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FLOURITE FLOURAPATITE CRYOLITE
 Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan at
1886 in France. Origin of name: from the Latin
word "fluere" meaning "to flow“
 In 1670 a recipe containing Bohemian emerald
(now known as calcium fluoride, CaF2) was
used to etch glass. It seems that George Gore
made a little fluorine through an electrolytic
process but his apparatus exploded when the
fluorine produced reacted with hydrogen from
the other electrode. The element finally was
isolated in 1886 by Ferdinand Frederic Henri
Moisson who used an apparatus constructed
from platinum. His reward was the Nobel Prize
for chemistry in 1906.
 Fluorine atoms have nine electrons, one
fewer than neon, and electron
configuration 1s22s22p5: two electrons in a
filled inner shell and seven in an outer shell
requiring one more to be filled. The outer
electrons are ineffective at nuclear shielding,
and experience a high effective nuclear
charge of 9 − 2 =7; this affects the atom's
physical properties.[2]
 Fluorine's first ionization energy is third-
highest among all elements, behind helium
and neon
 • Fluorine is essential for the normal
mineralization of bones and the formation of
dental enamel. Thus 96% of the Fluoride in the
body is found in bones and teeth. The Fluorine
and Calcium has strong affinity between them
and work together, mainly in the outer parts of
bones.
 • Fluorine prevents dental caries, by reducing
the solubility of the enamel in acids produced
by bacteria. A very small amount of it may help
in development of tooth, but excess of it causes
dental fluorosis-endemic areas
 Asparagus, avocados, brussels sprouts, cabbage,
carrots, caraway seed, cauliflower,
cucumber, dates, endive, juniper berries, lemon
grass, licorice, parsley, turnip and beet greens,
dandelion, sunflower seeds, garlic, spinach,
tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, nuts (especially
almonds), turnip greens, dandelions and all sea
vegetable.
 Toxic sources: Fluoride is added to many water
supplies and to food processed in areas containing
high levels of fluoride. It is added to most
toothpastes and may be added to the soil in certain
fertilizers. Also found in seafood and oats.
 Fluoride deficiency can lead to tooth decay
and possibly osteoporosis. Consuming
enough fluoride can make tooth decay less
likely and may strengthen bones. The
addition of fluoride (fluoridation) to drinking
water that is low in fluoride or the use of
fluoride supplements significantly reduces
the risk of tooth decay. In areas where
drinking water is not fluoridated, children
may be given fluoride by mouth
 People who live in areas where the drinking
water has a naturally high fluoride level may
consume too much fluoride—causing a
condition called fluorosis.
 Fluoride also accumulates in bones. Rarely,
consuming too much fluoride for a long time
results in dense but weak bones, abnormal
bone growths (spurs) on the spine,
 Parents should supervise their children while
they are brushing until the age of about 7.
 The correct strength of toothpaste should be
used as per the child’s age.
 Keep tube of toothpaste, mouthwash out of
the reach of children.
 Make sure children do not swallow toothpaste
while brushing.
 Sometimes deep surface cleaning and/or whitening
treatment is sufficient to improve the teeth’s
appearance, but in more severe cases it is often
necessary to cover the enamel with bonded tooth-
colored resin materials or a porcelain veneer
 If the fluorosis is very severe, with multiple
areas of deep pitting of the enamel or loss of the
proper shape of a tooth, it may be necessary to
provide a full crown or cap in order to properly
restore the tooth.
Flourine (the most electronegative element) 2

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Flourine (the most electronegative element) 2

  • 1.
  • 3.  Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan at 1886 in France. Origin of name: from the Latin word "fluere" meaning "to flow“  In 1670 a recipe containing Bohemian emerald (now known as calcium fluoride, CaF2) was used to etch glass. It seems that George Gore made a little fluorine through an electrolytic process but his apparatus exploded when the fluorine produced reacted with hydrogen from the other electrode. The element finally was isolated in 1886 by Ferdinand Frederic Henri Moisson who used an apparatus constructed from platinum. His reward was the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1906.
  • 4.
  • 5.  Fluorine atoms have nine electrons, one fewer than neon, and electron configuration 1s22s22p5: two electrons in a filled inner shell and seven in an outer shell requiring one more to be filled. The outer electrons are ineffective at nuclear shielding, and experience a high effective nuclear charge of 9 − 2 =7; this affects the atom's physical properties.[2]  Fluorine's first ionization energy is third- highest among all elements, behind helium and neon
  • 6.  • Fluorine is essential for the normal mineralization of bones and the formation of dental enamel. Thus 96% of the Fluoride in the body is found in bones and teeth. The Fluorine and Calcium has strong affinity between them and work together, mainly in the outer parts of bones.  • Fluorine prevents dental caries, by reducing the solubility of the enamel in acids produced by bacteria. A very small amount of it may help in development of tooth, but excess of it causes dental fluorosis-endemic areas
  • 7.  Asparagus, avocados, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, caraway seed, cauliflower, cucumber, dates, endive, juniper berries, lemon grass, licorice, parsley, turnip and beet greens, dandelion, sunflower seeds, garlic, spinach, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, nuts (especially almonds), turnip greens, dandelions and all sea vegetable.  Toxic sources: Fluoride is added to many water supplies and to food processed in areas containing high levels of fluoride. It is added to most toothpastes and may be added to the soil in certain fertilizers. Also found in seafood and oats.
  • 8.  Fluoride deficiency can lead to tooth decay and possibly osteoporosis. Consuming enough fluoride can make tooth decay less likely and may strengthen bones. The addition of fluoride (fluoridation) to drinking water that is low in fluoride or the use of fluoride supplements significantly reduces the risk of tooth decay. In areas where drinking water is not fluoridated, children may be given fluoride by mouth
  • 9.  People who live in areas where the drinking water has a naturally high fluoride level may consume too much fluoride—causing a condition called fluorosis.  Fluoride also accumulates in bones. Rarely, consuming too much fluoride for a long time results in dense but weak bones, abnormal bone growths (spurs) on the spine,
  • 10.  Parents should supervise their children while they are brushing until the age of about 7.  The correct strength of toothpaste should be used as per the child’s age.  Keep tube of toothpaste, mouthwash out of the reach of children.  Make sure children do not swallow toothpaste while brushing.
  • 11.  Sometimes deep surface cleaning and/or whitening treatment is sufficient to improve the teeth’s appearance, but in more severe cases it is often necessary to cover the enamel with bonded tooth- colored resin materials or a porcelain veneer  If the fluorosis is very severe, with multiple areas of deep pitting of the enamel or loss of the proper shape of a tooth, it may be necessary to provide a full crown or cap in order to properly restore the tooth.