toussaint, in
1801, proceeded to abolish slavery
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Causes Of The French Revolution
The spirit of 19th Century France was a dark era, for the French seemed stuck in the past. Although
most of Europe changed to a more democratic– like government, France continued under the rule of
an absolutist monarchy, and before the French revolution, France continued to live under the old
regime at full force. Additionally, reasons for theFrench Revolution vary from political to social
causes. Since the rule of Louis XIV, the country's administrative efficiency declined. The French
government rarely got the job done, and no one took steps to change the situation. Consequently,
France fought in so many unnecessary wars that they rarely won which hurt the economy
significantly. Moreover, the influence of the Enlightenment era of a less religious world introduced
the concept of opportunity throughout the classes, bringing into play the idea of privilege rather
than divine intervention. More than likely, the Enlightenment Era and the ideas that came with it of
progress, natural law, and reason influenced the French Revolution, for it resembled ideas from the
Renaissance, like individualism and the capacity of man to change the course of their life. Lastly,
19th Century France still lived under the old regime, which included fixed classes. Oppressed and
looked down upon, the third estate got tired of the dominance of the aristocracy, and such injustice
led them to rebel. Since most of the revolutionaries came from the third estate, the oppression and
injustice of this estate
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French Revolution Causes
The French Revolution was not an event that happened overnight but rather a series of events that
occurred over several years leading up to the overthrow of the monarchy and the implementation of a
new government. The Primary cause for the fall of the Ancien regime was its financial instability
and inability to improve upon the lives of the French people. The 4 key flaws or events leading to the
fall of the regime was; the structure of royal government, the taxation system, the structure of french
society and the Enlightenment. A major fault with the Ancien government was its inefficient and
corrupt taxation system. The biggest fault with the system was through how taxes were collected, a
method called tax farming. The government hired...show more content...
For example, the Church exerted a certain amount of influence over the King as they had certain
rights and privileges he couldn't touch for fear of angering religious zealots amongst the people.
Furthermore the King was unable to manage a country on his own and required a council of
advisors to assist him in important decisions. These advisors held a considerable amount of
power and could easily manipulate a weak willed king. The King also needed people to carry out
his will. In the provinces, this job was undertaken by intendants who would often pay their way
into the position. These men had control over what news arrived to the King and how well his
will was followed to the letter. This meant the King was often unaware of the full extent of what
was occurring within his lands as well as a high chance of corruption amongst his Intendants. As a
result Intendants were free to alter taxation laws to suit themselves, withdraw money from the
Royal treasury and ignore the King's orders. The fact that Louis XVI never left Versailles also
made it easy for people to control his source of information. The structure of French society and the
hierarchy of the people was also a major contributor to the monarchy's demise. The people were
divided into 3 estates with the Clergy in the 1st estate, the nobility in the 2nd and the remainder in
the 3rd estate. The 3rd
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Causes Of The French Revolution
The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz])
was a period of far–reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until
1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French
Empire. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods
of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought
many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the
Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute
monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.[1] Through the
Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the
Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human
history.[2][3][4]
The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following
the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War,[5] the French government was deeply in
debt and attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were
heavily regressive. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular
resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were
formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and
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French Revolution
By: Tyreik Douse
The French Revolution
*The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Napoleon
Bonaparte.
*During this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country's political landscape,
uprooting centuries–old institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system.
*Like the American Revolution before it, the French Revolution was influenced by Enlightenment
ideals, particularly the concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights.
...More info
*The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of
the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most
universally...show more content...
*In October, a large crowd of protesters, mostly women, marched from Paris to the Palace of
Versailles, convinced that the royal family and nobility there lived in luxury, oblivious to the
hardships of the French people.
War
*The issue of war dominated the debate in the new Legislative Assembly.
*In France, the support for war was growing a lot as well.
*Louis XVI and hard line monarchists wanted war because they believed that foreign armies would
easily overthrow the new government.
*The revolutionaries, on the other hand, pushed for war because they thought it would unify the
nation and spread the ideas of the Revolution to the rest of Europe.
The Revolution of 1789
*The national guard was organized under the marquis de Lafayette.
*This first outbreak of violence marked the entry of the popular classes into the Revolution.
The Republic
*On Sept. 21, 1792, the Convention held its first meeting.
*It immediately abolished the monarchy, set up the republic, and proceeded to try the king for
treason.
* A democratic constitution was approved by 1.8 million voters in a plebiscite, but it never came into
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Causes of the French Revolution Essay
Analyze the various causes of the French Revolution. Include social, economic and ideological
factors Just as any story has a climax; one can deduce that the 17th and 18th centuries were the
turning point for most of European history; however, different places experienced this change in
different ways. As the previous discoveries and inventions were made by remarkable scientists like
Galileo, the Enlightenment was the next logical step in the era. As incredible philosophers like
Jean– Jacques Rousseau along with John Locke stepped in, people all over Europe began to realize
the importance and even the mere concept of reason and natural rights granted to all persons. Apart
from the common impact of the Enlightenment on all of Europe,...show more content...
