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FOOD PROCESSING
Dr. Abdirashid Ahmed Hussein
BSc IN Veterinary science department of animal husbandry in university of
Somalia (Uniso)
BSc in public health in Somvill university
Email: abwaanrashka39@gmail.com
FOOD PROCESSING
• Food Processing is the conversion of agricultural product to
substances which have particular textural, sensory and nutritional
properties using commercially feasible methods
• Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical
or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
• Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce
marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by
the consumer
What is food processing?
The process of transforming raw agricultural
products, like grains, vegetables, meat, or milk, into
end products to be sold to consumers.
Raw Products
Straight from the farm
End Products
Ready to be purchased by consumer
• Tomato
• Wheat
• Milk
• Carrots
• Salsa
• Flour
• Cheese
• Baby carrots
Food processing is what
happens between the
farm and the consumer.
PRIMARY PROCESSING
• Primary processing is the conversion of raw materials to food
commodities. Milling is an example of primary processing
SECONDARY PROCESSING
• Secondary processing is the conversion of ingredients into edible
products - this involves combining foods in a particular way to change
properties.
• Baking cakes is an example of secondary processing.
• A considerable variety of products can be made using similar basic
ingredients e.g. to make bread we need flour, water and salt. Breads
such as chappatti is examples of unleven breads.
• If yeast is added this produces carbon-dioxide, given the correct
conditions, this raises the mixture to produce breads such as those
they eat more commonly in Somalia
Examples of Food Processing
Carrots Baby Carrots
Apples Apple Juice
Washing
Peeling
Cutting
Juicing
Examples of Food Processing
Wheat Flour
Lettuce Bagged Salad
Grinding
Washing
Examples of Food Processing
Milk Milk
Pasteurizing
Examples of Food Processing
Strawberries Frozen Strawberries
Flour Pancake Mix
Freezing
Mixing ingredients
Examples of Food Processing
Salt Iodized Salt
Potato Instant Potatoes
Fortifying
Cooking
Dehydrating
Examples of Food Processing
Salt Iodized Salt
Potato Instant Potatoes
Fortifying
Cooking
Dehydrating
Levels of Food Processing
The amount of processing varies from food to food
Minimally Processed
Foods that are washed,
peeled, sliced, juiced,
frozen, dried, or
pasteurized.
Moderately Processed
In addition to being
washed, peeled, sliced,
etc. these foods may
also be cooked,
ingredients mixed, and
some preservatives
added.
Highly Processed
Many ingredients are
added to enhance
flavor, add vitamins and
minerals, and extend
shelf life. These foods
are mostly or fully
prepared for eating.
Raw
product
from the
farm
Cranberries
Grow on a bush
Wash and bag whole
berries.
Wash berries, dehydrate
with added sugar, and
package.
Wash berries, cook with
added sugar and other
ingredients, then seal in
can.
Raw
product
from the
farm
Wheat
Grows in a field, and
the seed is harvested
Entire wheat seed is
ground into whole wheat
flour and packaged.
Wheat seed is separated
into its parts. The
endosperm is ground into
white flour and packaged.
Wheat seed is ground
into flour, and additional
ingredients are added to
make pasta.
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
STAGES OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
• Product development is the process of making new or modified food
products.
• The process of product development involves a complex series of
stages, requiring the combined talents of many specialists to make it
successful.
• The aim of product development is for a company to increase sales
and remain competitive.
• 1. Develop ideas for a new product
• 2. Test ideas on a small scale Research is carried out to form a
number of recipes and specify the ingredients to be used.
• Several versions of the product are usually made, using slightly
different ingredients or processes. i.e. the products are PROTOTYPED
in the company's test kitchen, often by a professional chef or food
consultant.
• A small number of staff, experienced in sensory evaluation, test the
products and evaluate them informally
• 3. Sensory evaluation
• Sensory evaluation is carried out at many stages of the development
process.
• Trained assessors comment on the appearance, odour, taste and
texture of the products to make sure that the product being
developed displays the desired sensory characteristics
• 4. Modify product
• 5. Pilot plant A pilot plant is a small version of the equipment used in
manufacture.
• 6. Sensory evaluation
• 7. Perform consumer testing
• 8. Finalise product specification Product specifications detail exact
ingredients and precise methods of production.
• The specification is very important as it will be used for the
production of each batch of the product to ensure consistency
• 9. Produce product on a large scale The manufacturing process is
sometimes organized in unit operations, such as size reduction,
mixing and cooking.
• These are controlled to maintain consistent product quality, safeguard
staff health, food safety standards and to avoid problems that may
stop the production line running, which would result in 'down time'.
• The processes involved in manufacturing food products are known as
'unit operations'. These include:
• storage e.g. keeping raw materials in good condition
• cleaning, e.g. removing foreign matter
• sorting/grading e.g. assessing the quality
• size reduction e.g. trimming, slicing, crushing
• mixing/combining
• heat transfer e.g. cooking and cooling
• 10. Advertise the product
• 11. Launch new product
WHY DO WE PROCESS FOOD?
• to convert to edible products
• to preserve
• to extend availability and provide accessibility
• to provide variety and choice
• to add value
TYPICAL FOOD PROCESSES
• Most food which is manufactured goes through a number of common
steps.
