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The French RevolutionThe French Revolution
-1789-1789
I. Long Term Causes
II. Short Term Causes
III. The Spark!
King’s Louis XVI’sKing’s Louis XVI’s
Abuse of PowerAbuse of Power
He could arrest anyone on
any charge
He spent large amounts of
money on himself
There were no fair trials
He was a poor leader and
France was bankrupt!
(Support for American rebels
created massive debt)
Married Austrian princess,
Marie Antoinette
Long Term Causes
Inequality Among Social ClassesInequality Among Social Classes
They got the mostThey got the most
importantimportant
governmentgovernment jobsjobs,,
paidpaid no taxesno taxes,,
and lived inand lived in
luxury.luxury.
They got the mostThey got the most
importantimportant
governmentgovernment jobsjobs,,
paidpaid no taxesno taxes,,
and lived inand lived in
luxury.luxury.
Privileged Class - 3% of the population
• First Estate: Members of the Clergy
• Second Estate: Wealthy Nobles
Privileged Class - 3% of the population
• First Estate: Members of the Clergy
• Second Estate: Wealthy Nobles
Long Term Causes
Film ClipFilm Clip
 Underprivileged ClassUnderprivileged Class (The bourgeoisie)(The bourgeoisie) -- 97%97% populationpopulation
 Third Estate:Third Estate: Doctors, lawyers, merchants, farmersDoctors, lawyers, merchants, farmers
 Paid mostPaid most taxestaxes,, most were poor, no say in the governmentmost were poor, no say in the government
 Underprivileged ClassUnderprivileged Class (The bourgeoisie)(The bourgeoisie) -- 97%97% populationpopulation
 Third Estate:Third Estate: Doctors, lawyers, merchants, farmersDoctors, lawyers, merchants, farmers
 Paid mostPaid most taxestaxes,, most were poor, no say in the governmentmost were poor, no say in the government
Long Term Causes
Enlightenment IdeasEnlightenment Ideas
• Denounced Divine Right Rule - wanted to limit the power of the monarchy
and end privileges of the clergy and nobles.
• Denounced Divine Right Rule - wanted to limit the power of the monarchy
and end privileges of the clergy and nobles.
John Locke Voltaire
People have three natural rights,
“Life, Liberty, and Property.”
Government is there to protect
those rights. The people have a
right to change their government
if it fails to do so.
People have three natural rights,
“Life, Liberty, and Property.”
Government is there to protect
those rights. The people have a
right to change their government
if it fails to do so.
Fought for freedom of
speech by saying, “I
do not agree with a
word you say, but I will
defend to the death
your right to say it.”
Fought for freedom of
speech by saying, “I
do not agree with a
word you say, but I will
defend to the death
your right to say it.”
Long Term Causes
What conclusion about France’s three
estates can be drawn from the
situation depicted in this cartoon?
What conclusion about France’s three
estates can be drawn from the
situation depicted in this cartoon?
Unfair TaxesUnfair Taxes
 Costly wars and lavish
spending increased
need for taxes
 High taxes were applied
to the Third Estate
 The First and Second
Estate were exempt
from taxes
 Merchants raised prices
which hurt economy.
Long Term Causes
The American Revolution - 1776The American Revolution - 1776
•French troops helped defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown
•American Revolution inspired many French enlightenment thinkers! Proved that
•French troops helped defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown
•American Revolution inspired many French enlightenment thinkers! Proved that
Short Term Causes
Short Term CausesShort Term Causes
 Nobles refused to pay taxes unless King summoned Estates General,
with all 3 classes represented
 The nobles wanted to use the Estates General to control the king.
 Nobles refused to pay taxes unless King summoned Estates General,
with all 3 classes represented
 The nobles wanted to use the Estates General to control the king.
The Estates GeneralThe Estates General
97%16003rd
2%12002nd
1%12001st
Percentage
of the
population
Votes in the
Estates
General
Representatives
in the
Estates
General
Estate
or Social
Class
However, due to unfair voting methods, the Third Estate, or
BOURGEOISIE, left the Estates General and created their
own National Assembly
However, due to unfair voting methods, the Third Estate, or
BOURGEOISIE, left the Estates General and created their
own National Assembly
Unfair
Voting
Unfair
Voting
Tennis Court Oath – June 20Tennis Court Oath – June 20thth
17891789
Tennis Court Oath - The Third Estate stormed the King’s indoor tennis
court. They demanded a constitution for France and swore not to
leave until their demands were met.
Tennis Court Oath - The Third Estate stormed the King’s indoor tennis
court. They demanded a constitution for France and swore not to
leave until their demands were met.
Tennis Court OathTennis Court Oath
National Assembly Created June 17, 1789
The Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly.
Wrote a Constitution (1791): Reformed government by establishing a LIMITED MONARCHY.
Abolished special treatment of nobles and clergy.
The Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly.
Wrote a Constitution (1791): Reformed government by establishing a LIMITED MONARCHY.
Abolished special treatment of nobles and clergy.
French Revolution and Napoleon
The Bourgeoisie storm and capture the Bastille, a Paris prison and a
symbol of the OLD REGIME.
The Bourgeoisie storm and capture the Bastille, a Paris prison and a
symbol of the OLD REGIME.
