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 
By : Alya Titania Annisaa’ & Shelinsca Hoswari
XII IPA 9
 
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
 Formal Language: often associated with written
standard English conventions. It is signaled by complex,
complete sentences, impersonality, avoidance of colloquial
or slang vocabulary.
 Informal Language is characterized by a simpler
grammatical structure (i.e. loosely-
connected sentences and
phrases), personal evaluation,
and a colloquial or slang vocabulary.
2: Formalandinformalspeechandwriting
Use of Contraction
He has gone. (Formal)
He's gone. (Informal)
Use of prepositions
Which nation does she belong to? (Informal)
To which nation does she belong? (Formal)
Use of relative pronouns
The woman who you are talking about is my boss. (Formal)
The woman you are talking about is my boss. (Informal)
Use of determiners
Neither of the answers is correct. (Formal)
Neither of the answers are correct. (Informal)
 A formal letter is a letter written to a business, a
college, or any professional that are not
considered friends or family.
 An informal letter is a letter you would write to a
friend or family
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
 When do we write a formal letter?
 To whom do we write formal letters?
 For what purposes do we write these
letters for?
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
1. YOUR ADDRESS
2. THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE PERSON
TO WHOM YOU ARE WRITING
3. THE DATE
4. THE GREETING,
5. THE BODY OF THE LETTER (INTRODUCTION, MAIN
PARTS, CONCLUSION)
6. THE ENDING
7. YOUR SIGNATURE
Addresses:
1) Your Address
The return address should
be written in the top right-
hand corner of the letter.
2) The Address of the
person you are writing
to
The inside address should
be written on the left,
starting below your
address.
Date:
Different people put the date
on different sides of the
page. You can write this on
the right or the left on the
line after the address you
are writing to. Write the
month as a word.
Salutation
1) Dear Sir or Madam,
If you do not know the name
of the person you are writing
to, use this. It is always
advisable to try to find out a
name.
2) Dear Mr Jenkins,
If you know the name, use
the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms,
Dr, etc.) and the surname
only. If you are writing to a
woman and do not know if
she uses Mrs or Miss, you
can use Ms, which is for
married and single women.
Ending a letter:
1) Yours faithfully
If you do not know the name
of the person, end the letter
this way.
2) Yours sincerely
If you know the name of the
person, end the letter this
way.
3) Your signature
Sign your name, then print it
underneath the signature. If
you think the person you are
writing to might not know
whether you are male of
female, put you title in
brackets after your name.
Content of a Formal Letter
First paragraph
The first paragraph should be
short and state the purpose of
the letter- to make an enquiry,
complain, request something,
etc.
The paragraph or paragraphs in
the middle of the letter should
contain the relevant
information behind the writing
of the letter. Most letters in
English are not very long, so
keep the information to the
essentials and concentrate on
organising it in a clear and
logical manner rather than
expanding too much.
Last Paragraph
The last paragraph of a
formal letter should state
what action you expect the
recipient to take- to refund,
send you information, etc.
ϖ American Style
1. Heading
According to the format, but
usually aligned to the left.
2. Date
January 17, 2009 (month-day-
year).
According to the format but
usually aligned to the left (two
lines below the heading).
3. Salutation
Dear Mr. / Mrs. Ana:
Dear Sir or Madam:
Gentlemen:
After the salutation there is a
colon (:)
4. Complimentary close
Sincerely,
Sincerely yours,
Yours truly,
ϖ British Style
1. Heading
The heading is usually placed in
the top right corner of the letter
(sometimes centered).
2. Date
17 January 2009 (day-month-
year)
Usually placed directly (or one
blank line) below the heading.
3. Salutation
Dear Mr. / Mrs. Ana,
Dear Sir or Madam,
Gentlemen,
After the salutation there is a
comma (,)
4. Complimentary close
Sincerely,
Yours sincerely,
Yours faithfully,
Abbreviations Used in Letter Writing
The following abbreviations are widely used in letters:
asap = as soon as possible
cc = carbon copy (when you send a copy of a letter to more than
one person, you use this abbreviation to let them know)
enc. = enclosure (when you include other papers with your letter)
pp = per procurationem (A Latin phrase meaning that you are
signing the letter on somebody else's behalf; if they are not there
to sign it themselves, etc)
ps = postscript (when you want to add something after you've
finished and signed it)
pto (informal) = please turn over (to make sure that the other
person knows the letter continues on the other side of the page)
RSVP = please reply
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
Format :
Explanation
Address
·  The writer’s address is written at the top right-hand
corner
·   For example:
25, Jalan Tebing 8/8,
Seksyen 8,
40000 Shah Alam,
Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Date
·        Written below the address.
For example: 6 June 2011 For example: 6 June 2011
·        Written on the left-hand side of the letter.
Begin with:
Ø  Dear........,
For example: Dear Amin, Dear Latifah,
 
Ø  Dearest…….., or My dear…., (for close friends & family)
For example: Dearest father, My dear Uncle Syed, Dearest Siti,
You may begin your letter by:
·        Asking about the person’s health. For example:
Ø  How are you? I hope that you’re in the pink.
Ø  How’s your family getting on?
Ø  I’m fine and I hope you’re fine too.
Ø  I hope that you’re as fit as a fiddle.
 