the rest hierarchy. As a result of the estate system, the First Estate, composed of the clergy, who
constituted only 10% of land ownership, received the most privileges. Under Louis XV and
Louis XVI, the nobility (Second Estate) held many prestigious positions in the government and
industry, and were exempt (along with the First Estate) from many taxes, such as France's main
tax, the taille). Despite being given these privileges, the nobles still felt the basic need for an
expansion of exemptions at the expense of the monarchy. The Third Estate was the least
privileged, yet the most populous, which caused an even larger barrier between them and the
First and Second Estate. Furthermore, they felt isolated and degraded from the rest of the society
due to the lack of consideration that they were given. Most of the commoners faced the issue of a
lacking part in society which transcended wealth, as the Bourgeoisie (middle class) was even
neglected from tax exemptions such as those provided for the First and Second Estate. Regardless
of being skilled artisans, industrialists and bankers they were still considered a part of the "low"
class, making it quite evident to rebel against. Adding fuel to the French national crisis, the dearth of
national unity and the incapability for King Louis XVI to make effective and strong decisions,
caused the problem to become an extreme. Due to the Third Estate's hunger
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Causes Of The French Revolution
A revolution is a drastic change in the way something is done, such as a government or an economy.
One such revolution took place in France where the government was changed several times, many
different people obtained power, and traditional ideas were questioned. The French Revolution had
many social, political, and economic factors that caused it, and it was very impactful on the people of
France, and on the areas outside of it.
There were many causes of the French Revolution; some were political, some were economic and
some were social. The amount of powers that the king held as an absolute monarch was a political
cause of the revolution. He was allowed to appoint officials, declare war, levy taxes control the
press, and imprison anyone...show more content...
In 1789 "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" was a list of freedoms to be used
in a new constitution, and it reformed the relationship between the citizens and the government
(doc 5). By allowing the citizens to participate in government, it better aligned the government
with the enlightenment. It also made the people happier and temporarily calmed the revolution
by guaranteeing them freedoms that they thought were important. The Reign of Terror was also
very impactful on the lives of the French citizens. During this time many people were imprisoned
and executed by the guillotine for even suspicion of treason, and this caused the people of France
to live in fear (doc 6). Even though the Terror was successful in helping France in foreign wars, it
caused people to live in fear, and to not trust anyone; it only took one person to report someone to
the government and they would be gone the next day. During the revolution, many reforms were
made to the educational system as well. Napoleon made school free as well as making it
mandatory, universal and secular (doc 7). These policy changes made it so the French people were
much more educated, more able to pursue careers outside of farming, and these policies are still the
basis of the French school system. The revolution also had a significant impact outside of France as
well. It made revolution less foreign to the rest of
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Revolution? The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types
of social classes in French society. The French Revolution of 1789–1799 was one of the most
important events in the history of the world. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which
at the time of the Revolution, was the most powerful state in Europe. The Revolution led to the
development of new political forces such as democracy and nationalism. It questioned the authority
of kings, priests, and nobles. The Revolution also gave new meanings and new ideas to the political
ideas of the people.<br><br>The French Revolution was spread over the ten year period between
1789 and 1799. The primary cause of the revolution was the disputes over...show more content...
However, there was another important factor during these times. France suffered from harsh
economic problems. Poor farm harvests by farmers hurt the economy, and trade rules from the
Middle Ages still survived, making trade difficult. However, the most serious problem was the
problem facing the government during this time. The French government borrowed much money
to pay for the wars of Louis XIV. Louis still borrowed money to fight wars and to keep French
power alive in Europe. These costs greatly increased the national debt, which was, at the time,
already too high.<br><br>When King Louis XVI came into power, he realized that these
problems existed. At first he did not know what to do, until he found a man by the name of
Robert Turgot. He eased the financial crisis of France, but he had difficulties when he tried to
introduce a major reform, that of taxing the nobles. He had such difficulties because the king
could not tax the nobles unless the Parliament approved of the new tax laws. The people in the
courts that voted on these laws were the nobles, called nobles of the robe, and therefore rejected
Turgot's reform. After Turgot was rejected, the king fired him from his office. This led Louis XVI
to summon the Estates General in 1789. The Estates General was the place where representatives
from each social class could be represented. Here, many issues would be discussed, and at this time
in
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Causes of the French Revolution Essay
The start of the French Revolution was due to a build–up of inequalities, bankruptcy, and the
influence of The Enlightenment and the American Revolution. The First and Second Estates,
which was made up of the rich nobles, did not have to pay taxes, and had special privileges. In
contrast, the Third Estate was made up of the townspeople who worked hard every day, and paid
heavy taxes. This inequality angered the townspeople. The king before Louis XVI was Louis XIV.
He spent too much money and caused the government to go into a downward spiral. Then Louis XVI
did not cut down on spending either, and by 1789 the government was bankrupt. After The
Enlightenment, writers and thinkers ideas' became widespread and began to encourage the...show
more content...
These townspeople were ready to fight to the death to stop the unfair taxation and ways of the
government. Instead of the expected one hundred person mob, the guards and soldiers were
unprepared to discover over three hundred angry French citizens ready to seize The Bastille. The
citizens freed all the prisoners that were put in jail under the hated Louis XVI, and marched their
way through the streets, heading next to Versailles, where the King was staying.
Chapter Four
Paris Mob Storming the Palace of Versailles and Imprisoning the Royal Family
The storming of the Palace of Versailles was mainly aimed at QueenMarie Antoinette by the women
of France. Mothers and wives trying to bake for their families found it impossible due to the
shortage and high prices of grains. Rumors were quickly spread that the royal family were
hoarding grains in Versailles. The angry mob forced their way into Versailles and demanded for
Queen Marie Antoinette to come outside, when she did, the mob told her family to leave Versailles
and move to Tuileries Palace where they were put under 'house' arrest.
