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DEVEL-A35                             Dmitry Yemanov




     Firebird 2.5
     Architecture
            Dmitry Yemanov

              Firebird Project
        http://www.firebirdsql.org/


                                                       1
DEVEL-A35                              Dmitry Yemanov


Firebird 2.5
   Rationale
       First step in the Classic/SuperServer unification
       Codebase modernization
       Common threadable architecture
        and more efficient multi-threading support
       A number of new features
       Intermediate release between v2.1 and v3.0




                                                                 2
DEVEL-A35                             Dmitry Yemanov


Threadability as a Primary Goal
   Major MT cleanup
       Only threadable platforms are supported
       Old synchronization logic is updated
       Generic thread safety everywhere,
        starting from the API (both client and embedded)

   Better scalability
       No cooperative scheduling anymore
       Say “goodbye” to the global mutex
       Synchronization goes to the lower levels

                                                                3
DEVEL-A35                            Dmitry Yemanov


Threadability as a Primary Goal
   Server layer / remote subsystem
       Worker thread pooling
       Asynchronous connection cleanup
       Unified listener code for SS and CS

   Lock management
       Non-blocking notifications
       No need in the static semaphores setup
       Per database lock tables


                                                               4
DEVEL-A35                           Dmitry Yemanov


Effects for the Supported Architectures
   Classic Server
       Lock manager doesn't need explicit semaphores
        and signals setup anymore
       fb_lock_mgr binary is deprecated on POSIX
       Services and automatic sweep are executed
        as threads (less processes spawned)
       Server layer may determine broken network links
        immediately and terminate the worker process
       libfbembed.so is thread-safe



                                                              5
DEVEL-A35                             Dmitry Yemanov


Effects for the Supported Architectures
   SuperServer
       Better overall scalability and respond timings due
        to a lower-level synchronization inside the engine
       SMP/multi-core hardware can be utilized efficiently
        when multiple databases are accessed
        simultaneously
       fbclient.so/.dll is thread-safe




                                                                6
DEVEL-A35                                   Dmitry Yemanov


Effects for the Supported Architectures
   Embedded Server
       Now based on the Classic architecture,
        including all the benefits of the SuperClassic
       Multiple processes can safely access the database
       Official utilities (gbak, gfix, isql, etc)
        can be used as well
       fbembed.dll is thread-safe




                                                                      7
DEVEL-A35                             Dmitry Yemanov


What is Super Classic?
   Architecture
       Single process, multiple worker threads (pooled)
       Per connection page cache and metadata cache
       A number of in-process optimizations
       Database access can be safely shared among
        Classic, SuperClassic and Embedded processes




                                                                8
DEVEL-A35                                  Dmitry Yemanov


What is Super Classic?

                    Classic               Embedded


     SuperClassic         Classic               Embedded


                                Classic              Embedded




                         Database




                                                                 9
DEVEL-A35                             Dmitry Yemanov


What is Super Classic?
   Benefits as compared to Classic
       Less kernel resources (but not memory) used
       Scalability limits are shifted
       Better performance due to local calls inside the lock
        manager and other in-process optimizations
        (25% performance boost in TPC-C)
       Server can be safely shutdown as a whole
       Possibility to enumerate attached databases/users
       Security database connection is cached



                                                                10
DEVEL-A35                              Dmitry Yemanov


What is Super Classic?
   Benefits as compared to SuperServer
       Better scalability
        (number of connections is not explicitly limited)
       Better concurrency on SMP/multi-core hardware
       More responsive under high load




                                                                 11
DEVEL-A35                             Dmitry Yemanov


What is Super Classic?
   Drawbacks
       Still ineffective memory usage
       High lock table contention (page locks),
        requires careful tuning of the LM configuration
       Server crash affects all user attachments
       Doesn't make much sense on 32-bit systems




                                                                12
DEVEL-A35                              Dmitry Yemanov


What is Super Classic?
   How to use on Windows
       The same binary as for the regular Classic
       Application: fb_inet_server.exe -a -m
       Service: instsvc install -m