The Marquis Bernard-Rene de LaunayThe Marquis Bernard-Rene de Launay
The Marquis Bernard de LaunayThe Marquis Bernard de Launay
Is this a
Revolt?
Is this a
Revolt?
No Majesty,
this is a
revolution!
No Majesty,
this is a
revolution!
This was considered a victory for the masses. It displayed the power of the Bourgeoisie
and marked the start of the Revolution.
This was considered a victory for the masses. It displayed the power of the Bourgeoisie
and marked the start of the Revolution.
The Third Estate AwakensThe Third Estate Awakens
What do you think is going to happen now that the Third Estate has awoken?What do you think is going to happen now that the Third Estate has awoken?
“Reversal of Roles”“Reversal of Roles”
What do you think is going on in this picture?What do you think is going on in this picture?
(who, what, where, when, why?)(who, what, where, when, why?)
How does your analysis change as more of the
picture is revealed?
How does your analysis change as more of the
picture is revealed?
How does your analysis change as more of the
picture is revealed?
How does your analysis change as more of the
picture is revealed?
The October March: October of 1789, the market women were frustrated
at the scarcity and high price of bread. They rallied together, overtook
the city armory and marched to the Palace of Versailles. They eventually
forced the King to move to Paris to live among the people.
The October March: October of 1789, the market women were frustrated
at the scarcity and high price of bread. They rallied together, overtook
the city armory and marched to the Palace of Versailles. They eventually
forced the King to move to Paris to live among the people.
Did you get it right?
““Liberty,Liberty, EqualityEquality,,
Fraternity”Fraternity”
SloganSlogan
•Decreased the power of the Roman Catholic Church by selling church lands,
creating a new calendar and putting priests under government authority.
•Decreased the power of the Roman Catholic Church by selling church lands,
creating a new calendar and putting priests under government authority.
“manifestly contrary to the law of nature… that a
handful of people should gorge themselves with
superfluities while the hungry multitude goes
in want of necessities.”
“manifestly contrary to the law of nature… that a
handful of people should gorge themselves with
superfluities while the hungry multitude goes
in want of necessities.”
Jean-Jacques
Rousseau
“Patience, Monsignor, your time will come.”“Patience, Monsignor, your time will come.”
CausesCauses
The Reign of Terror!The Reign of Terror!
2. Prussia and Austria declare war on France to aid
Royal Family and restore Monarchy.
3. A RADICAL group (Jacobins) took over the
Assembly and declared France a Republic.
2. Prussia and Austria declare war on France to aid
Royal Family and restore Monarchy.
3. A RADICAL group (Jacobins) took over the
Assembly and declared France a Republic.
1. King Louis XVI and his family are
captured and brought to Paris.
1. King Louis XVI and his family are
captured and brought to Paris.
4. The radicals were led by Maximilien
Robespierre and set up the
Committee on Public Safety.
4. The radicals were led by Maximilien
Robespierre and set up the
Committee on Public Safety.
Jean Paul Marat’s
Assassination
On July 13th, 1793 Marat was murdered by
Charlotte Corday, a sympathizer of a rival
political faction, the Girondin.
Jean Paul Marat’s
Assassination
On July 13th, 1793 Marat was murdered by
Charlotte Corday, a sympathizer of a rival
political faction, the Girondin.
RomanticismRomanticism
REIGN OFREIGN OF
TERRORTERROR
(1793-1794)(1793-1794)
5. The Republic
began to execute
anyone considered
an “enemy” of the
revolution.
Anyone who spoke
out was beheaded
with the Guillotine
5. The Republic
began to execute
anyone considered
an “enemy” of the
revolution.
Anyone who spoke
out was beheaded
with the Guillotine
How was the Guillotine a symbol
of equality?
How was the Guillotine a symbol
of equality?
Before
After
Execution of King Louis XVI!Execution of King Louis XVI!
6. King Louis XVI was put on trial by treason, found guilty, beheaded in 1793.
Queen Marie Antoinette would be executed in October, 1793.
6. King Louis XVI was put on trial by treason, found guilty, beheaded in 1793.
Queen Marie Antoinette would be executed in October, 1793.
End of the Reign of TerrorEnd of the Reign of Terror
Finally, moderate leaders were able to take back power once threat of war
ended. Robespierre and other radical leaders were executed.
Results of the French RevolutionResults of the French Revolution
4. A new leader emerges and becomes one of the most
powerful dictators in European History…
4. A new leader emerges and becomes one of the most
powerful dictators in European History…
Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte
1. Political power shifted from Kings and
Nobility to the Bourgeoisie (Middle Class).
1. Political power shifted from Kings and
Nobility to the Bourgeoisie (Middle Class).
2. Increased Nationalist
feelings in France and
elsewhere.
2. Increased Nationalist
feelings in France and
elsewhere.
3. Ideals of Revolution like “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
spread throughout Europe and other parts of the
world….
3. Ideals of Revolution like “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
spread throughout Europe and other parts of the
world….
NapoleonNapoleon
Use three words toUse three words to
describe how thedescribe how the
artist portraysartist portrays
Napoleon.Napoleon.
Describe theDescribe the
symbolism you see insymbolism you see in
this painting?this painting?