Chapter Five
Flight and Capture of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI
Louis XVI and the royal family made plans to flee the country because if they did not soon, they
knew their lives would be done for. With a failed attempt in April 1791 to flee, they made a new
plan to join other banned royalists. So on the evening of June 20, 1791, the royal family disguised
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Causes of the French Revolution
For six of the eight causes of revolution, describe two events, actions or beliefs (evidence) during the
years before the French Revolution that led to a developing revolutionary situation. Explain how
each contributed to the revolutionary situation. Frances failed attempts at economic reform
contributed heavily to the developing revolutionary situation. In August 1787, when the parlements
refused to implement the Kings proposed changes to the financial system, it became clear that the
Kings authority was weakening. The parlements rejected these reforms, arguing that only the nation,
assembled through an Estates–General had the right to determine the need for tax reform. Its position
was clearly stated: "The constitutional principal of...show more content...
For the urban workers, crop failures meant rises in food prices and more peasant workers moving
into towns and competing for employment. Bread riots in the cities called on the King to control
prices so that poor people could buy bread. The state of bankruptcy in the French Economy was a
major factor causing the revolutionary situation. In 1786 Calonne noted that "В…it is impossible to
tax further, ruinous to be always borrowing and not enough to confine ourselves to measures of
economyВ…ordinary ways are unable to lead us to our goalВ…the only effective remedy, the only
means of managing finally to put the finances truly in order, must consist in reviving the entire state
by recasting all that it unsound in its constitution" It is evident that France was in a state of financial
crisis and could not have continued without major reform. Expenditure was much higher than
income, nearly half the income for the following year had already been spent in advance, by taking
out short term overseas loans. This state of Frances bankruptcy contributed directly to the revolution.
The erosion of confidence in the government directly contributed to the revolutionary situation. All
three estates were generally losing confidence in the King at the time leading up to revolution. All
estates mentioned in the relevant cahiers that major decisions such as tax reforms and overseas
loans should be agreed to by the Estates General, rather than by the King alone. This is evident in
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The French Revolution The French Revolution of 1789 was one of the biggest upheavals in history.
You may be wondering what exactly led this to happen, but there were multiple long range causes.
Political, social, and economic conditions ultimately led to the discontent of many French people
especially those of the third estate. The ideals of the Enlightenment brought new views to
government and society.
Before the revolution, the majority of France were living in poverty. Peasants were entirely at the
mercy of their class, because they had nothing else. As Jean JaurГЁs stated in 1901, there was not
one action in rural life that did not require the peasants to pay a ransom. He recognizes that because
the king is forcing them to pay higher...show more content...
The Estates–General held their meeting at Versailles on May 5, 1789 ("The Beginning of the French
Revolution, 1789"). Calling a meeting of the Estates–General was the king's last resort to fix the
major money crisis.
The other two social classes had no idea what the third estate was going to do. The third estate (the
lower class) met alone and was named the National Assembly; they kept meeting and starting gaining
a lot of new people ("French Revolution"). This led to people getting paranoid about what they were
meeting about, which ultimately led to people storming the Bastille. They stormed the Bastille on
July 14, in order to get gunpowder and weapons ("French Revolution"). According to Vikram Rana,
the economic instability formed one of the most important causes of the French Revolution.
The last main cause of the French Revolution was the social condition. The social classes were
divided into three groups– the Clergy, Nobles, and Common People (Rana). The big Clergy
category had two different groups; the higher clergy, and the lower clergy (Rana). The higher
clergy managed the top buildings, and never had to pay taxes. They had it a lot better than the
lower clergy, the higher clergy only lived in mansions and anywhere luxurious. The lower clergy
didn't get any of that, which means their life wasn't so great. The nobility was a lot like the higher
clergy, because they also
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French Revolution Causes Essay

  • 1. The French Revolution Essay The French Revolution The French Revolution last from 1789 to 1799. This war had many causes that began the revolution. Its causes ranged from the American Revolution, the economic crisis in France, social injustices to the immediate causes like the fall of Bastille, the Convening of he Estate–General, and the Great Fear. As a result of this revolution there many effects , immediate and long term. The immediate effects were the declaration of rights of man, abolishing of olds reign, execution of king and queen, the reign of terror, and war and forming of the citizen–army. The long term effects were the rise of Napoleon, spread of revolutionary ideas, growth of nationalism, and the conservative reaction. The contributing factors to...show more content... In this way the privileged classes had combined to outvote the third estate, which included more than 90 percent of the population. Another cause was the fall of Bastille. The falling of the Bastille marked a turning point–attempts at reform had become a full–scale revolution. One of the causes was the economic problems of many common people had become worse, because poor weather conditions had ruined the harvest. As a result, the price of bread, the most important food of the poorer classes had increased. Violence grew in both the cities and the countryside during the spring and summer. While hungry artisans revolted in urban areas, starved peasants searched the provinces for food and work. These vagrants were rumored to be armed agents of landlords hired to destroy crops and harass the common people. Many rural peasants began to panic, known as the Great Fear. They attacked the homes of their landlords to protect local grain supplies and reducing rents on their land. Also Lewis XVI gave in so reluctantly, for example, taking months to approve the Declaration of Rights, which made hostility of the crown only increased. The immediate effects of the French Revolution Was the Declaration of the Rights of Man. This was one of the most constructive achievements of the French Revolution. The Rights of Man said that there would be equality of all persons before the law; equitable taxation; protection against loss of property through arbitrary Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. The Causes Of The French Revolutionary War The French Revolutionary War took place around April 20, 1792– March 25, 1802. The outbreak of the French Revolution War confused