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Food Safety is for Everyone Module 3 Written and developed by: Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator  University of Maryland Extension Calvert/Charles/St Mary’s Counties Equal Access Programs Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,  Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
Cross-contamination Module 3 Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,  Family and Consumer Sciences Educator,  University of Maryland Extension
Cross contamination: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How does cross contamination occur? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
H uman  H ands ( C-L-E-A-N) ,[object Object],[object Object]
S-e-p-a-r-a-t-e ,[object Object]
Food contact surfaces… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contact surfaces: A word about cutting boards…. ,[object Object]
Food contact surfaces continued… ,[object Object],[object Object]
Cleaning vs. Sanitizing ,[object Object]
Let’s go shopping ,[object Object]
Shopping continued… ,[object Object]
Refrigerator/Freezer temperatures ,[object Object],[object Object]
Avoid Improper storage practices ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Refrigerator storage time ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Refrigerator storage tim e  continued ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Assistant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
Choosing a restaurant: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object]
Using hair restraints ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contamination from ice ,[object Object],[object Object]
To help prevent  cross contamination: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,  Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
To learn more: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,  Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension

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Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 3: Cross-contamination

  • 1. Food Safety is for Everyone Module 3 Written and developed by: Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator University of Maryland Extension Calvert/Charles/St Mary’s Counties Equal Access Programs Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
  • 2. Cross-contamination Module 3 Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
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Editor's Notes

  1. Data updated: March 2010 Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
  2. Now, lets’ move on to cross-contamination. Cross-contamination can be another common cause of foodborne illness when food is not handled properly. Source : www.foodsafety.gov Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
  3. Cross contamination is the transfer of a harmful substance from: Food to food Equipment or utensils to food or People to food. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Foods_Apart/index.asp
  4. How does cross-contamination occur? Poor personal hygiene Raw foods in contact with ready to eat foods Contact with contaminated surfaces Improper storage practices Contact with food service workers Contamination from consumers Let’s talk about each one of these.
  5. Remember, always wash your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after you handle food. This cannot be said often enough. When cooking and preparing food, make sure your clothes and apron are clean. You can always go back and review the personal hygiene section (Module 2). Source: http://www.foodsafetysite.com/educators/competencies/foodservice/cleaning/cas1.html
  6. Separate. Direct contact from raw food to a ready-to-eat-foods. Raw meat, seafood and poultry naturally carry bacteria. When handling these raw foods it is very important to keep these foods and their juices separate from ready-to-eat-foods. Heat kills most harmful bacteria. Raw meats, seafood and poultry can contaminate ready-to-eat foods that require no further cooking. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Foods_Apart/index.asp
  7. Food Contact surfaces —contact with unsanitary food contact surfaces or equipment, utensils, and wiping cloths: Use hot soapy water frequently to keep surfaces, equipment, and utensils clean. Dishes and utensils may also be cleaned in the diswasher. Be sure to clean dishes, and counter tops with hot soapy water after each use and after each food item is prepared. Hot soapy water should be used with paper towels to clean up spills. Discard the paper towels no matter how clean they may look after use. If cloth towels are used, wash them often in hot soapy water. Kitchen clothes that are used over and over without washing are a breeding ground for bacteria. When was the last time you took apart your can opener, blender and other appliances like food processors? These appliances and utensils need to be cleaned with hot soapy water. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Foods_Apart/index.asp www.fightbac.org/content/view/170/94/
  8. A word about cutting boards: Today there is a wide selection of porous and nonporous cutting board surface materials to pick from. Porous surfaces absorb and nonporous surfaces do not . Wood surface cutting boards are porous and not as easy to clean. Examples of, nonporous surface cutting boards include glass, marble, plastic or pyroceramic. To avoid cross-contamination, the USDA Meat and Poultry hotline recommends the use of at least two cutting boards when possible: Designate one for fresh produce and one for raw meat, seafood and poultry. Wash cutting boards with hot soapy water after each use and allow boards to air dry or use clean paper towels to pat dry. Plastic and wood cutting boards can be sanitized with a tablespoon of unscented bleach and a gallon of water; allow to air dry or pat dry with paper towels. In time everything wears out. When the cutting board becomes worn from use—(deep scratches where food can still be seen after proper washing) it is time to throw it out and get a new one. These steps will help avoid cross-contamination. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Foods_Apart/index.asp www.houstontx.gov/health/Food/Cross-contamination.htm
  9. Food contact surfaces, continued… To decontaminate sponges the USDA recommends the following: Heat the moist sponge for at least one minute in the microwave on high . Or Sponges may be placed in the dishwasher. This method works best when using a dishwasher with a drying cycle. Source: Agricultural Research Service, USDA, and Dr. Nark Kantor, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, University of Maryland, Department of Nutrition and Food Science.