“France has more need of me than I have need of France.”
Napoleon Crossing the AlpsNapoleon Crossing the Alps
Paul Delaroche, 1850Paul Delaroche, 1850 Jacques-Louis David, 1801Jacques-Louis David, 1801
Do Now:
Answer the two questions on the worksheet
NapoleonNapoleonNapoleonNapoleon
1. A brilliant military leader, Napoleon
became a general at the age of 24.
1. A brilliant military leader, Napoleon
became a general at the age of 24.
2. In 1799, the popular general took over
the government in a coup d’etat and
named himself first consul.
2. In 1799, the popular general took over
the government in a coup d’etat and
named himself first consul.
3. In 1802 he became consul for life
4. In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor
Encouraged new industry, built
roads, canals, and bridges
Protected private property
French conquests spark nationalism
Allowed Religious Freedom Limited free speech and
censored newspapers
Used secret police and spies to
find political opponents
Used Propaganda to manipulate
public opinion
Napoleonic Code created stable
code of civil laws
Restored patriarchal authority
and limited women’s rights
Created the Bank of France
Set up French public schools
Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte
Positive Impact Negative Impact
Crowned himself Emperor and
gave himself total authority
Gave legal equality to all men
Established law and order
Think about this…
Is Napoleon a Hero or a Tyrant?
How does this Painting portray the condition of the French Army in Russia?How does this Painting portray the condition of the French Army in Russia?
Do Now:Do Now:
Napoleon’s EmpireNapoleon’s Empire
Invasion of Moscow – Epic FailInvasion of Moscow – Epic Fail
• In 1812, Napoleon sent 600,000 troops to invade Russia.
• The Russians retreated and utilized a “Scorched Earth” policy, burning
crops, villages, and cities.
• In 1812, Napoleon sent 600,000 troops to invade Russia.
• The Russians retreated and utilized a “Scorched Earth” policy, burning
crops, villages, and cities.
• When the harsh winter arrived, the French Troops had little food and no shelter.
• The French were forced to retreat 1,000 miles. Only 100,000 survived.
• When the harsh winter arrived, the French Troops had little food and no shelter.
• The French were forced to retreat 1,000 miles. Only 100,000 survived.
How does the artist portray
Napoleon? Explain why?
Abdication of the ThroneAbdication of the Throne
• In 1813, Napoleon was defeated and France was
threatened by a new alliance of Russia, Britain,
Austria, and Prussia.
•With little support from the French people or army,
Napoleon abdicated, or gave up, his throne.
• In 1813, Napoleon was defeated and France was
threatened by a new alliance of Russia, Britain,
Austria, and Prussia.
•With little support from the French people or army,
Napoleon abdicated, or gave up, his throne.
How has image of Napoleon changed?
The Island of ElbaThe Island of Elba
They sent him into exile to the Island of
Elba and named Louis XVIII, the brother
of Louis XVI, as King of France.
The Comeback!The Comeback!
In 1815, Napoleon escaped the island of Elba and began a “Hundred Day
Campaign” to Paris. As Napoleon marched towards Paris, soldiers and citizens
began to support him. King Louis XVIII fled and Napoleon was back!
"From Napoleon to Louis XVIII. My good brother - there"From Napoleon to Louis XVIII. My good brother - there
is no need to send any more troops - I have enough."is no need to send any more troops - I have enough."
"I am your Emperor. If there is any one among you who
wishes to kill his emperor, here I am."
Battle of WaterlooBattle of Waterloo
June 18th
, 1815, Napoleon was defeated
at the Battle of Waterloo by an allied
force of British and Prussian troops.
June 18th
, 1815, Napoleon was defeated
at the Battle of Waterloo by an allied
force of British and Prussian troops.
Exiled Again!Exiled Again!
• Once again, Napoleon abdicated the throne.
• This time, he was sent to the small Atlantic island of St. Helena.
• Napoleon died in 1821 of stomach cancer. Recent studies suggest Napoleon may have been
• Once again, Napoleon abdicated the throne.
• This time, he was sent to the small Atlantic island of St. Helena.
• Napoleon died in 1821 of stomach cancer. Recent studies suggest Napoleon may have been
Death of Napoleon - 1821Death of Napoleon - 1821
Napoleon’s TombNapoleon’s Tomb
Closure
NAPOLEONNAPOLEON
Line 1 - Name of ruler
Line 2 - “Ruler/Leader of.....”
Line 3 - Three traits that describe the ruler
Line 4 - “Who has helped to” (2 good things)
Line 5 - “But also ”(2 bad things)
Line 6 - “Who will be remembered because of...”
Create a Bio- Poem
NAPOLEON’S TOMB ARC DE TRIOMPHE
Legacy
“I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of
chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth,
wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored
equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I
fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime
because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I
purified the Revolution.”
Did Napoleon do more to preserve the legacy of the
French Revolution or to destroy it?
Is he a Hero or a Tyrant?
"So he too is nothing more than an ordinary man. Now he
will also trample all human rights underfoot, and only
pander to his ambition; he will place himself above
everyone else and become a tyrant!"
- Ludwig von Beethoven
Following the defeat of Napoleon, the major European powers of the
day met in Vienna, Austria to establish a plan for peace and resolve
other problems that were created by Napoleon.