• The specific details of each may differ, but the basic principles are the
same:
PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION
• destroys, inhibits or removes micro-organisms
• retards or prevents deleterious biochemical, chemical and physio-
chemical changes
• maintains and generates acceptable organoleptic properties
• preserves or enhances the nutritive value
Processing and preservation technologies used
in the food industry:
• Heating
• drying
• irradiation
• concentration
• freezing
• chemical preservation
• chilling
• fermentation
• a combination of those technologies

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Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture hons

  • 1. FOOD PROCESSING Dr. Abdirashid Ahmed Hussein BSc IN Veterinary science department of animal husbandry in university of Somalia (Uniso) BSc in public health in Somvill university Email: abwaanrashka39@gmail.com
  • 2. FOOD PROCESSING • Food Processing is the conversion of agricultural product to substances which have particular textural, sensory and nutritional properties using commercially feasible methods • Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. • Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer
  • 3. What is food processing? The process of transforming raw agricultural products, like grains, vegetables, meat, or milk, into end products to be sold to consumers. Raw Products Straight from the farm End Products Ready to be purchased by consumer • Tomato • Wheat • Milk • Carrots • Salsa • Flour • Cheese • Baby carrots Food processing is what happens between the farm and the consumer.
  • 4. PRIMARY PROCESSING • Primary processing is the conversion of raw materials to food commodities. Milling is an example of primary processing
  • 5. SECONDARY PROCESSING • Secondary processing is the conversion of ingredients into edible products - this involves combining foods in a particular way to change properties. • Baking cakes is an example of secondary processing. • A considerable variety of products can be made using similar basic ingredients e.g. to make bread we need flour, water and salt. Breads such as chappatti is examples of unleven breads. • If yeast is added this produces carbon-dioxide, given the correct conditions, this raises the mixture to produce breads such as those they eat more commonly in Somalia
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Examples of Food Processing Carrots Baby Carrots Apples Apple Juice Washing Peeling Cutting Juicing
  • 9. Examples of Food Processing Wheat Flour Lettuce Bagged Salad Grinding Washing
  • 10. Examples of Food Processing Milk Milk Pasteurizing
  • 11. Examples of Food Processing Strawberries Frozen Strawberries Flour Pancake Mix Freezing Mixing ingredients
  • 12. Examples of Food Processing Salt Iodized Salt Potato Instant Potatoes Fortifying Cooking Dehydrating
  • 13. Examples of Food Processing Salt Iodized Salt Potato Instant Potatoes Fortifying Cooking Dehydrating
  • 14. Levels of Food Processing The amount of processing varies from food to food Minimally Processed Foods that are washed, peeled, sliced, juiced, frozen, dried, or pasteurized. Moderately Processed In addition to being washed, peeled, sliced, etc. these foods may also be cooked, ingredients mixed, and some preservatives added. Highly Processed Many ingredients are added to enhance flavor, add vitamins and minerals, and extend shelf life. These foods are mostly or fully prepared for eating.
  • 15. Raw product from the farm Cranberries Grow on a bush Wash and bag whole berries. Wash berries, dehydrate with added sugar, and package. Wash berries, cook with added sugar and other ingredients, then seal in can.
  • 16. Raw product from the farm Wheat Grows in a field, and the seed is harvested Entire wheat seed is ground into whole wheat flour and packaged. Wheat seed is separated into its parts. The endosperm is ground into white flour and packaged. Wheat seed is ground into flour, and additional ingredients are added to make pasta.
  • 17. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT • Product development is the process of making new or modified food products. • The process of product development involves a complex series of stages, requiring the combined talents of many specialists to make it successful. • The aim of product development is for a company to increase sales and remain competitive.
  • 18. • 1. Develop ideas for a new product • 2. Test ideas on a small scale Research is carried out to form a number of recipes and specify the ingredients to be used. • Several versions of the product are usually made, using slightly different ingredients or processes. i.e. the products are PROTOTYPED in the company's test kitchen, often by a professional chef or food consultant. • A small number of staff, experienced in sensory evaluation, test the products and evaluate them informally
  • 19. • 3. Sensory evaluation • Sensory evaluation is carried out at many stages of the development process. • Trained assessors comment on the appearance, odour, taste and texture of the products to make sure that the product being developed displays the desired sensory characteristics
  • 20. • 4. Modify product • 5. Pilot plant A pilot plant is a small version of the equipment used in manufacture. • 6. Sensory evaluation • 7. Perform consumer testing
  • 21. • 8. Finalise product specification Product specifications detail exact ingredients and precise methods of production. • The specification is very important as it will be used for the production of each batch of the product to ensure consistency
  • 22. • 9. Produce product on a large scale The manufacturing process is sometimes organized in unit operations, such as size reduction, mixing and cooking. • These are controlled to maintain consistent product quality, safeguard staff health, food safety standards and to avoid problems that may stop the production line running, which would result in 'down time'.
  • 23. • The processes involved in manufacturing food products are known as 'unit operations'. These include: • storage e.g. keeping raw materials in good condition • cleaning, e.g. removing foreign matter • sorting/grading e.g. assessing the quality • size reduction e.g. trimming, slicing, crushing • mixing/combining • heat transfer e.g. cooking and cooling
  • 24. • 10. Advertise the product • 11. Launch new product
  • 25. WHY DO WE PROCESS FOOD? • to convert to edible products • to preserve • to extend availability and provide accessibility • to provide variety and choice • to add value
  • 26. TYPICAL FOOD PROCESSES • Most food which is manufactured goes through a number of common steps. • The specific details of each may differ, but the basic principles are the same:
  • 27.
  • 28. PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION • destroys, inhibits or removes micro-organisms • retards or prevents deleterious biochemical, chemical and physio- chemical changes • maintains and generates acceptable organoleptic properties • preserves or enhances the nutritive value
  • 29. Processing and preservation technologies used in the food industry: • Heating • drying • irradiation • concentration • freezing • chemical preservation • chilling • fermentation • a combination of those technologies