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Fixing Dockerfile Smells:
An Empirical Study
Giovanni Rosa, Simone Scalabrino and Rocco Oliveto
University of Molise, Italy
ICSME ’22 Registered Reports - Oct 6th 2022
Limassol, Cyprus
Containerization, how it works?
Build Ship Run
Software containers
Containers in production environments
2020 2023 2025
85%
of organizations
will adopt
containers
Why Docker?
#1 Most-Wanted
and
#1 Most Loved
tool
Docker in a nutshell
Dockerfile Image Container
Registry
“hub”
push
pull
run
build
base image
Docker in a nutshell
Dockerfile Image Container
Registry
“hub”
push
pull
run
build
base image
Docker in a nutshell
Dockerfile Image Container
Registry
“hub”
push
pull
run
build
base image
Docker in a nutshell
Dockerfile Image Container
Registry
“hub”
push
pull
run
build
base image
Docker in a nutshell
Dockerfile Image Container
Registry
“hub”
push
pull
run
build
base image
How to measure Dockerfile quality?
I’M
FLAWLESS!
Haskell
Dockerfile Linter
How to measure Dockerfile quality?
Dockerfile smells
Smells in Dockerfiles
Smells can negatively affect Docker images
Image size
Build
reliability
Security
vulnerabilities
84%
of 70000 Dockerfiles
contain smells
2017
Cito et. al
“Version pinning smell
is the biggest quality issue
[…]
there is a declining trend of
Dockerfile smells”
Eng et. al 2021
It is not clear what smells are
relevant and need to be fixed
Lack of advanced supporting
tools for developers
It is not clear what smells are
relevant and need to be fixed
Empirical
Study
Smell survivability
Empirical
Study
Smell survivability
Fix
recommendations
Empirical
Study
How do developers fix
Dockerfile smells?
RQ 1
RQ1
9.4M
unique Dockerfiles
from 2013 to 2020
Dockerfile
snapshots
over time
Smell
survivability
RQ1
Extraction of
smell-fixing
commits
Dockerfile
snapshots
over time
RQ1
Extraction of
smell-fixing
commits
Dockerfile
snapshots
over time
Manual
validation
(1000 commits)
Manual validation
smelly not smelly
smelly not smelly
Extraction of
smell-fixing
commits
Dockerfile
snapshots
over time
Manual
validation
(1000 commits)
Smell
survivability
RQ1
Which Dockerfile
smells are developers
willing to address?
RQ 2
Eng et. al 2021
8+
smells
RQ2
11.5M
commits
Most frequent
and fixed smells
hadolint wiki
RQ2
Most frequent
and fixed smells
Rule-based
Refactoring tool
RQ2
Most frequent
and fixed smells
Rule-based
Refactoring tool
Refactoring
recommendations
Responses from
developers
Not Accepted Accepted
Pending
Response status
RQ2
Most frequent
and fixed smells
Rule-based
Refactoring tool
Refactoring
recommendations
Responses from
developers
Evaluation
Giovanni Rosa
University of Molise, Italy
giovanni.rosa@unimol.it
Summary

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Fixing Dockerfile Smells: An Empirical Study (ICSME 2022)