nearly all the Europeans. Researching and listening to the video gave me a understanding of how the causes of the French Revolutionary War came upon around 1792. It was so complicated that it was divided into Three Estates or Orders. The First Estate consisted of the clergy and the Second Estate the nobility however, the two estates I mentioned accounted for 500,000 individuals. The Third Estate which basically meant everybody else, or about 25 million people. The first estate was said to be that you the clergy was divided into the lower and upper clergy. Members of the lower clergy were usually humble, poorly paid Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. The French Revolution was a time of great social, political and economic tumult in the closing years of the Eighteenth Century. The motivators pushing French citizenry toward revolution are varied in scope and origin. They range from immediate economic woes to an antiquarian class structure. Modern historians still debate the value of the changes that the revolution brought to modern society. The middle class made gains that would never be rescinded, but do revolutions always end in tyranny? In the years before the revolution citizens were rigidly constrained by the estates of the realm. These social strata had been in place since the medieval ages. The people were divided into three groups; clergy, nobility and everyone else. The clergy...show more content... The high costs of maintaining the army and navy exacerbated the situation, along with the lavish lifestyle of King Louis XVI and his queen, Marie–Antoinette. Louis appointed Charles de Calonne as comptroller–general to solve France's financial crisis. Calonne knew that the only way to get France out of debt was to fairly distribute the tax burden among the three estates. Of course, this did sit well with the nobility and Calonne was dismissed after giving his presentation at the Assembly of Notables. In a desperate act, Louis called the Estates General. The Estates General was an ancient practice that had not been called since 1614. Events there would prove to be the beginning of the revolution proper. France suffered under years of inept and self–serving monarchs. Louis XVI was preceded by his grandfather, Louis XV. It was his loss of public opinion and war spending that put his grandson in such a precarious position in the years after his reign. The rule of Louis XVI would prove to be a doomed one. He was ousted after a comparatively short 17 years. The outdated political system gave way to a constitutional monarchy, and when that failed, the French Republic. This Republic however would not prove to last. Feudalism was the whole of existence for rural commoners in the time before the revolution. Farmers had no right to the land they worked and lived on. Serfs were beholden to their manor lord Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Essay about Causes of the French Revolution The French Revolution was caused by many factors; some were significant and played a large role while others were of minor consequence. France was one of the richest and most powerful nations even though they were facing some economic difficulties. The French Revolution was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. During this period of time there was the formation of republicanism which replaced the absolute monarchy in France. Before the French Revolution Louis XVI was in power, but in due time his old regime of absolute monarchy was brought down. Some people were in favor of this revolution wanting equality and some were not. One person who was in favor of this desire for equality and change was...show more content... When prices got so high that peasants and other third estate citizens couldn't afford food there was an inevitable uprising. The peasantry became a class with the ambition to counteract social inequity and put a stop to escalating food prices. This unrest caused a riot, known as the bread riot, which became a central cause to the French Revolution. Economics also played an important role in the French Revolution. In France there was an abundance of debt and taxation. The French monarchy managed their fiscal affairs by using an unequal system of taxation, borrowing money, or selling noble titles and other privileges. This led to a long running fiscal debt. France could not solely rely on tariffs to generate income. Although other countries had higher taxation rates, the burden on the common people was greater in France. Peasants and other third estates were taxed harshly which in good times was burdensome and in bad times it was devastating. Nobility and clergy were exempted from paying taxes. This left the peasants, wage earners, and the professional and business classes with the burden of taxes. This burden caused the unrest, which eventually led to the French Revolution. Many things caused the French Revolution. I believe that absolutism and privilege, famine, and economics were three of the most significant factors causing the French Revolution. These three elements led people to be unhappy with the current government and want to overthrow it. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. The Causes Of The French Revolution Good morning/Good afternoon I am Ella Nagle here to present to you the French Revolution. Through violent and bloody means, the French revolution influenced modern law making through the will power of the people. While it was only semi–successful in achieving all of its goals, it provided drastic change to the society's social structure in France. The Revolution was a major turning point in modern European history which began in 1789 lasting in to the late 1790's. "During this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country's political landscape, uprooting centuries–old institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system." (Staff, history.com, 2009). The movement ended with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. Similar to the American Revolution it was an era of change and empowerment to the people of France. Towards the end of the 18th century Frances expensive involvement in the American Revolution brought the country to the edge of bankruptcy. King Louis XVI(1754–1793) and his predecessor depleted the royal Coffers and with the aid of "Twenty years of drought, poor cereal harvests, cattle diseases and skyrocketing bread prices ignited unrest among the urban poor and peasants." (Staff, history.com, 2009) One of the main causes of the Revolution was the rising wealth amongst the middle class known as the bourgeoisie which consisted of wealthy commoners aspiring to political power. This increase was due to a surge in peasants owning land which increased Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Causes of the French Revolution Essay Causes of the French Revolution There were many causes and events leading up to the French Revolution in 1789. Before the Revolution, France had been involved in many expensive wars, especially the American War of Independence, causing financial difficulties and debts which were increased through the expensive upkeep of the Royal Family and their courts. At this time the Age of Enlightenment was occurring and new ideas, challenging the Ancien Regime and the Absolute right to rule, were emerging. The monarch of the time, King Louis XVI, was a weak monarch who was incapable of making decisions and sticking to them. King Louis XIV was also