·        Asking what the reader had been up to?
Ø  How’s the weather at your place?  Not too hot I hope.  
Ø  Did you get to visit your grandparents? 
Ø  Did you go on your trip to Paris as you had hoped?  They say Paris
is a beautiful city.
 
·       
·        Expressing happiness: For example:
Ø  I received your letter on…
Ø  I’m happy to receive your letter…
Ø  Thank you for your letter which I received…..
Ø  I’m so glad to hear…..
Ø  I’m glad to learn that….
 
·        Expressing sorrow:
Ø  I’m sorry to hear that…..
 
·        Expressing apology:
Ø  I’d like to say sorry for…
Ø  I’m sorry for not writing….
·        In the 2nd
paragraph, mention your main reason for writing
the letter. You may use the following phrase:
Ø  In your last letter, you wanted me to describe / advice…..
Ø  I’m writing this letter to….
Inform the reader that you are ending the letter. You mayuse the
following phrases:
Ø  I’ll write again soon.
Ø  Do write to me soon.
Ø  Well, that’s about all for now.
Ø  Please give/send my regards to…
Ø  Please convey my warm regards to….
Ø  Let me pen off here.
Ø  Take care of yourself.
Ø  Hope to hear from you soon.
Ø  I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.
Ø  Hope to receive a reply from you.
Ø  Bye / Goodbye.
Signing off
If you are writing to your parents, you can sign ofusing:
Ø  Your loving daughter,
Ø  Yours lovingly,
Ø  Yours affectionately
 
If you are writing to friends or relatives, you can sign off using:
Ø  Your friend,
Ø  Yours sincerely,
Ø  Yours faithfully,
Ø  Your niece / nephew,
Sign your name at the bottom of the letter in the right-
hand corner.
For example:
Nuurunnuha
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
Formal and Informal Letter Writing
More livelyRespectful
Ask them how they
are doing/invite
them to events.
Depends on
the question.
People in
position.
To inform an
authority of
something
important.
Friends/Family
To catch up
with a friend.
 Greetings: Hi…, Hello …,
Dear ….; Kisses, XXX, Lots
of love, Hugs
 Examples: postcards,
invitation letters, emails.
 Language used:
contractions, slang,
informal words
 Greetings: Dear
Mr/Miss+ surname, Dear
Mister or Miss ( surname
unknown); Yours
sincerely / Yours faithfully
 Examples: opinion letter,
letter of complaint, letter to
the editor
INFORMAL LETTERS FORMAL LETTERS
Formal and Informal Letter Writing

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Formal and Informal Letter Writing

