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­Sm¡ ü¡ÙÛÉ cçl
j¤MÉü¡ÙÛÉ¢Q¢Lvp¡¢dL¡¢l­Ll Lle
hy¡L¥s¡
 Bn¡ LjÑ£ , A‰e Ju¡XÑ£ LjÑ£ J Ae¡eÉ ü¡ÙÛÉ LjÑ£­cl SeÉ
gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pwœ²¡¿¹ ¢LR¥ …l¦aÆf§eÑ ¢nr¡j§mL abÉ x-
gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ¢L ?
f¡e£u Sm J M¡h¡­ll j­dÉ ¢c­u j¡ehnl£­l fË­u¡S­el ­b­L ­hn£, kb¡ 1..5 ¢jxNË¡x fË¢a ¢mV¡l ­b­L
­hn£ gÓ¥l¡CX f¡e Ll¡l SeÉ gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ­l¡N¢V quz gÓ¥l¡CX qm gÓ¥¢l­el HL¢V ­k±Nz cy¡­a p¡c¡ Q­Ll ja
c¡N, qm¤c, ­Nl¦u¡ J L¡­m¡ ­R¡f qm gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fË¡b¢jL mrez flhaÑ£L¡­m q¡a J f¡­ul hœ²a¡ J f‰y¥aÆ
­cM¡ k¡uz
j¡eh­c­q gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl r¢aL¡lL fËi¡h…¢m ¢L ¢L ?
1) cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢pp x 5 ­b­L 8 hRl hu­pl ¢nö­cl J a¡l Ef­ll hup£­cl HC gÓ¥­l¡¢pp mrÉ Ll¡
k¡uz cy¡­a p¡c¡ Q­Ll ja c¡N, qm¤c, ­Nl¦u¡ J L¡­m¡ ­R¡f HC gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fËd¡e mrez flhaÑ£L¡­m cy¡­al i‰y¥aÆ
mrÉ Ll¡ k¡uz
2) ­cq Lˆ¡­ml gÓ¥­l¡¢pp x HC gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fËd¡e r¢aL¡lL ¢cL …¢m qm qy¡­sl hœ²a¡ J i‰¥la¡z ­c­ql
A¢ÙÛp¢å …¢m­a hÉ¡b¡ Ae¤i¨a quz O¡s, ¢fW, Ly¡d, ­L¡jl J q¡V¥l p¢å…¢m­a h¡ k¤š²ÙÛ­m hÉ¡b¡ Ae¤i¨a quz HC
hÉ¡b¡ A­eLV¡ h¡­al hÉ¡b¡l jaz
3) ALˆ¡m S¢ea gÓ¥­l¡¢pp x nl£­ll ¢h¢iæ A‰ J fËaɉ Hhw ­L¡jm Lm¡u kMe gÓ¥l¡CX Adx¢rç qu aMe
¢h¢iæ nl£¢lL pjpÉ¡ ­cM¡ k¡uz H­LC ALˆ¡m S¢ea h¡ eeÚ - ­ú¢mVÉ¡m gÓ¥­l¡¢pp h­mz
HC fËL¡l gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl Ap¤¤¢hd¡ …¢m qm x
L) q¡a J f¡­ul B‰¥m …¢m­a ¢Qe¢Q­e i¡h Ae¤i¨a quz
M) Apñh a«o·¡ ­h¡d quz
N) h¡lh¡l j§œ aÉ¡­Nl fËhea¡ ­cM¡ k¡uz
O) pÀ¡u¢hh c§hmÑa¡ J Ampa¡ ­h¡d quz
P) ­L¡ù L¡¢WeÉ q­a f¡­lz
Q) p­hÑ¡f¢l f¡­ul qy¡V¥­a hÉ¡­al hÉ¡b¡l ja hÉ¡b¡ J j¡b¡ hÉ¡b¡ Ae¤i¨a quz
S¡a£u gÓ¥­l¡¢pp fË¢a­l¡d J ¢eu¿»e LjÑp§Q£
2
j¡eh­c­q HC ­l¡N qJu¡l L¡le ?
gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fËd¡e L¡le qm j¡œ¡¢a¢lš² gÓ¥l¡CX f¡e, f¡e£u Sm J gÓ¥l¡CX k¤š² M¡h¡­ll j¡dÉ­jz gÓ¥l¡C­Xl ü¡i¡¢hL
h¡ pqÉ j¡œ¡ qm 1.5 ¢jxNË¡x fË¢a ¢mV¡­lz cy¡­al j­dÉ fËbj HC ­l¡N¢V ¢Q¢q²a quz Bj¡­cl cy¡a p¡d¡lZa q¡CXÊ¢„
AÉ¡­fV¡CV (HYDROXY-APATITE) à¡l¡ N¢Waz gÓ¥l¡CX f¡e Ll¡l SeÉ gÓ¥­l¡AÉ¡­fV¡CV °al£ qu Hhw cy¡­a ­R¡f
pª¢ø L­lz flhaÑ£L¡­m q¡a J f¡­ul hœ²a¡ mre£uz
¢L i¡­h HC ­l¡N fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡ k¡u ?
HC ­l¡­Nl ¢ej§m£Lle J fË¢a­l¡­dl SeÉ fy¡Q fËL¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ ­eJu¡l Lb¡ hm¡ k¡uz ­kje-
1) gÓ¥l¡CX O¢Va f¡e£u Sm J M¡cÉ hSÑe Ll¡z
2) f¢lj¡¢SÑa J f¤¢ø pjªÜ fbÉ¡ h¡ M¡cÉ NËqe Ll¡z
3) p¢WL fËQ¡l hÉhÙÛ¡l j¡dÉ­j ü¡ÙÛÉ p­Qaea¡l ¢nr¡ ­cJu¡ J j¡e¤o­L gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pj­å S¡e¡­e¡z
4) f¤elNWeLl nmÉ ¢Q¢Lvp¡z
5) p­hÑ¡f¢l Af¤¢ø fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡z
1) gÓ¥l¡CX O¢Va f¡e£u Sm J M¡cÉ hSÑe Ll¡ x j¡¢Vl Ni£­ll S­m A­eL ­hn£ f¢lj¡­e gÓ¥l¡CX f¡Ju¡ k¡uz
ka j¡¢Vl Ni£­l fË­hn Ll¡ k¡u aa­hn£ gÓ¥l¡C­Xl j¡œ¡ ­cM¡ k¡uz a¡C kb¡ pñh j¡¢Vl Ef­ll Sm
(SURFACE WATER) hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ­kje ANi£l L¥y­u¡, ec£l Sm, f¢lnË¥a, f¢lj¡¢SÑa f¤L¥­ll SmJ M¡Ju¡
­k­a f¡­lz ¢h¢iæi¡­h hª¢øl Sm d­l a¡ flhaÑ£L¡­m hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ­k­a f¡­lz HR¡s¡J ¢h­no dl­el
gÓ¥l¡CX ¢gÒV¡l f¡Ju¡ k¡u k¡ hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ­k­a f¡­lz
gÓ¥l¡CX pjªÜ M¡cÉ ­kje c¤d R¡s¡ Q¡, ­mh¤ Q¡ ¢hVe¤e ¢j¢n­u, L¡­m¡e¤e, …VL¡-p¤¤f¡l£, ¢hVe¤e pjªÜ M¡h¡l
c¡h¡l, Q¡VÚ jn¡m¡, qS­j¡m¡, ¢V­el f¡­œ pwl¢ra g­ml lp, j¡R CaÉ¡¢cz a¡j¡L, Q¨le, ¢h¢iæ fËL¡l