incapable of using his powers in a way to spark fear and gain control of those under his power. As a...show more content... This meant that they were heavily taxed like the rest of the Third Estate, but many avaided taxes. Some of the bourgeois were envious of the nobility and had resentment towards the First and Second Estates, many against the Ancien Regime and well educated a large proportion of the bourgeois knew of the discoveries happening during the Age of Enlightenment. The Ancien Regime prioritised the people of France in order of Estates, with the King being above all, as a result of the system keeping 97% of the population in one category the system did not satisfy many of the bourgeois of the time resulting in them supporting the revolution. Before the revolution France was ruled under the Ancien Regime system, meaning the country and all its people were under the reign of an absolute monarch. This was a tradition that had been upheld through the years and the Royal family had enjoyed a life funded by the people of France, the royal family's lifestyle unaffected by the situation outside their palace. The Palace, Versailles, was built by king Louis XIV and the expenses for building this "village" was very high, and in later years the cost for its upkeep would play a significant role in Frances financial difficulties. In order for these difficulties to be overcome France needed a tax reform. The government had a very high tax rate on the poorest of their people, the Third Estate, and they were still not getting enough money to get out of their Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Causes of the French Revolution Essay The French Revolution was incited by a variety of reasons. At the time, the government was in a serious deficit resulting in great taxations. They had spent huge sums of money on the French and Indian War, and the king and nobility consumed much money to keep up with their lavish lifestyles. In addition, there was a severe economic depression at the time. In areas of agriculture, manufacturing, and trade, there were great downturns. Also, revolutionary ideas were instilled within the people during the Enlightenment. Together, the financial condition of the government, the economic depression, and the Enlightenment ideas played a pivotal role in causing the French Revolution. In the late 1800s, the condition of the French government was...show more content... They were against taxation without representation. In the government, the third estate was only given one vote and was always overruled by the first two estates despite the fact they made up ninety–seven percent of the population. The third estate wrote complaints regarding taxing, the king, and voting in the estates general in a list called the Cahiers (Document 3). When King Louis XVI failed to take action after receiving the list, the third estate called itself the National Assembly and tried to work for the welfare of France. They made a pledge called the Tennis Court Oath and started challenging the absolute monarchy in France; the French Revolution would soon follow. Also, during that time there was a huge economic depression. Manufacturing and trade were at their all–time low leaving many people jobless. Likewise, in agriculture, years of poor harvests caused increases in food prices. There was an increased demand for food, but there was a smaller supply resulting in increased prices. With higher food prices and lower incomes, the people of France were facing many hardships. Bread, the staple food of France, was nearly unaffordable to the majority of the people at the time, peasants (Document 1). Basic necessities, such as food and clothing, became difficult to obtain. By 1789, many people in France were hungry and jobless. As a result, there was growing discontent among the French people against the king and the government for allowing Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. The Causes Of The French Revolution The French Revolution The French Revolution was arguably one of the most significant and controversial events in European history. It occurred during the years 1789–1799 when many French citizens became enraged with society and demanded political, financial and social change. The French people's primary goal was to put an end to monarchy and bring reform to many aspects of French life. Inspired and motivated by the famous American Revolution, French citizens were urged to take action in order to bring forth the change they desired. They strived to better society and instill Enlightenment ideals, such as popular sovereignty and inalienable rights, by any means necessary; even if it meant killing thousands who got in their way....show more content... Members of the Third Estate were expected to pay all taxes and the rich which belonged to the second and first estates paid none. The Third Estate saw this as highly unfair and wanted financial reform. France's economy fell apart and people began to experience food shortages; people even started to starve. Scarce food supply played an additional role in the start of the revolution. With the start of the revolution, people started to discuss the change they wanted to be done to society. The National Assembly later met in a tennis court and swore the famous Tennis Court Oath, where they agreed to never separate until a new and just constitution had been established for France. Louis XVI responded by sending troops to Paris mainly to stop uprisings over food shortages, but the revolutionaries viewed this as a provocation and attacked the Bastille Prison with a large angry mob. Rioters stormed the Bastille fortress in an attempt to secure gunpowder and weapons. The prison was a symbol of the royal authority in France to which they were revolting. This event became known as The Storming of the Bastille and was commemorated as the start of the French Revolution. Fear and violence consumed the capitol as Parisians panicked when rumors of an impending military coup began to spread. Widespread hysteria quickly swept the countryside and The Great Fear started. This period of panic was due to the rumors of an aristocratic conspiracy by the king Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Causes Of The French Revolution The French Revolution was a revolt from the people in France that lasted from 1789–1799. The people of France wanted to be treated fairly and wanted justice for the commoners the only way they could achieve this was through a revolution. The French Revolution caused many reforms throughout France. These reforms have affected the people of France, and the surrounding nations of France. The French Revolution was considered a major turning point in history. The French Revolution was an uprising from the people under Louis XVI's rule, which lasted from 1789 to 1799. Under King Louis XVI's rule, the majority of people were in poverty, with high taxes and scarce food supplies. A great deal of the money from taxes were going towards the Palace of...show more content... Speculation of Louis's intent on ending the National Assembly spread. The people wanted to be treated fairly and wanted justice, so they decided to revolt. To achieve this they stormed the Bastille. They killed the guards and paraded their heads on pikes; next, they wanted the king's head. They gathered weapons and gunpowder from the Bastille and searched for the king, however he went into hiding and was not able to be found. This became