  • 1.   By : Alya Titania Annisaa’ & Shelinsca Hoswari XII IPA 9
  • 5.  Formal Language: often associated with written standard English conventions. It is signaled by complex, complete sentences, impersonality, avoidance of colloquial or slang vocabulary.  Informal Language is characterized by a simpler grammatical structure (i.e. loosely- connected sentences and phrases), personal evaluation, and a colloquial or slang vocabulary.
  • 6. 2: Formalandinformalspeechandwriting Use of Contraction He has gone. (Formal) He's gone. (Informal) Use of prepositions Which nation does she belong to? (Informal) To which nation does she belong? (Formal) Use of relative pronouns The woman who you are talking about is my boss. (Formal) The woman you are talking about is my boss. (Informal) Use of determiners Neither of the answers is correct. (Formal) Neither of the answers are correct. (Informal)
  • 7.  A formal letter is a letter written to a business, a college, or any professional that are not considered friends or family.  An informal letter is a letter you would write to a friend or family
  • 9.  When do we write a formal letter?  To whom do we write formal letters?  For what purposes do we write these letters for?
  • 11. 1. YOUR ADDRESS 2. THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE PERSON TO WHOM YOU ARE WRITING 3. THE DATE 4. THE GREETING, 5. THE BODY OF THE LETTER (INTRODUCTION, MAIN PARTS, CONCLUSION) 6. THE ENDING 7. YOUR SIGNATURE
  • 12. Addresses: 1) Your Address The return address should be written in the top right- hand corner of the letter. 2) The Address of the person you are writing to The inside address should be written on the left, starting below your address. Date: Different people put the date on different sides of the page. You can write this on the right or the left on the line after the address you are writing to. Write the month as a word.
  • 13. Salutation 1) Dear Sir or Madam, If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, use this. It is always advisable to try to find out a name. 2) Dear Mr Jenkins, If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss, you can use Ms, which is for married and single women. Ending a letter: 1) Yours faithfully If you do not know the name of the person, end the letter this way. 2) Yours sincerely If you know the name of the person, end the letter this way. 3) Your signature Sign your name, then print it underneath the signature. If you think the person you are writing to might not know whether you are male of female, put you title in brackets after your name.
  • 14. Content of a Formal Letter First paragraph The first paragraph should be short and state the purpose of the letter- to make an enquiry, complain, request something, etc. The paragraph or paragraphs in the middle of the letter should contain the relevant information behind the writing of the letter. Most letters in English are not very long, so keep the information to the essentials and concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical manner rather than expanding too much. Last Paragraph The last paragraph of a formal letter should state what action you expect the recipient to take- to refund, send you information, etc.
  • 15. ϖ American Style 1. Heading According to the format, but usually aligned to the left. 2. Date January 17, 2009 (month-day- year). According to the format but usually aligned to the left (two lines below the heading). 3. Salutation Dear Mr. / Mrs. Ana: Dear Sir or Madam: Gentlemen: After the salutation there is a colon (:) 4. Complimentary close Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Yours truly, ϖ British Style 1. Heading The heading is usually placed in the top right corner of the letter (sometimes centered). 2. Date 17 January 2009 (day-month- year) Usually placed directly (or one blank line) below the heading. 3. Salutation Dear Mr. / Mrs. Ana, Dear Sir or Madam, Gentlemen, After the salutation there is a comma (,) 4. Complimentary close Sincerely, Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully,
  • 16. Abbreviations Used in Letter Writing The following abbreviations are widely used in letters: asap = as soon as possible cc = carbon copy (when you send a copy of a letter to more than one person, you use this abbreviation to let them know) enc. = enclosure (when you include other papers with your letter) pp = per procurationem (A Latin phrase meaning that you are signing the letter on somebody else's behalf; if they are not there to sign it themselves, etc) ps = postscript (when you want to add something after you've finished and signed it) pto (informal) = please turn over (to make sure that the other person knows the letter continues on the other side of the page) RSVP = please reply
  • 20. Format : Explanation Address ·  The writer’s address is written at the top right-hand corner ·   For example: 25, Jalan Tebing 8/8, Seksyen 8, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Date ·        Written below the address. For example: 6 June 2011 For example: 6 June 2011
  • 21. ·        Written on the left-hand side of the letter. Begin with: Ø  Dear........, For example: Dear Amin, Dear Latifah,   Ø  Dearest…….., or My dear…., (for close friends & family) For example: Dearest father, My dear Uncle Syed, Dearest Siti,
  • 22. You may begin your letter by: ·        Asking about the person’s health. For example: Ø  How are you? I hope that you’re in the pink. Ø  How’s your family getting on? Ø  I’m fine and I hope you’re fine too. Ø  I hope that you’re as fit as a fiddle.   ·        Asking what the reader had been up to? Ø  How’s the weather at your place?  Not too hot I hope.   Ø  Did you get to visit your grandparents?  Ø  Did you go on your trip to Paris as you had hoped?  They say Paris is a beautiful city.   ·       
  • 23. ·        Expressing happiness: For example: Ø  I received your letter on… Ø  I’m happy to receive your letter… Ø  Thank you for your letter which I received….. Ø  I’m so glad to hear….. Ø  I’m glad to learn that….   ·        Expressing sorrow: Ø  I’m sorry to hear that…..   ·        Expressing apology: Ø  I’d like to say sorry for… Ø  I’m sorry for not writing….
  • 24. ·        In the 2nd paragraph, mention your main reason for writing the letter. You may use the following phrase: Ø  In your last letter, you wanted me to describe / advice….. Ø  I’m writing this letter to….
  • 25. Inform the reader that you are ending the letter. You mayuse the following phrases: Ø  I’ll write again soon. Ø  Do write to me soon. Ø  Well, that’s about all for now. Ø  Please give/send my regards to… Ø  Please convey my warm regards to…. Ø  Let me pen off here. Ø  Take care of yourself. Ø  Hope to hear from you soon. Ø  I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon. Ø  Hope to receive a reply from you. Ø  Bye / Goodbye.
  • 26. Signing off If you are writing to your parents, you can sign ofusing: Ø  Your loving daughter, Ø  Yours lovingly, Ø  Yours affectionately   If you are writing to friends or relatives, you can sign off using: Ø  Your friend, Ø  Yours sincerely, Ø  Yours faithfully, Ø  Your niece / nephew,
  • 27. Sign your name at the bottom of the letter in the right- hand corner. For example: Nuurunnuha
  • 30. More livelyRespectful Ask them how they are doing/invite them to events. Depends on the question. People in position. To inform an authority of something important. Friends/Family To catch up with a friend.
  • 31.  Greetings: Hi…, Hello …, Dear ….; Kisses, XXX, Lots of love, Hugs  Examples: postcards, invitation letters, emails.  Language used: contractions, slang, informal words  Greetings: Dear Mr/Miss+ surname, Dear Mister or Miss ( surname unknown); Yours sincerely / Yours faithfully  Examples: opinion letter, letter of complaint, letter to the editor INFORMAL LETTERS FORMAL LETTERS