gÓ¥l¡CX pjªÜ Kod, gÓ¥l¡CX k¤š² fËp¡de£ âhÉ hSÑe Ll¡ HL¡¿¹ Sl¦l£ ­pC ph S¡uN¡l j¡e¤o­cl , k¡l¡
gÓ¥l¡CX Lh¢ma Hm¡L¡u h¡p L­lez
2) f¢lj¡¢SÑa J f¤¢ø pjªÜ fbÉ h¡ M¡cÉ NËqe Ll¡ x ­k pjÙ¹ A’­m f¡e£u S­m gÓ¥l¡C­Xl f¢lj¡e 1.5
¢jxNË¡x fË¢a ¢mV¡l ­b­L ­hn£ f¡Ju¡ k¡u ­pC ph A’­ml SeN­el f¢lj¡¢SÑa J f¤¢ø k¤š² M¡h¡l NËqe J gÓ¥l¡CX
k¤š² M¡h¡l hSÑe Ll¡ E¢Qvz °ce¢¾ce M¡cÉ a¡¢mL¡l ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma M¡cÉ …¢m l¡M¡ clL¡lz
LÉ¡m¢pu¡j k¤š² M¡cÉ a¡¢mL¡ x
c¤d, cC, …s, ¢am, fe£l, hy¡d¡L¢f, ph¤S n¡Lpê£, f¡mw n¡L, d­ef¡a¡, ­p¡u¡¢he, ­R¡V j¡R CaÉ¡¢cz
Bule k¤š² M¡cÉ a¡¢mL¡ x
¢hV, B­fm, f¡L¡Lm¡, Ly¡QLm¡, ­h…e, Lm¡l ­b¡s, mˆ¡ CaÉ¡¢cz
¢iV¡¢je "¢p" k¤š² M¡h¡l x
Bjm¢L, ­fu¡l¡, f¡¢a­mh¤, Ljm¡­mh¤, V­j­V¡, Lm¡C X¡m, ­jn¡­e¡ X¡m CaÉ¡¢cz
¢iV¡¢je "C" k¤š² M¡h¡l x
­i¢S­Vhm J­um, Bjä, Lm¡Cö¢V, ph¤Sn¡L pê£, öL­e¡ Lm¡C CaÉ¡¢cz
3
AÉ¡¢¾V A¢„­X¾Vk¤š² M¡h¡l x
AÉ¡¢¾V A¢„­X¾V k¤š² M¡h¡l °ce¢¾ce Bq¡­l l¡M¡ E¢Qaz N¡Sl, V­j­V¡, ­fu¡l¡, hy¡d¡L¢f, ¢hV J ph¤Sn¡L p꣭a
AÉ¡¢¾V A¢„­X¾V b¡­Lz
3) p¢WL fËQ¡l hÉhÙÛ¡l j¡dÉ­j ü¡ÙÛÉ pðå£u ¢nr¡ ­cJu¡ x gÓ¥l¡CX J gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pwœ²¡¿¹ k¡ha£u abÉ
p¢WLi¡­h SeN­el L¡­R ­f¡­R ­cJu¡z
4) f¤elNWeLl nmÉ ¢Q¢Lvp¡ x gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl g­m qy¡­s ­k hœ²a¡ °al£ qu a¡q¡ Bw¢nL i¡­h AÙ» fËQ¡­ll
j¡dÉ­j f¤elNWe Ll¡ pñhz
5) Af¤¢ø fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡ x gÓ¥­l¡¢pp HL fËL¡l Af¤¢ø S¢ea ­l¡­Nl j­dÉC f­sz p¢WL Bq¡l NËq­el j¡dÉ­j
HC ­l¡N fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡ pñhz
¢L i¡­h gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pe¡š² Ll­he ?