known as the Storming of the Bastille. Robespierre wanted justice for France and did not support the king; he later became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. To keep the public safe he encouraged execution. He did not want anyone to support the king and if you were to be thought to support him, you would be sentenced to a trial and execution by guillotine. This was the beginning of the Reign of Terror. People of France were scared to leave their homes due to the amount of public executions that were happening at this time, they did not want to be next (Doc.6). Thousands of citizens were being executed including Marie Antoinette. Robespierre, due to his unfair ruling, was later executed by the guillotine. After the execution of Robespierre, the Directory reigned in power (Doc.4). The Directory had five men who served as the directors. Napoleon gained the trust of the Directory, and then overthrew their power with the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. What Was The Causes Of The French Revolution Many factors led to the beginning of the slave revolts of Saint–Domingue in August of 1791, a large portion of which were brought on by the burgeoning Revolution in France. The French Revolution was an anti–monarchist revolution, which at points would border on anarchy, but one that was largely based on ideals of egalitarianism. As the Revolution began, the Constituent Assembly passed a document named 'The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'. This document, in which the first clause explicitly states: "Men are born, and always continue, free and equal in respect to their rights. Civil distinctions, therefore, can be founded only on public utility," gave slave and free blacks in the French Colonies a belief that issues involving race were progressing. Despite the progression of idea in the slave colonies, the ruling French government only went so far as to send out a decree on May 15, 1791 that enfranchised non–whites that were born of free parents. The Constituent and Legislative Assemblies of the Revolution continued to see slavery as a taboo subject, and tried to differentiate between the...show more content... He continued towards the goal of the end of slavery with the support of French General Etienne Laveaux. Soon after, in 1795, he became the Lieutenant Governor of Saint–Domingue and effectively ruled the country autonomously. The British Empire, seeing a weakness in the French colonial system, sent a force to intervene, which was defeated continuously by freed black slaves. Toussaint would continue to can popularity and support with ever victory. This continued intervention by the British Empire "helped the growing power of the blacks and the destruction of the French slave regime." With his continued growing power as the near–dictator of Saint–Domingue, Toussaint, in 1801, proceeded to abolish slavery Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Causes Of The French Revolution The spirit of 19th Century France was a dark era, for the French seemed stuck in the past. Although most of Europe changed to a more democratic– like government, France continued under the rule of an absolutist monarchy, and before the French revolution, France continued to live under the old regime at full force. Additionally, reasons for theFrench Revolution vary from political to social causes. Since the rule of Louis XIV, the country's administrative efficiency declined. The French government rarely got the job done, and no one took steps to change the situation. Consequently, France fought in so many unnecessary wars that they rarely won which hurt the economy significantly. Moreover, the influence of the Enlightenment era of a less religious world introduced the concept of opportunity throughout the classes, bringing into play the idea of privilege rather than divine intervention. More than likely, the Enlightenment Era and the ideas that came with it of progress, natural law, and reason influenced the French Revolution, for it resembled ideas from the Renaissance, like individualism and the capacity of man to change the course of their life. Lastly, 19th Century France still lived under the old regime, which included fixed classes. Oppressed and looked down upon, the third estate got tired of the dominance of the aristocracy, and such injustice led them to rebel. Since most of the revolutionaries came from the third estate, the oppression and injustice of this estate Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. French Revolution Causes The French Revolution was not an event that happened overnight but rather a series of events that occurred over several years leading up to the overthrow of the monarchy and the implementation of a new government. The Primary cause for the fall of the Ancien regime was its financial instability and inability to improve upon the lives of the French people. The 4 key flaws or events leading to the fall of the regime was; the structure of royal government, the taxation system, the structure of french society and the Enlightenment. A major fault with the Ancien government was its inefficient and corrupt taxation system. The biggest fault with the system was through how taxes were collected, a method called tax farming. The government hired...show more content... For example, the Church exerted a certain amount of influence over the King as they had certain rights and privileges he couldn't touch for fear of angering religious zealots amongst the people. Furthermore the King was unable to manage a country on his own and required a council of advisors to assist him in important decisions. These advisors held a considerable amount of power and could easily manipulate a weak willed king. The King also needed people to carry out his will. In the provinces, this job was undertaken by intendants who would often pay their way into the position. These men had control over what news arrived to the King and how well his will was followed to the letter. This meant the King was often unaware of the full extent of what was occurring within his lands as well as a high chance of corruption amongst his Intendants. As a result Intendants were free to alter taxation laws to suit themselves, withdraw money from the Royal treasury and ignore the King's orders. The fact that Louis XVI never left Versailles also made it easy for people to control his source of information. The structure of French society and the hierarchy of the people was also a major contributor to the monarchy's demise. The people were divided into 3 estates with the Clergy in the 1st estate, the nobility in the 2nd and the remainder in the 3rd estate. The 3rd Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Causes Of The French Revolution The French Revolution (French: RГ©volution franГ§aise [КЃevЙ”lysjЙ”Мѓ fКЃЙ‘МѓsЙ›Лђz]) was a period of far–reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.[1] Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.[2][3][4] The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War,[5] the French government was deeply in debt and attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were heavily regressive. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. French Revolution By: Tyreik Douse The French Revolution *The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. *During this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country's political landscape, uprooting centuries–old institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system. *Like the American Revolution before it, the French Revolution was influenced by Enlightenment ideals, particularly the concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights. ...More info *The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally...show more content... *In October, a large crowd of protesters, mostly women, marched from Paris to the Palace of Versailles, convinced that the royal family and nobility there lived in luxury, oblivious to the hardships of the French people. War *The issue of war dominated the debate in the new Legislative Assembly. *In France, the support for war was growing a lot as well. *Louis XVI and hard line monarchists wanted war because they believed that foreign armies would easily overthrow the new government. *The revolutionaries, on the other hand, pushed for war because they thought it would unify the nation and spread the ideas of the Revolution to the rest of Europe. The Revolution of 1789 *The national guard was organized under the marquis de Lafayette. *This first outbreak of violence marked the entry of the popular classes into the Revolution. The Republic *On Sept. 21, 1792, the Convention held its first meeting. *It immediately abolished the monarchy, set up the republic, and proceeded to try the king for treason. * A democratic constitution was approved by 1.8 million voters in a plebiscite, but it never came into Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. Causes of the French Revolution Essay Analyze the various causes of the French Revolution. Include social, economic and ideological factors Just as any story has a climax; one can deduce that the 17th and 18th centuries were the turning point for most of European history; however, different places experienced this change in different ways. As the previous discoveries and inventions were made by remarkable scientists like Galileo, the Enlightenment was the next logical step in the era. As incredible philosophers like Jean– Jacques Rousseau along with John Locke stepped in, people all over Europe began to realize the importance and even the mere concept of reason and natural rights granted to all persons. Apart from the common impact of the Enlightenment on all of Europe,...show more content... the rest hierarchy. As a result of the estate system, the First Estate, composed of the clergy, who constituted only 10% of land ownership, received the most privileges. Under Louis XV and Louis XVI, the nobility (Second Estate) held many prestigious positions in the government and industry, and were exempt (along with the First Estate) from many taxes, such as France's main tax, the taille). Despite being given these privileges, the nobles still felt the basic need for an expansion of exemptions at the expense of the monarchy. The Third Estate was the least privileged, yet the most populous, which caused an even larger barrier between them and the First and Second Estate. Furthermore, they felt isolated and degraded from the rest of the society due to the lack of consideration that they were given. Most of the commoners faced the issue of a lacking part in society which transcended wealth, as the Bourgeoisie (middle class) was even neglected from tax exemptions such as those provided for the First and Second Estate. Regardless of being skilled artisans, industrialists and bankers they were still considered a part of the "low" class, making it quite evident to rebel against. Adding fuel to the French national crisis, the dearth of national unity and the incapability for King Louis XVI to make effective and strong decisions, caused the problem to become an extreme. Due to the Third Estate's hunger Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Causes Of The French Revolution A revolution is a drastic change in the way something is done, such as a government or an economy. One such revolution took place in France where the government was changed several times, many different people obtained power, and traditional ideas were questioned. The French Revolution had many social, political, and economic factors that caused it, and it was very impactful on the people of France, and on the areas outside of it. There were many causes of the French Revolution; some were political, some were economic and some were social. The amount of powers that the king held as an absolute monarch was a political cause of the revolution. He was allowed to appoint officials, declare war, levy taxes control the press, and imprison anyone...show more content... In 1789 "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" was a list of freedoms to be used in a new constitution, and it reformed the relationship between the citizens and the government (doc 5). By allowing the citizens to participate in government, it better aligned the government with the enlightenment. It also made the people happier and temporarily calmed the revolution by guaranteeing them freedoms that they thought were important. The Reign of Terror was also very impactful on the lives of the French citizens. During this time many people were imprisoned and executed by the guillotine for even suspicion of treason, and this caused the people of France to live in fear (doc 6). Even though the Terror was successful in helping France in foreign wars, it caused people to live in fear, and to not trust anyone; it only took one person to report someone to the government and they would be gone the next day. During the revolution, many reforms were made to the educational system as well. Napoleon made school free as well as making it mandatory, universal and secular (doc 7). These policy changes made it so the French people were much more educated, more able to pursue careers outside of farming, and these policies are still the basis of the French school system. The revolution also had a significant impact outside of France as well. It made revolution less foreign to the rest of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. Revolution? The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types of social classes in French society. The French Revolution of 1789–1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution, was the most powerful state in Europe. The Revolution led to the development of new political forces such as democracy and nationalism. It questioned the authority of kings, priests, and nobles. The Revolution also gave new meanings and new ideas to the political ideas of the people.<br><br>The French Revolution was spread over the ten year period between 1789 and 1799. The primary cause of the revolution was the disputes over...show more content... However, there was another important factor during these times. France suffered from harsh economic problems. Poor farm harvests by farmers hurt the economy, and trade rules from the Middle Ages still survived, making trade difficult. However, the most serious problem was the problem facing the government during this time. The French government borrowed much money to pay for the wars of Louis XIV. Louis still borrowed money to fight wars and to keep French power alive in Europe. These costs greatly increased the national debt, which was, at the time, already too high.