  10. Cleaning vs. Sanitizing. Let’s talk about the difference between cleaning and sanitizing . Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface, such as a dish, glass or cutting board. Sanitizing is a process that reduces the number of harmful microorganisms that are on a properly cleaned surface to a safe level.” To properly sanitize, first clean cutting boards and other surfaces with hot soapy water and rinse thoroughly. Then use a solution of one tablespoon of unscented liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water and allow the surface, as well as equipment and utensils to air dry, or pat dry with paper towels. Source: http://www.foodsafetysite.com/educators/competencies/foodservice/cleaning/cas1.html http://www.nraef.org/foodsafetycenter/downloads/posters_quizzes/poster_11.pdf
  11. Let’s go shopping. When shopping for food, always separate raw meat, seafood and poultry from other foods in your grocery cart. To avoid raw drippings from contaminating other foods in the cart, use plastic bags to separate raw foods of animal origin. Most grocery stores provide plastic bags near the meat, poultry and seafood displays. If not, go to the fresh produce area and use these bags. At the check-out station continue to keep raw foods away from other foods by bagging them separately. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Foods_Apart/index http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm204328.htm United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service, Food Safety Information.
  12. Shopping continued… After shopping, head directly home with your groceries, then take care of your other errands. Do not pass go, do not collect $200.00. Timing is everything. Remember: Refrigerate perishable items within 2-hours. If you are shopping on a very cold day in the winter, transport your groceries in the trunk of the car. The trunk will keep the groceries cold for longer than 2 hours if necessary. During the summer, if refrigeration is not possible within 2 hours, use an ice chest or an insulated bag when transporting groceries home on a hot day. Do not keep food out of refrigeration for more than 2 hours. If it is 90°F or higher outside, food should not be left out of refrigeration for more than one hour. Source: “Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  13. Refrigerator/freezer temperatures. When storing food, always set the refrigerator temperature at 40° F or below. The freezer should be set at 0° F or below. Check these temperatures with an appliance thermometer. It is important to keep foods out of the “Danger Zone”. Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40°F-140°F. This is called the “Danger Zone.” When you arrive home you can keep the food in the original packaging, but to avoid raw juices from contaminating other foods, wrap the meat, fish and poultry tightly, or put it in containers before putting it in the refrigerator or freezer. This will also help to maintain the quality of the food in the freezer or for a couple of days in the refrigerator before cooking. Place a refrigerator thermometer inside the unit on a shelf or hang it from a wire rack. ** The importance of temperature control will be discussed in the next module titled “Temperature Matters”. Source: Cooking for Groups: A volunteers guide to Food Safety. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and inspection Service. www.fsis.usda.gov?News_&_Events/Script_Safe_Storage_of Food/index.asp http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Appliance_Thermometers/index.asp
  14. Avoid improper storage practices. Here are some important tips to avoid improper storage practices: Stored food falls into three basic “Storage Categories”. Perishable food: inside the refrigerator (if you are not sure read the label). Frozen food: in the freezer. Shelf-stable food: in a clean, dry place, off of the floor, and away from toxins. While storing your food, if the food product does not have a date on it, write the purchase date on the package. F.I.F.O—First in First Out Put the newer items in the back of the refrigerator or freezer. This will remind you to use the older food items first. Source: “Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  15. To avoid cross-contamination, clear old food out of the refrigerator on a weekly basis. If rotting food touches the fresh food, cross-contamination can occur. When in doubt toss it out!! Food can be kept in the freezer indefinitely; but keep in mind, very long freezer times can affect the quality of the food. For more information on refrigerator storage time: http://life.familyeducation.com/foods/safety/36569.html http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09310.html http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/storagetimes.html Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Refrigeration_&_Food_Safety/index.asp