1) cy¡­al Efl Bs¡B¢s p¢‹a qm¤c, h¡c¡¢j, L¡­m¡ c¡N mrÉ Ll­a q­hz cy¡­a gÓ¥­l¡¢pp S¢ea HC c¡N
LM­e¡C mð¡m¢ð i¡­h p¢‹a q­h e¡z
2) cy¡­a Q­Ll ja p¡c¡ c¡N ­cM­a f¡Ju¡ k¡uz
3) HC c¡N …¢m cy¡­al j¡¢sl ­b­L A­eLV¡ ¢e­Q AhÙÛ¡e Ll­hz LM­e¡C ­Lhmj¡œ HL¢V cy¡­a HC
c¡N…¢m AhÙÛ¡e Ll­h e¡z
4) cy¡­a hÉ¡LÚ¢V¢lu¡ S¢ea ra …¢m M¤h p¤¤¾cl i¡­h cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡­Nl ­b­L Bm¡c¡ Ll¡ pñhz
5) ­e¡wl¡ cy¡a h¡ Af¢lú¡l cy¡­al p¡­b cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N fªbL Ll¡l Ef¡u ¢e­Q ­cJu¡ qmz
6) fË¡b¢jLi¡­h LwLˆ¡m S¢ea gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl ¢Q¢q²a Ll­el L­uL¢V Ef¡u ­cM¡­e¡ q­m¡ R¢hl j¡dÉ­jz R¢h
(1), (2), (3)
(1) ü¡i¡¢hL j¡e¤o O¡­sl ¢fR­el ¢c­L q¡a …¢m ¢e­u ¢N­u S­s¡ Ll­a f¡l­hz gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl g­m k¢c ­L¡e
j¡e¤­ol Ly¡d J O¡­sl Qme hÉqa qu a¡l¡ HC fl£r¡u Ae¤š£eÑ q­hz
(2) L­ue ­VØV x k¢c ­L¡­e¡ j¡e¤­ol p¡j­e HL¢V L­ue h¡ ­fe ­g­m ¢c­u hm¡ qu ­k ­p¢V­L qy¡V¥ e¡
­i­‰ a¥m­a q­h a¡q­m ü¡i¡¢hL j¡e¤o f¡l­h ¢L¿¹¥ ­L¡­e¡ i¡­hC gÓ¥­l¡¢pp l¦¢N f¡l­h e¡z
(3) ¢Qh¤L fl£r¡ x ü¡i¡¢hL j¡e¤o a¡l ¢Qh¤L ¢c­u h¤­L ­WL¡­a f¡­l ­kV¡ ­L¡e gÓ¥­l¡¢pp l¦¢N f¡l­h e¡z
p­hÑ¡f¢l haÑj¡e f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a ­cM¡u ­k gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ­l¡N¢V HL¢V Seü¡­ÙÛÉl hslL­jl Ap¤¤¢hd¡, k¡ pj¡­Sl pLm j¡e¤­ol
fË­Qù¡u fË¢a­l¡d J ¢eu¿»e Ll¡ pñhz
A­eLV¡ fb HM­e¡ Qm¡ h¡¢L
j¤MÉü¡ÙÛÉ¢Q¢Lvp¡¢dL¡¢l­Ll Lle
­Sm¡ü¡ÙÛÉcçl, hy¡L¥s¡ La«L Seü¡­bÑ fËQ¡¢la
4
S¡a£u gÓ¥­l¡¢pp fË¢a­l¡d J ¢eu¿»e LjÑp§Q£
­Sm¡ü¡ÙÛÉcçl, hy¡L¥s¡
cy¡­al Efl Bs¡B¢s p¢‹a qm¤c, h¡c¡¢j, L¡­m¡ c¡N mrÉ Ll­a q­hz cy¡­a gÓ¥­l¡¢pp S¢ea HC c¡N LM­e¡C
mð¡m¢ð i¡­h p¢‹a q­h e¡z
cy¡­a Q­Ll ja p¡c¡ c¡N ­cM­a f¡Ju¡ k¡uz ­cq Lˆ¡­ml gÓ¥­l¡¢pp
­Se¤ i¡l¡j ­Se¤ i¡mN¡j
cy¡­a hÉ¡LÚ¢V¢lu¡ S¢ea ra …¢m M¤h p¤¤¾cl i¡­h cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡­Nl ­b­L Bm¡c¡ Ll¡ pñhz