This was called The Congress of Vienna. The major powers involved were
Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France.
Congress of Vienna
Headed by Austria's
Prince Metternich, the
Congress of Vienna
attempted to stem the
tide of nationalism
sweeping across Europe.
He wanted to prevent
another Napoleon from
ever taking over Europe.
Headed by Austria's
Prince Metternich, the
Congress of Vienna
attempted to stem the
tide of nationalism
sweeping across Europe.
He wanted to prevent
another Napoleon from
ever taking over Europe.
The Age of
Metternich
1. Create a balance of power. This means that one nation should not be allowed to
dominate and threaten other nations. This would ensure that no future emperors would
conquer Europe like Napoleon had done.
2. Restore legitimacy – This meant restoring the absolutist ruling
families to their thrones. (turn back the clock)
The
Congress
had two
main goals:
3. Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, they
chose to keep the country intact to prevent French resentment or
nationalism and keep a balance of power.
3. Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, they
chose to keep the country intact to prevent French resentment or
nationalism and keep a balance of power.
Countries around France were strengthened. The Spanish Monarchy was
restored, The Netherlands was created and Prussia and Austria gained power.
Louis XVIII was put back on French throne.
Peace in Europe lasted 40 years and large scale was was prevented for 100
These nationalistic movements in Europe would result in unified, sovereignThese nationalistic movements in Europe would result in unified, sovereign
nation-states.nation-states.
The Congress ofThe Congress of
Vienna wasVienna was
successful insuccessful in
suppressingsuppressing
nationalisticnationalistic
movements from 1815movements from 1815
to 1848, a period alsoto 1848, a period also
known as theknown as the
Metternich Age,Metternich Age,
however, nationalismhowever, nationalism
would eventuallywould eventually
return to Europe.return to Europe.

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French Revolution and Napoleon

  • 1. The French RevolutionThe French Revolution -1789-1789 I. Long Term Causes II. Short Term Causes III. The Spark!
  • 2. King’s Louis XVI’sKing’s Louis XVI’s Abuse of PowerAbuse of Power He could arrest anyone on any charge He spent large amounts of money on himself There were no fair trials He was a poor leader and France was bankrupt! (Support for American rebels created massive debt) Married Austrian princess, Marie Antoinette Long Term Causes
  • 3. Inequality Among Social ClassesInequality Among Social Classes They got the mostThey got the most importantimportant governmentgovernment jobsjobs,, paidpaid no taxesno taxes,, and lived inand lived in luxury.luxury. They got the mostThey got the most importantimportant governmentgovernment jobsjobs,, paidpaid no taxesno taxes,, and lived inand lived in luxury.luxury. Privileged Class - 3% of the population • First Estate: Members of the Clergy • Second Estate: Wealthy Nobles Privileged Class - 3% of the population • First Estate: Members of the Clergy • Second Estate: Wealthy Nobles Long Term Causes
  • 4. Film ClipFilm Clip  Underprivileged ClassUnderprivileged Class (The bourgeoisie)(The bourgeoisie) -- 97%97% populationpopulation  Third Estate:Third Estate: Doctors, lawyers, merchants, farmersDoctors, lawyers, merchants, farmers  Paid mostPaid most taxestaxes,, most were poor, no say in the governmentmost were poor, no say in the government  Underprivileged ClassUnderprivileged Class (The bourgeoisie)(The bourgeoisie) -- 97%97% populationpopulation  Third Estate:Third Estate: Doctors, lawyers, merchants, farmersDoctors, lawyers, merchants, farmers  Paid mostPaid most taxestaxes,, most were poor, no say in the governmentmost were poor, no say in the government Long Term Causes
  • 5. Enlightenment IdeasEnlightenment Ideas • Denounced Divine Right Rule - wanted to limit the power of the monarchy and end privileges of the clergy and nobles. • Denounced Divine Right Rule - wanted to limit the power of the monarchy and end privileges of the clergy and nobles. John Locke Voltaire People have three natural rights, “Life, Liberty, and Property.” Government is there to protect those rights. The people have a right to change their government if it fails to do so. People have three natural rights, “Life, Liberty, and Property.” Government is there to protect those rights. The people have a right to change their government if it fails to do so. Fought for freedom of speech by saying, “I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Fought for freedom of speech by saying, “I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Long Term Causes
  • 6. What conclusion about France’s three estates can be drawn from the situation depicted in this cartoon? What conclusion about France’s three estates can be drawn from the situation depicted in this cartoon? Unfair TaxesUnfair Taxes  Costly wars and lavish spending increased need for taxes  High taxes were applied to the Third Estate  The First and Second Estate were exempt from taxes  Merchants raised prices which hurt economy. Long Term Causes
  • 7. The American Revolution - 1776The American Revolution - 1776 •French troops helped defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown •American Revolution inspired many French enlightenment thinkers! Proved that •French troops helped defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown •American Revolution inspired many French enlightenment thinkers! Proved that Short Term Causes
  • 8. Short Term CausesShort Term Causes  Nobles refused to pay taxes unless King summoned Estates General, with all 3 classes represented  The nobles wanted to use the Estates General to control the king.  Nobles refused to pay taxes unless King summoned Estates General, with all 3 classes represented  The nobles wanted to use the Estates General to control the king. The Estates GeneralThe Estates General
  • 9. 97%16003rd 2%12002nd 1%12001st Percentage of the population Votes in the Estates General Representatives in the Estates General Estate or Social Class However, due to unfair voting methods, the Third Estate, or BOURGEOISIE, left the Estates General and created their own National Assembly However, due to unfair voting methods, the Third Estate, or BOURGEOISIE, left the Estates General and created their own National Assembly Unfair Voting Unfair Voting
  • 10. Tennis Court Oath – June 20Tennis Court Oath – June 20thth 17891789 Tennis Court Oath - The Third Estate stormed the King’s indoor tennis court. They demanded a constitution for France and swore not to leave until their demands were met. Tennis Court Oath - The Third Estate stormed the King’s indoor tennis court. They demanded a constitution for France and swore not to leave until their demands were met.