  16. Refer to the food storage chart in the handouts. This may be used for discussion of refrigeration and freezer storage times for various food items. Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension
  17. Choosing a restaurant. Things to think about when choosing a restaurant: What I am about to say may seem elementary, but people sometimes ignore warning signs. Is the restaurant and restroom floor clean? Is there hot water in the restroom? Is there soap available in the restroom? Is the sink and toilet clean? Is the salad bar kept neat and clean and free from spills? Are the dishes and utensils clean? Do you have access to a clean plate for second helpings? Does the food on the salad bar look old? Does the waiter/waitress and the serve, have clean hands and uniforms? If you can say no to any one of these questions, maybe it’s time to find another restaurant. If a restaurant is willing to show you an eating establish that is not clean – dirty floors, sinks and restrooms, this is a clue for you to think about how the kitchen and food preparation stations look. If the food on the salad bar looks old, maybe it’s because it is! Just in case you are not so concerned about the waitress with unclean hands or a soiled apron—who do you think prepares your beverages, the salads and the deserts? That’s right, the waiter or waitress performs these tasks. If the bathroom has no hot water, or soap and paper towels, this can be a real problem. Often employees may use the same restroom that you do. If you do not have the proper items necessary to wash and dry your hands, neither do they—and they are handling your food! Source: http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/ucm082539
  18. Using hair restraints. We often cook for large gatherings in our home kitchen. It could be for a family gathering, picnic, or church social. For safety sake, wear a hair net or scarf to avoid hair from contaminating food. A cap or hat may also be worn in addition to a scarf or hairnet. When you go to Aunt Gracie’s house for Sunday dinner and you find a hair in the food, we can narrow it down and say “oh well that hair must belong to Aunt Gracie”. You don’t want her hair in your food, but at least you can narrow it down as to whose hair it may be. But If you go to a restaurant, or a large gathering and you find a hair, you may feel entirely different. Not only would you not know whose hair it is, you may not know from what part of the body the hair came from. Source: http://www.foodsafetysource.com/subcategory.cfm?InfoSubCatID=10 http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/RetailFoodProtection/FoodCode/FoodCode2009/ucm181242.htmwww.f
  19. Contamination from ice. Remember! Ice used to keep foods cool is not safe for human consumption. Do not allow raw meats and other foods to have direct contact with ice you plan to use for consumption. When on picnics and on the road, put your food in a cooler, then put the ice over the food. Place Ice for consumption in a separate freezer bag, and then place the bag on top of the ice. Let everyone know where to get ice for their drinks. Remember when we were growing-up and we used the same ice in the cooler for our drinks that we used to keep foods cool. There may have been times when we got sick then. We just may not have known what caused the illness. There are just too many harmful pathogens in the environment to take that chance. Source: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/06/summer-food-safety-ice/
  20. To avoid foodborne illness during the summer months we must remain deligent and adhere to the fight-Bac Rules: Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often. Separate: Do not Cross-Contaminate. Cook: Cook foods to proper temperatures. Chill: Refrigerate foods promptly. Source: Cooking for Groups: A volunteers guide to Food Safety. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and inspection Service.
  21. Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, University of Maryland Extension