cy¡­a hÉ¡LÚ¢V¢lu¡ S¢ea ra cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N
­e¡wl¡ cy¡a h¡ Af¢lú¡l cy¡­al p¡­b cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N fªbL Ll¡l Ef¡u ¢e­Q ­cJu¡ qmz
­e¡wl¡ cy¡a gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N
R¢h (1) R¢h (2) R¢h (3)

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Fluorosis study material_cmoh office_bankura

  • 1. 1 ­Sm¡ ü¡ÙÛÉ cçl j¤MÉü¡ÙÛÉ¢Q¢Lvp¡¢dL¡¢l­Ll Lle hy¡L¥s¡  Bn¡ LjÑ£ , A‰e Ju¡XÑ£ LjÑ£ J Ae¡eÉ ü¡ÙÛÉ LjÑ£­cl SeÉ gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pwœ²¡¿¹ ¢LR¥ …l¦aÆf§eÑ ¢nr¡j§mL abÉ x- gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ¢L ? f¡e£u Sm J M¡h¡­ll j­dÉ ¢c­u j¡ehnl£­l fË­u¡S­el ­b­L ­hn£, kb¡ 1..5 ¢jxNË¡x fË¢a ¢mV¡l ­b­L ­hn£ gÓ¥l¡CX f¡e Ll¡l SeÉ gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ­l¡N¢V quz gÓ¥l¡CX qm gÓ¥¢l­el HL¢V ­k±Nz cy¡­a p¡c¡ Q­Ll ja c¡N, qm¤c, ­Nl¦u¡ J L¡­m¡ ­R¡f qm gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fË¡b¢jL mrez flhaÑ£L¡­m q¡a J f¡­ul hœ²a¡ J f‰y¥aÆ ­cM¡ k¡uz j¡eh­c­q gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl r¢aL¡lL fËi¡h…¢m ¢L ¢L ? 1) cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢pp x 5 ­b­L 8 hRl hu­pl ¢nö­cl J a¡l Ef­ll hup£­cl HC gÓ¥­l¡¢pp mrÉ Ll¡ k¡uz cy¡­a p¡c¡ Q­Ll ja c¡N, qm¤c, ­Nl¦u¡ J L¡­m¡ ­R¡f HC gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fËd¡e mrez flhaÑ£L¡­m cy¡­al i‰y¥aÆ mrÉ Ll¡ k¡uz 2) ­cq Lˆ¡­ml gÓ¥­l¡¢pp x HC gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fËd¡e r¢aL¡lL ¢cL …¢m qm qy¡­sl hœ²a¡ J i‰¥la¡z ­c­ql A¢ÙÛp¢å …¢m­a hÉ¡b¡ Ae¤i¨a quz O¡s, ¢fW, Ly¡d, ­L¡jl J q¡V¥l p¢å…¢m­a h¡ k¤š²ÙÛ­m hÉ¡b¡ Ae¤i¨a quz HC hÉ¡b¡ A­eLV¡ h¡­al hÉ¡b¡l jaz 3) ALˆ¡m S¢ea gÓ¥­l¡¢pp x nl£­ll ¢h¢iæ A‰ J fËaɉ Hhw ­L¡jm Lm¡u kMe gÓ¥l¡CX Adx¢rç qu aMe ¢h¢iæ nl£¢lL pjpÉ¡ ­cM¡ k¡uz H­LC ALˆ¡m S¢ea h¡ eeÚ - ­ú¢mVÉ¡m gÓ¥­l¡¢pp h­mz HC fËL¡l gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl Ap¤¤¢hd¡ …¢m qm x L) q¡a J f¡­ul B‰¥m …¢m­a ¢Qe¢Q­e i¡h Ae¤i¨a quz M) Apñh a«o·¡ ­h¡d quz N) h¡lh¡l j§œ aÉ¡­Nl fËhea¡ ­cM¡ k¡uz O) pÀ¡u¢hh c§hmÑa¡ J Ampa¡ ­h¡d quz P) ­L¡ù L¡¢WeÉ q­a f¡­lz Q) p­hÑ¡f¢l f¡­ul qy¡V¥­a hÉ¡­al hÉ¡b¡l ja hÉ¡b¡ J j¡b¡ hÉ¡b¡ Ae¤i¨a quz S¡a£u gÓ¥­l¡¢pp fË¢a­l¡d J ¢eu¿»e LjÑp§Q£
  • 2. 2 j¡eh­c­q HC ­l¡N qJu¡l L¡le ? gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl fËd¡e L¡le qm j¡œ¡¢a¢lš² gÓ¥l¡CX f¡e, f¡e£u Sm J gÓ¥l¡CX k¤š² M¡h¡­ll j¡dÉ­jz gÓ¥l¡C­Xl ü¡i¡¢hL h¡ pqÉ j¡œ¡ qm 1.5 ¢jxNË¡x fË¢a ¢mV¡­lz cy¡­al j­dÉ fËbj HC ­l¡N¢V ¢Q¢q²a quz Bj¡­cl cy¡a p¡d¡lZa q¡CXÊ¢„ AÉ¡­fV¡CV (HYDROXY-APATITE) à¡l¡ N¢Waz gÓ¥l¡CX f¡e Ll¡l SeÉ gÓ¥­l¡AÉ¡­fV¡CV °al£ qu Hhw cy¡­a ­R¡f pª¢ø L­lz flhaÑ£L¡­m q¡a J f¡­ul hœ²a¡ mre£uz ¢L i¡­h HC ­l¡N fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡ k¡u ? HC ­l¡­Nl ¢ej§m£Lle J fË¢a­l¡­dl SeÉ fy¡Q fËL¡l hÉhÙÛ¡ ­eJu¡l Lb¡ hm¡ k¡uz ­kje- 1) gÓ¥l¡CX O¢Va f¡e£u Sm J M¡cÉ hSÑe Ll¡z 2) f¢lj¡¢SÑa J f¤¢ø pjªÜ fbÉ¡ h¡ M¡cÉ NËqe Ll¡z 3) p¢WL fËQ¡l hÉhÙÛ¡l j¡dÉ­j ü¡ÙÛÉ p­Qaea¡l ¢nr¡ ­cJu¡ J j¡e¤o­L gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pj­å S¡e¡­e¡z 4) f¤elNWeLl nmÉ ¢Q¢Lvp¡z 5) p­hÑ¡f¢l Af¤¢ø fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡z 1) gÓ¥l¡CX O¢Va f¡e£u Sm J M¡cÉ hSÑe Ll¡ x j¡¢Vl Ni£­ll S­m A­eL ­hn£ f¢lj¡­e gÓ¥l¡CX f¡Ju¡ k¡uz ka j¡¢Vl Ni£­l fË­hn Ll¡ k¡u aa­hn£ gÓ¥l¡C­Xl j¡œ¡ ­cM¡ k¡uz a¡C kb¡ pñh j¡¢Vl Ef­ll Sm (SURFACE WATER) hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ­kje ANi£l L¥y­u¡, ec£l Sm, f¢lnË¥a, f¢lj¡¢SÑa f¤L¥­ll SmJ M¡Ju¡ ­k­a f¡­lz ¢h¢iæi¡­h hª¢øl Sm d­l a¡ flhaÑ£L¡­m hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ­k­a f¡­lz HR¡s¡J ¢h­no dl­el gÓ¥l¡CX ¢gÒV¡l f¡Ju¡ k¡u k¡ hÉhq¡l Ll¡ ­k­a f¡­lz gÓ¥l¡CX pjªÜ M¡cÉ ­kje c¤d R¡s¡ Q¡, ­mh¤ Q¡ ¢hVe¤e ¢j¢n­u, L¡­m¡e¤e, …VL¡-p¤¤f¡l£, ¢hVe¤e pjªÜ M¡h¡l