  • 12. National Assembly Created June 17, 1789 The Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly. Wrote a Constitution (1791): Reformed government by establishing a LIMITED MONARCHY. Abolished special treatment of nobles and clergy. The Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly. Wrote a Constitution (1791): Reformed government by establishing a LIMITED MONARCHY. Abolished special treatment of nobles and clergy.
  • 14. The Bourgeoisie storm and capture the Bastille, a Paris prison and a symbol of the OLD REGIME. The Bourgeoisie storm and capture the Bastille, a Paris prison and a symbol of the OLD REGIME.
  • 15. The Marquis Bernard-Rene de LaunayThe Marquis Bernard-Rene de Launay
  • 16. The Marquis Bernard de LaunayThe Marquis Bernard de Launay
  • 17. Is this a Revolt? Is this a Revolt? No Majesty, this is a revolution! No Majesty, this is a revolution! This was considered a victory for the masses. It displayed the power of the Bourgeoisie and marked the start of the Revolution. This was considered a victory for the masses. It displayed the power of the Bourgeoisie and marked the start of the Revolution.
  • 18. The Third Estate AwakensThe Third Estate Awakens What do you think is going to happen now that the Third Estate has awoken?What do you think is going to happen now that the Third Estate has awoken? “Reversal of Roles”“Reversal of Roles”
  • 19. What do you think is going on in this picture?What do you think is going on in this picture? (who, what, where, when, why?)(who, what, where, when, why?)
  • 20. How does your analysis change as more of the picture is revealed?
  • 21. How does your analysis change as more of the picture is revealed?
  • 22. How does your analysis change as more of the picture is revealed?
  • 23. How does your analysis change as more of the picture is revealed?
  • 24. The October March: October of 1789, the market women were frustrated at the scarcity and high price of bread. They rallied together, overtook the city armory and marched to the Palace of Versailles. They eventually forced the King to move to Paris to live among the people. The October March: October of 1789, the market women were frustrated at the scarcity and high price of bread. They rallied together, overtook the city armory and marched to the Palace of Versailles. They eventually forced the King to move to Paris to live among the people. Did you get it right?
  • 26. •Decreased the power of the Roman Catholic Church by selling church lands, creating a new calendar and putting priests under government authority. •Decreased the power of the Roman Catholic Church by selling church lands, creating a new calendar and putting priests under government authority. “manifestly contrary to the law of nature… that a handful of people should gorge themselves with superfluities while the hungry multitude goes in want of necessities.” “manifestly contrary to the law of nature… that a handful of people should gorge themselves with superfluities while the hungry multitude goes in want of necessities.” Jean-Jacques Rousseau “Patience, Monsignor, your time will come.”“Patience, Monsignor, your time will come.”
  • 27. CausesCauses The Reign of Terror!The Reign of Terror! 2. Prussia and Austria declare war on France to aid Royal Family and restore Monarchy. 3. A RADICAL group (Jacobins) took over the Assembly and declared France a Republic. 2. Prussia and Austria declare war on France to aid Royal Family and restore Monarchy. 3. A RADICAL group (Jacobins) took over the Assembly and declared France a Republic. 1. King Louis XVI and his family are captured and brought to Paris. 1. King Louis XVI and his family are captured and brought to Paris. 4. The radicals were led by Maximilien Robespierre and set up the Committee on Public Safety. 4. The radicals were led by Maximilien Robespierre and set up the Committee on Public Safety.
  • 28. Jean Paul Marat’s Assassination On July 13th, 1793 Marat was murdered by Charlotte Corday, a sympathizer of a rival political faction, the Girondin. Jean Paul Marat’s Assassination On July 13th, 1793 Marat was murdered by Charlotte Corday, a sympathizer of a rival political faction, the Girondin. RomanticismRomanticism
  • 29. REIGN OFREIGN OF TERRORTERROR (1793-1794)(1793-1794) 5. The Republic began to execute anyone considered an “enemy” of the revolution. Anyone who spoke out was beheaded with the Guillotine 5. The Republic began to execute anyone considered an “enemy” of the revolution. Anyone who spoke out was beheaded with the Guillotine How was the Guillotine a symbol of equality? How was the Guillotine a symbol of equality?