<br><br>When King Louis XVI came into power, he realized that these problems existed. At first he did not know what to do, until he found a man by the name of Robert Turgot. He eased the financial crisis of France, but he had difficulties when he tried to introduce a major reform, that of taxing the nobles. He had such difficulties because the king could not tax the nobles unless the Parliament approved of the new tax laws. The people in the courts that voted on these laws were the nobles, called nobles of the robe, and therefore rejected Turgot's reform. After Turgot was rejected, the king fired him from his office. This led Louis XVI to summon the Estates General in 1789. The Estates General was the place where representatives from each social class could be represented. Here, many issues would be discussed, and at this time in Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Causes of the French Revolution Essay The start of the French Revolution was due to a build–up of inequalities, bankruptcy, and the influence of The Enlightenment and the American Revolution. The First and Second Estates, which was made up of the rich nobles, did not have to pay taxes, and had special privileges. In contrast, the Third Estate was made up of the townspeople who worked hard every day, and paid heavy taxes. This inequality angered the townspeople. The king before Louis XVI was Louis XIV. He spent too much money and caused the government to go into a downward spiral. Then Louis XVI did not cut down on spending either, and by 1789 the government was bankrupt. After The Enlightenment, writers and thinkers ideas' became widespread and began to encourage the...show more content... These townspeople were ready to fight to the death to stop the unfair taxation and ways of the government. Instead of the expected one hundred person mob, the guards and soldiers were unprepared to discover over three hundred angry French citizens ready to seize The Bastille. The citizens freed all the prisoners that were put in jail under the hated Louis XVI, and marched their way through the streets, heading next to Versailles, where the King was staying. Chapter Four Paris Mob Storming the Palace of Versailles and Imprisoning the Royal Family The storming of the Palace of Versailles was mainly aimed at QueenMarie Antoinette by the women of France. Mothers and wives trying to bake for their families found it impossible due to the shortage and high prices of grains. Rumors were quickly spread that the royal family were hoarding grains in Versailles. The angry mob forced their way into Versailles and demanded for Queen Marie Antoinette to come outside, when she did, the mob told her family to leave Versailles and move to Tuileries Palace where they were put under 'house' arrest. Chapter Five Flight and Capture of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI Louis XVI and the royal family made plans to flee the country because if they did not soon, they knew their lives would be done for. With a failed attempt in April 1791 to flee, they made a new plan to join other banned royalists. So on the evening of June 20, 1791, the royal family disguised Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Causes of the French Revolution For six of the eight causes of revolution, describe two events, actions or beliefs (evidence) during the years before the French Revolution that led to a developing revolutionary situation. Explain how each contributed to the revolutionary situation. Frances failed attempts at economic reform contributed heavily to the developing revolutionary situation. In August 1787, when the parlements refused to implement the Kings proposed changes to the financial system, it became clear that the Kings authority was weakening. The parlements rejected these reforms, arguing that only the nation, assembled through an Estates–General had the right to determine the need for tax reform. Its position was clearly stated: "The constitutional principal of...show more content... For the urban workers, crop failures meant rises in food prices and more peasant workers moving into towns and competing for employment. Bread riots in the cities called on the King to control prices so that poor people could buy bread. The state of bankruptcy in the French Economy was a major factor causing the revolutionary situation. In 1786 Calonne noted that "В…it is impossible to tax further, ruinous to be always borrowing and not enough to confine ourselves to measures of economyВ…ordinary ways are unable to lead us to our goalВ…the only effective remedy, the only means of managing finally to put the finances truly in order, must consist in reviving the entire state by recasting all that it unsound in its constitution" It is evident that France was in a state of financial crisis and could not have continued without major reform. Expenditure was much higher than income, nearly half the income for the following year had already been spent in advance, by taking out short term overseas loans. This state of Frances bankruptcy contributed directly to the revolution. The erosion of confidence in the government directly contributed to the revolutionary situation. All three estates were generally losing confidence in the King at the time leading up to revolution. All estates mentioned in the relevant cahiers that major decisions such as tax reforms and overseas loans should be agreed to by the Estates General, rather than by the King alone. This is evident in Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. The French Revolution The French Revolution of 1789 was one of the biggest upheavals in history. You may be wondering what exactly led this to happen, but there were multiple long range causes. Political, social, and economic conditions ultimately led to the discontent of many French people especially those of the third estate. The ideals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. Before the revolution, the majority of France were living in poverty. Peasants were entirely at the mercy of their class, because they had nothing else. As Jean JaurГЁs stated in 1901, there was not one action in rural life that did not require the peasants to pay a ransom. He recognizes that because the king is forcing them to pay higher...show more content... The Estates–General held their meeting at Versailles on May 5, 1789 ("The Beginning of the French Revolution, 1789"). Calling a meeting of the Estates–General was the king's last resort to fix the major money crisis. The other two social classes had no idea what the third estate was going to do. The third estate (the lower class) met alone and was named the National Assembly; they kept meeting and starting gaining a lot of new people ("French Revolution"). This led to people getting paranoid about what they were meeting about, which ultimately led to people storming the Bastille. They stormed the Bastille on July 14, in order to get gunpowder and weapons ("French Revolution"). According to Vikram Rana, the economic instability formed one of the most important causes of the French Revolution. The last main cause of the French Revolution was the social condition. The social classes were divided into three groups– the Clergy, Nobles, and Common People (Rana). The big Clergy category had two different groups; the higher clergy, and the lower clergy (Rana). The higher clergy managed the top buildings, and never had to pay taxes. They had it a lot better than the lower clergy, the higher clergy only lived in mansions and anywhere luxurious. The lower clergy didn't get any of that, which means their life wasn't so great. The nobility was a lot like the higher clergy, because they also Get more content on HelpWriting.net