c¡h¡l, Q¡VÚ jn¡m¡, qS­j¡m¡, ¢V­el f¡­œ pwl¢ra g­ml lp, j¡R CaÉ¡¢cz a¡j¡L, Q¨le, ¢h¢iæ fËL¡l gÓ¥l¡CX pjªÜ Kod, gÓ¥l¡CX k¤š² fËp¡de£ âhÉ hSÑe Ll¡ HL¡¿¹ Sl¦l£ ­pC ph S¡uN¡l j¡e¤o­cl , k¡l¡ gÓ¥l¡CX Lh¢ma Hm¡L¡u h¡p L­lez 2) f¢lj¡¢SÑa J f¤¢ø pjªÜ fbÉ h¡ M¡cÉ NËqe Ll¡ x ­k pjÙ¹ A’­m f¡e£u S­m gÓ¥l¡C­Xl f¢lj¡e 1.5 ¢jxNË¡x fË¢a ¢mV¡l ­b­L ­hn£ f¡Ju¡ k¡u ­pC ph A’­ml SeN­el f¢lj¡¢SÑa J f¤¢ø k¤š² M¡h¡l NËqe J gÓ¥l¡CX k¤š² M¡h¡l hSÑe Ll¡ E¢Qvz °ce¢¾ce M¡cÉ a¡¢mL¡l ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma M¡cÉ …¢m l¡M¡ clL¡lz LÉ¡m¢pu¡j k¤š² M¡cÉ a¡¢mL¡ x c¤d, cC, …s, ¢am, fe£l, hy¡d¡L¢f, ph¤S n¡Lpê£, f¡mw n¡L, d­ef¡a¡, ­p¡u¡¢he, ­R¡V j¡R CaÉ¡¢cz Bule k¤š² M¡cÉ a¡¢mL¡ x ¢hV, B­fm, f¡L¡Lm¡, Ly¡QLm¡, ­h…e, Lm¡l ­b¡s, mˆ¡ CaÉ¡¢cz ¢iV¡¢je "¢p" k¤š² M¡h¡l x Bjm¢L, ­fu¡l¡, f¡¢a­mh¤, Ljm¡­mh¤, V­j­V¡, Lm¡C X¡m, ­jn¡­e¡ X¡m CaÉ¡¢cz ¢iV¡¢je "C" k¤š² M¡h¡l x ­i¢S­Vhm J­um, Bjä, Lm¡Cö¢V, ph¤Sn¡L pê£, öL­e¡ Lm¡C CaÉ¡¢cz
  • 3. 3 AÉ¡¢¾V A¢„­X¾Vk¤š² M¡h¡l x AÉ¡¢¾V A¢„­X¾V k¤š² M¡h¡l °ce¢¾ce Bq¡­l l¡M¡ E¢Qaz N¡Sl, V­j­V¡, ­fu¡l¡, hy¡d¡L¢f, ¢hV J ph¤Sn¡L p꣭a AÉ¡¢¾V A¢„­X¾V b¡­Lz 3) p¢WL fËQ¡l hÉhÙÛ¡l j¡dÉ­j ü¡ÙÛÉ pðå£u ¢nr¡ ­cJu¡ x gÓ¥l¡CX J gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pwœ²¡¿¹ k¡ha£u abÉ p¢WLi¡­h SeN­el L¡­R ­f¡­R ­cJu¡z 4) f¤elNWeLl nmÉ ¢Q¢Lvp¡ x gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl g­m qy¡­s ­k hœ²a¡ °al£ qu a¡q¡ Bw¢nL i¡­h AÙ» fËQ¡­ll j¡dÉ­j f¤elNWe Ll¡ pñhz 5) Af¤¢ø fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡ x gÓ¥­l¡¢pp HL fËL¡l Af¤¢ø S¢ea ­l¡­Nl j­dÉC f­sz p¢WL Bq¡l NËq­el j¡dÉ­j HC ­l¡N fË¢a­l¡d Ll¡ pñhz ¢L i¡­h gÓ¥­l¡¢pp pe¡š² Ll­he ? 