  • 30. Before After Execution of King Louis XVI!Execution of King Louis XVI! 6. King Louis XVI was put on trial by treason, found guilty, beheaded in 1793. Queen Marie Antoinette would be executed in October, 1793. 6. King Louis XVI was put on trial by treason, found guilty, beheaded in 1793. Queen Marie Antoinette would be executed in October, 1793.
  • 31. End of the Reign of TerrorEnd of the Reign of Terror Finally, moderate leaders were able to take back power once threat of war ended. Robespierre and other radical leaders were executed.
  • 32. Results of the French RevolutionResults of the French Revolution 4. A new leader emerges and becomes one of the most powerful dictators in European History… 4. A new leader emerges and becomes one of the most powerful dictators in European History… Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte 1. Political power shifted from Kings and Nobility to the Bourgeoisie (Middle Class). 1. Political power shifted from Kings and Nobility to the Bourgeoisie (Middle Class). 2. Increased Nationalist feelings in France and elsewhere. 2. Increased Nationalist feelings in France and elsewhere. 3. Ideals of Revolution like “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” spread throughout Europe and other parts of the world…. 3. Ideals of Revolution like “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” spread throughout Europe and other parts of the world….
  • 33. NapoleonNapoleon Use three words toUse three words to describe how thedescribe how the artist portraysartist portrays Napoleon.Napoleon. Describe theDescribe the symbolism you see insymbolism you see in this painting?this painting? “France has more need of me than I have need of France.”
  • 34. Napoleon Crossing the AlpsNapoleon Crossing the Alps Paul Delaroche, 1850Paul Delaroche, 1850 Jacques-Louis David, 1801Jacques-Louis David, 1801 Do Now: Answer the two questions on the worksheet
  • 35. NapoleonNapoleonNapoleonNapoleon 1. A brilliant military leader, Napoleon became a general at the age of 24. 1. A brilliant military leader, Napoleon became a general at the age of 24. 2. In 1799, the popular general took over the government in a coup d’etat and named himself first consul. 2. In 1799, the popular general took over the government in a coup d’etat and named himself first consul. 3. In 1802 he became consul for life 4. In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor
  • 36. Encouraged new industry, built roads, canals, and bridges Protected private property French conquests spark nationalism Allowed Religious Freedom Limited free speech and censored newspapers Used secret police and spies to find political opponents Used Propaganda to manipulate public opinion Napoleonic Code created stable code of civil laws Restored patriarchal authority and limited women’s rights Created the Bank of France Set up French public schools Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte Positive Impact Negative Impact Crowned himself Emperor and gave himself total authority Gave legal equality to all men Established law and order
  • 37. Think about this… Is Napoleon a Hero or a Tyrant?
  • 38. How does this Painting portray the condition of the French Army in Russia?How does this Painting portray the condition of the French Army in Russia? Do Now:Do Now:
  • 40. Invasion of Moscow – Epic FailInvasion of Moscow – Epic Fail • In 1812, Napoleon sent 600,000 troops to invade Russia. • The Russians retreated and utilized a “Scorched Earth” policy, burning crops, villages, and cities. • In 1812, Napoleon sent 600,000 troops to invade Russia. • The Russians retreated and utilized a “Scorched Earth” policy, burning crops, villages, and cities.
  • 41. • When the harsh winter arrived, the French Troops had little food and no shelter. • The French were forced to retreat 1,000 miles. Only 100,000 survived. • When the harsh winter arrived, the French Troops had little food and no shelter. • The French were forced to retreat 1,000 miles. Only 100,000 survived.
  • 42. How does the artist portray Napoleon? Explain why? Abdication of the ThroneAbdication of the Throne • In 1813, Napoleon was defeated and France was threatened by a new alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia. •With little support from the French people or army, Napoleon abdicated, or gave up, his throne. • In 1813, Napoleon was defeated and France was threatened by a new alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia. •With little support from the French people or army, Napoleon abdicated, or gave up, his throne. How has image of Napoleon changed?
  • 43. The Island of ElbaThe Island of Elba They sent him into exile to the Island of Elba and named Louis XVIII, the brother of Louis XVI, as King of France.
  • 44. The Comeback!The Comeback! In 1815, Napoleon escaped the island of Elba and began a “Hundred Day Campaign” to Paris. As Napoleon marched towards Paris, soldiers and citizens began to support him. King Louis XVIII fled and Napoleon was back! "From Napoleon to Louis XVIII. My good brother - there"From Napoleon to Louis XVIII. My good brother - there is no need to send any more troops - I have enough."is no need to send any more troops - I have enough." "I am your Emperor. If there is any one among you who wishes to kill his emperor, here I am."
  • 45. Battle of WaterlooBattle of Waterloo June 18th , 1815, Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by an allied force of British and Prussian troops. June 18th , 1815, Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by an allied force of British and Prussian troops.
