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Rita Zhang
• Software engineer @
Microsoft, San Francisco
• Kubernetes upstream
features, Azure Kubernetes
Service
• Maintainer for K8s KMS
plugin for Azure Key Vault
@ritazzhang
Rita Zhang
• Software engineer @
Microsoft, San Francisco
• Kubernetes upstream
features, Azure Kubernetes
Service
• Maintainer for K8s KMS
plugin for Azure Key Vault
@ritazzhang
The problem…
@ritazzhang
@ritazzhang
How could this happen...
@ritazzhang
Kubernetes Database
ž Uses etcd as its persistent storage for API objects
ž Stores secrets as base64 encoded plaintext
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/overview/components/#etcd@ritazzhang
https://elweb.co/the-security-footgun-in-etcd/
“Authentication was added in etcd 2.1. … etcd before 2.1 was
a completely open system; anyone with access to the API
could change keys. In order to preserve backward
compatibility and upgradability, this feature is off by
default.” Read more from coreos etcd doc
@ritazzhang
I did a simple search on shodan and came up with 2,284 etcd servers on the open
internet.
CREDENTIALS, a lot of CREDENTIALS. Credentials for things like cms_admin, mysql_root,
postgres, etc. Passwords for databases of all kinds, AWS secret keys, and API keys and
secrets for a bunch of services.
GET http://<ip address>:2379/v2/keys/?recursive=true
@ritazzhang
@ritazzhang
An attacker who can successfully access
your cluster database can compromise your
entire cluster and have access to your cloud
resources.
@ritazzhang
So…How do I keep my etcd data safe?
@ritazzhang
With the KMS provider plugin, a gRPC
implementation, we can encrypt Kubernetes
data stored in etcd at rest with a Key
Management Service managed key.
@ritazzhang
So…How does this work?
@ritazzhang
Secret
Kubernetes Master
etcd
Node
API
Server
Kubelet
kubectl create secret generic secret1
Kubernetes Secrets
Secret
Kubernetes Master
etcd
API
Server
Key Management Service (KMS) Provider for Encryption at Rest
• Kubernetes v1.10, v1.13 stable
• etcd v3 required
• Separate key management
from K8s cluster management
• Supports encryption using keys
stored in external trusted Key
Management Service (KMS),
e.g. Azure Key Vault, Google
Cloud KMS
• Hardware Security Modules
(HSM)-protected keys
@ritazzhang https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/kms-provider/
KMS
KMS
provider
@ritazzhang
V1.13
Let’s look at the implementation…
@ritazzhang
gRPC
High Level Design of the KMS Plugin
@ritazzhang
Components
• The Contract - Public APIs for the the gRPC service:
service.proto
• The Server – gRPC server
• The Client – Kubernetes API Server
A new KMS Provider
• gRPC server
• how to connect to the external KMS
• how to authenticate with the external KMS
• which keys to use for encryption and decryption
• exposed as a UNIX domain socket connect
(e.g. unix:///opt/azurekms.sock)
https://github.com/Azure/kubernetes-kms/blob/master/server.go
Demo:
K8s cluster with Azure
Key Vault data
encryption
@ritazzhang https://github.com/Azure/kubernetes-kms
Azure Key Vault KMS plugin
• Use a key, HSM (hardware security module) -protected, in Key
Vault for etcd encryption
• Secrets/keys/certs are stored in etcd, managed as part of
Kubernetes
• Restrict access using K8s concepts: RBAC, Service Accounts,
namespaces
• Bring your own keys
• Available on AKS-engine
@ritazzhang
Recap
Resources
https://ritazh.com/using-azure-key-vault-for-kubernetes-data-encryption-
d5eac8daee71
https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/kms-provider/
https://github.com/Azure/aks-
engine/blob/master/docs/kubernetes/features.md#azure-key-vault-data-encryption
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/pull/55684
https://github.com/Azure/kubernetes-
kms
https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/k8s-cloudkms-plugin/
@ritazzhang

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FOSDEM 2019 How Kubernetes used gRPC to encrypt secrets with an external Key Management Service