1) cy¡­al Efl Bs¡B¢s p¢‹a qm¤c, h¡c¡¢j, L¡­m¡ c¡N mrÉ Ll­a q­hz cy¡­a gÓ¥­l¡¢pp S¢ea HC c¡N LM­e¡C mð¡m¢ð i¡­h p¢‹a q­h e¡z 2) cy¡­a Q­Ll ja p¡c¡ c¡N ­cM­a f¡Ju¡ k¡uz 3) HC c¡N …¢m cy¡­al j¡¢sl ­b­L A­eLV¡ ¢e­Q AhÙÛ¡e Ll­hz LM­e¡C ­Lhmj¡œ HL¢V cy¡­a HC c¡N…¢m AhÙÛ¡e Ll­h e¡z 4) cy¡­a hÉ¡LÚ¢V¢lu¡ S¢ea ra …¢m M¤h p¤¤¾cl i¡­h cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡­Nl ­b­L Bm¡c¡ Ll¡ pñhz 5) ­e¡wl¡ cy¡a h¡ Af¢lú¡l cy¡­al p¡­b cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N fªbL Ll¡l Ef¡u ¢e­Q ­cJu¡ qmz 6) fË¡b¢jLi¡­h LwLˆ¡m S¢ea gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl ¢Q¢q²a Ll­el L­uL¢V Ef¡u ­cM¡­e¡ q­m¡ R¢hl j¡dÉ­jz R¢h (1), (2), (3) (1) ü¡i¡¢hL j¡e¤o O¡­sl ¢fR­el ¢c­L q¡a …¢m ¢e­u ¢N­u S­s¡ Ll­a f¡l­hz gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl g­m k¢c ­L¡e j¡e¤­ol Ly¡d J O¡­sl Qme hÉqa qu a¡l¡ HC fl£r¡u Ae¤š£eÑ q­hz (2) L­ue ­VØV x k¢c ­L¡­e¡ j¡e¤­ol p¡j­e HL¢V L­ue h¡ ­fe ­g­m ¢c­u hm¡ qu ­k ­p¢V­L qy¡V¥ e¡ ­i­‰ a¥m­a q­h a¡q­m ü¡i¡¢hL j¡e¤o f¡l­h ¢L¿¹¥ ­L¡­e¡ i¡­hC gÓ¥­l¡¢pp l¦¢N f¡l­h e¡z (3) ¢Qh¤L fl£r¡ x ü¡i¡¢hL j¡e¤o a¡l ¢Qh¤L ¢c­u h¤­L ­WL¡­a f¡­l ­kV¡ ­L¡e gÓ¥­l¡¢pp l¦¢N f¡l­h e¡z p­hÑ¡f¢l haÑj¡e f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a ­cM¡u ­k gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ­l¡N¢V HL¢V Seü¡­ÙÛÉl hslL­jl Ap¤¤¢hd¡, k¡ pj¡­Sl pLm j¡e¤­ol fË­Qù¡u fË¢a­l¡d J ¢eu¿»e Ll¡ pñhz A­eLV¡ fb HM­e¡ Qm¡ h¡¢L j¤MÉü¡ÙÛÉ¢Q¢Lvp¡¢dL¡¢l­Ll Lle ­Sm¡ü¡ÙÛÉcçl, hy¡L¥s¡ La«L Seü¡­bÑ fËQ¡¢la
  • 4. 4 S¡a£u gÓ¥­l¡¢pp fË¢a­l¡d J ¢eu¿»e LjÑp§Q£ ­Sm¡ü¡ÙÛÉcçl, hy¡L¥s¡ cy¡­al Efl Bs¡B¢s p¢‹a qm¤c, h¡c¡¢j, L¡­m¡ c¡N mrÉ Ll­a q­hz cy¡­a gÓ¥­l¡¢pp S¢ea HC c¡N LM­e¡C mð¡m¢ð i¡­h p¢‹a q­h e¡z cy¡­a Q­Ll ja p¡c¡ c¡N ­cM­a f¡Ju¡ k¡uz ­cq Lˆ¡­ml gÓ¥­l¡¢pp ­Se¤ i¡l¡j ­Se¤ i¡mN¡j cy¡­a hÉ¡LÚ¢V¢lu¡ S¢ea ra …¢m M¤h p¤¤¾cl i¡­h cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡­Nl ­b­L Bm¡c¡ Ll¡ pñhz cy¡­a hÉ¡LÚ¢V¢lu¡ S¢ea ra cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N ­e¡wl¡ cy¡a h¡ Af¢lú¡l cy¡­al p¡­b cy¡­al gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N fªbL Ll¡l Ef¡u ¢e­Q ­cJu¡ qmz ­e¡wl¡ cy¡a gÓ¥­l¡¢p­pl c¡N R¢h (1) R¢h (2) R¢h (3)