  • 46. Exiled Again!Exiled Again! • Once again, Napoleon abdicated the throne. • This time, he was sent to the small Atlantic island of St. Helena. • Napoleon died in 1821 of stomach cancer. Recent studies suggest Napoleon may have been • Once again, Napoleon abdicated the throne. • This time, he was sent to the small Atlantic island of St. Helena. • Napoleon died in 1821 of stomach cancer. Recent studies suggest Napoleon may have been
  • 47. Death of Napoleon - 1821Death of Napoleon - 1821
  • 49. Closure NAPOLEONNAPOLEON Line 1 - Name of ruler Line 2 - “Ruler/Leader of.....” Line 3 - Three traits that describe the ruler Line 4 - “Who has helped to” (2 good things) Line 5 - “But also ”(2 bad things) Line 6 - “Who will be remembered because of...” Create a Bio- Poem NAPOLEON’S TOMB ARC DE TRIOMPHE
  • 50. Legacy “I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.” Did Napoleon do more to preserve the legacy of the French Revolution or to destroy it? Is he a Hero or a Tyrant? "So he too is nothing more than an ordinary man. Now he will also trample all human rights underfoot, and only pander to his ambition; he will place himself above everyone else and become a tyrant!" - Ludwig von Beethoven
  • 51. Following the defeat of Napoleon, the major European powers of the day met in Vienna, Austria to establish a plan for peace and resolve other problems that were created by Napoleon. This was called The Congress of Vienna. The major powers involved were Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France. Congress of Vienna
  • 52. Headed by Austria's Prince Metternich, the Congress of Vienna attempted to stem the tide of nationalism sweeping across Europe. He wanted to prevent another Napoleon from ever taking over Europe. Headed by Austria's Prince Metternich, the Congress of Vienna attempted to stem the tide of nationalism sweeping across Europe. He wanted to prevent another Napoleon from ever taking over Europe. The Age of Metternich
  • 53. 1. Create a balance of power. This means that one nation should not be allowed to dominate and threaten other nations. This would ensure that no future emperors would conquer Europe like Napoleon had done. 2. Restore legitimacy – This meant restoring the absolutist ruling families to their thrones. (turn back the clock) The Congress had two main goals:
  • 54. 3. Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, they chose to keep the country intact to prevent French resentment or nationalism and keep a balance of power. 3. Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, they chose to keep the country intact to prevent French resentment or nationalism and keep a balance of power.
  • 55. Countries around France were strengthened. The Spanish Monarchy was restored, The Netherlands was created and Prussia and Austria gained power. Louis XVIII was put back on French throne. Peace in Europe lasted 40 years and large scale was was prevented for 100
  • 56. These nationalistic movements in Europe would result in unified, sovereignThese nationalistic movements in Europe would result in unified, sovereign nation-states.nation-states. The Congress ofThe Congress of Vienna wasVienna was successful insuccessful in suppressingsuppressing nationalisticnationalistic movements from 1815movements from 1815 to 1848, a period alsoto 1848, a period also known as theknown as the Metternich Age,Metternich Age, however, nationalismhowever, nationalism would eventuallywould eventually return to Europe.return to Europe.

Editor's Notes

  1. What would cause common, hard working family minded people to resort to such violence on a grand scale?
  2. B. The French Revolution, 1789–1815 1. The American connection: ideas and war debt: There was a direct impact of the American Revolution on the French Revolution. As thousands of French soldiers had served in the American war, many of them encountered the radical example of republicanism and wanted to reform feudal France along those lines. As France was home to many Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, the American example spurred the imagination of many French thinkers. In a more concrete way, the French monarchy’s support for the American rebels created a massive war debt. To pay off the debt, King Louis XVI called the Estates General to raise taxes, thus providing the political opening for the French to start raising their grievances with the taxes but also the entire socio-political French system.
  3. 2. Resentment of privilege and increasing radicalism: There was widespread resentment of not just the absolute power of the monarch but of the social divisions of France. The country was divided into three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else (the vast majority of the population). The first two estates enjoyed various social and economic privileges that ranged from dress to hunting rights to exemption from certain taxes. Resentment of this institutionalized social inequality first exploded in 1789 with mob violence in Paris and peasant unrest in the countryside. Over the next few years, the revolution became increasingly radical with the 1793 regicide and the ensuing mass executions run by Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety during the Terror. Eventually, the revolutionaries turned on themselves and Robespierre himself was sent to the guillotine.
  4. Louis (ou Antoine) Le Nain – Paris, 1648 4. Women’s participation and then repression: In many of revolutionary disturbances in Paris, women played a prominent role in the famous mobs that attacked the Bastille and Versailles. There are also many examples of educated women, such as Olympe de Gouges, publishing political pamphlets and forming political clubs. However, there was a male backlash that limited women’s rights, banned their political clubs, and curtailed other forms of political participation. Nonetheless, the revolution served as a symbol for later generations of feminists.
  5. B. The French Revolution, 1789–1815 1. The American connection: ideas and war debt: There was a direct impact of the American Revolution on the French Revolution. As thousands of French soldiers had served in the American war, many of them encountered the radical example of republicanism and wanted to reform feudal France along those lines. As France was home to many Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, the American example spurred the imagination of many French thinkers. In a more concrete way, the French monarchy’s support for the American rebels created a massive war debt. To pay off the debt, King Louis XVI called the Estates General to raise taxes, thus providing the political opening for the French to start raising their grievances with the taxes but also the entire socio-political French system. 3. Inventing a new, rational world: The French Revolution was a much more complete revolutionary movement than the American example. The French revolutionaries sought to create an entirely new world based on a rational ordering of things, seen in the new calendar and a new, more uniform administrative system for the country. In many ways this was a complete application of the ideas of the Enlightenment.
  6. B. The French Revolution, 1789–1815 1. The American connection: ideas and war debt: There was a direct impact of the American Revolution on the French Revolution. As thousands of French soldiers had served in the American war, many of them encountered the radical example of republicanism and wanted to reform feudal France along those lines. As France was home to many Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, the American example spurred the imagination of many French thinkers. In a more concrete way, the French monarchy’s support for the American rebels created a massive war debt. To pay off the debt, King Louis XVI called the Estates General to raise taxes, thus providing the political opening for the French to start raising their grievances with the taxes but also the entire socio-political French system. 3. Inventing a new, rational world: The French Revolution was a much more complete revolutionary movement than the American example. The French revolutionaries sought to create an entirely new world based on a rational ordering of things, seen in the new calendar and a new, more uniform administrative system for the country. In many ways this was a complete application of the ideas of the Enlightenment.
  7. In the King’s Diary, on July 14th, he wrote “Nothing.” referring to his day of hunting.
  8. A. A “world crisis?”: From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteeth century, a series of uprisings shook states and empires from Russia to China and from Persia to West Africa. Some historians see these as part of a global crisis and place the Atlantic revolutions in this context, arguing for a thesis of “converging revolutions.” D. Democratic revolutions: The Atlantic revolutions all shared a strong democratic impulse and outcome. While, with the exception of Haiti, all the revolutions promoted the interests of white men of property, they did greatly expand political participation throughout their societies.
  9. A. A “world crisis?”: From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteeth century, a series of uprisings shook states and empires from Russia to China and from Persia to West Africa. Some historians see these as part of a global crisis and place the Atlantic revolutions in this context, arguing for a thesis of “converging revolutions.” D. Democratic revolutions: The Atlantic revolutions all shared a strong democratic impulse and outcome. While, with the exception of Haiti, all the revolutions promoted the interests of white men of property, they did greatly expand political participation throughout their societies.
  10. A. A “world crisis?”: From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteeth century, a series of uprisings shook states and empires from Russia to China and from Persia to West Africa. Some historians see these as part of a global crisis and place the Atlantic revolutions in this context, arguing for a thesis of “converging revolutions.” D. Democratic revolutions: The Atlantic revolutions all shared a strong democratic impulse and outcome. While, with the exception of Haiti, all the revolutions promoted the interests of white men of property, they did greatly expand political participation throughout their societies.
  11. A. A “world crisis?”: From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteeth century, a series of uprisings shook states and empires from Russia to China and from Persia to West Africa. Some historians see these as part of a global crisis and place the Atlantic revolutions in this context, arguing for a thesis of “converging revolutions.” D. Democratic revolutions: The Atlantic revolutions all shared a strong democratic impulse and outcome. While, with the exception of Haiti, all the revolutions promoted the interests of white men of property, they did greatly expand political participation throughout their societies.
  12. A. A “world crisis?”: From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteeth century, a series of uprisings shook states and empires from Russia to China and from Persia to West Africa. Some historians see these as part of a global crisis and place the Atlantic revolutions in this context, arguing for a thesis of “converging revolutions.” D. Democratic revolutions: The Atlantic revolutions all shared a strong democratic impulse and outcome. While, with the exception of Haiti, all the revolutions promoted the interests of white men of property, they did greatly expand political participation throughout their societies.
  13. A. A “world crisis?”: From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteeth century, a series of uprisings shook states and empires from Russia to China and from Persia to West Africa. Some historians see these as part of a global crisis and place the Atlantic revolutions in this context, arguing for a thesis of “converging revolutions.” D. Democratic revolutions: The Atlantic revolutions all shared a strong democratic impulse and outcome. While, with the exception of Haiti, all the revolutions promoted the interests of white men of property, they did greatly expand political participation throughout their societies.
  14. 5. Birth of the nation: The French Revolution gave birth to the modern concept of nationalism and citizenship. People saw themselves not as members of a village or region or the subject of a king, but as equal citizens in the larger body of the nation-state.
  15. David’s artistic style is influenced by the Renaissance – notice how Marat’s arm is similar to that of Jesus’s in Michelangelo’s La Pieta.
  16. 5. Birth of the nation: The French Revolution gave birth to the modern concept of nationalism and citizenship. People saw themselves not as members of a village or region or the subject of a king, but as equal citizens in the larger body of the nation-state.
  17. David later became an active supporter of the French Revolution and friend of Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794), and was effectively a dictator of the arts under the French Republic. Imprisoned after Robespierre's fall from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release, that of Napoleon I. Delarouche was a French painter. He was trained by Antoine-Jean, Baron Gros, who was painting life-size historical subjects and had many students.
  18. 6. Napoleon’s French revolutionary paradox: When General Napoleon Bonaparte came to power in 1799, he preserved some elements of the revolution but did away with others. Essentially, he kept the equality but got rid of the liberty, especially after he became emperor in 1804. Napoleon, a military genius, also spread the influence of the French Revolution as his armies conquered most of Europe. While he ended feudalism, proclaimed religious tolerance, and rationalized the administrative system wherever he went, his military occupation ironically led to nationalist resentment of the French presence.