   How to use on POSIX
       New fb_smp_server binary
       No need in [x]inetd




                                                                 13
DEVEL-A35                           Dmitry Yemanov


Combined Efforts
   Firebird team
       Synchronization inside the core engine
       SuperClassic and Embedded modes
       Updated lock manager
       Remote subsystem rework
   SAS Institute
       Concurrency testing, SuperClassic/Embedded
   RedSoft Corporation
       Concurrency testing and bugfixing

                                                              14
DEVEL-A35                            Dmitry Yemanov


Evolution in Firebird 3.0
   Architecture
       Single server, different working modes:
        - shared – multiple server processes (CS like)
        - dedicated – standalone server process (SS like)
       Per database configuration

   Multi-threading abilities
       Full cross-attachment concurrency
       Prepared statements cache



                                                               15
DEVEL-A35                                                   Dmitry Yemanov


Evolution in Firebird 3.0
 Firebird 2.5



       SuperServer                  SuperClassic                       Classic




                      Dedicated                        Shared
                     (in-process)                  (cross-process)



 Firebird 3.0




                                                                                      16
DEVEL-A35                    Dmitry Yemanov




              Thank you!



            Dmitry Yemanov

  mailto:dimitr@firebirdsql.org


                                              17

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Firebird 2.5 Architecture, by Dmitry Yemanov (in English)

  • 1. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Firebird 2.5 Architecture Dmitry Yemanov Firebird Project http://www.firebirdsql.org/ 1
  • 2. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Firebird 2.5  Rationale  First step in the Classic/SuperServer unification  Codebase modernization  Common threadable architecture and more efficient multi-threading support  A number of new features  Intermediate release between v2.1 and v3.0 2
  • 3. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Threadability as a Primary Goal  Major MT cleanup  Only threadable platforms are supported  Old synchronization logic is updated  Generic thread safety everywhere, starting from the API (both client and embedded)  Better scalability  No cooperative scheduling anymore  Say “goodbye” to the global mutex  Synchronization goes to the lower levels 3
  • 4. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Threadability as a Primary Goal  Server layer / remote subsystem  Worker thread pooling  Asynchronous connection cleanup  Unified listener code for SS and CS  Lock management  Non-blocking notifications  No need in the static semaphores setup  Per database lock tables 4
  • 5. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Effects for the Supported Architectures  Classic Server  Lock manager doesn't need explicit semaphores and signals setup anymore  fb_lock_mgr binary is deprecated on POSIX  Services and automatic sweep are executed as threads (less processes spawned)  Server layer may determine broken network links immediately and terminate the worker process  libfbembed.so is thread-safe 5
  • 6. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Effects for the Supported Architectures  SuperServer  Better overall scalability and respond timings due to a lower-level synchronization inside the engine  SMP/multi-core hardware can be utilized efficiently when multiple databases are accessed simultaneously  fbclient.so/.dll is thread-safe 6
  • 7. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Effects for the Supported Architectures  Embedded Server  Now based on the Classic architecture, including all the benefits of the SuperClassic  Multiple processes can safely access the database  Official utilities (gbak, gfix, isql, etc) can be used as well  fbembed.dll is thread-safe 7
  • 8. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov What is Super Classic?  Architecture  Single process, multiple worker threads (pooled)  Per connection page cache and metadata cache  A number of in-process optimizations  Database access can be safely shared among Classic, SuperClassic and Embedded processes 8
  • 9. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov What is Super Classic? Classic Embedded SuperClassic Classic Embedded Classic Embedded Database 9
  • 10. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov What is Super Classic?  Benefits as compared to Classic  Less kernel resources (but not memory) used  Scalability limits are shifted  Better performance due to local calls inside the lock manager and other in-process optimizations (25% performance boost in TPC-C)  Server can be safely shutdown as a whole  Possibility to enumerate attached databases/users  Security database connection is cached 10
  • 11. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov What is Super Classic?  Benefits as compared to SuperServer  Better scalability (number of connections is not explicitly limited)  Better concurrency on SMP/multi-core hardware  More responsive under high load 11
  • 12. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov What is Super Classic?  Drawbacks  Still ineffective memory usage  High lock table contention (page locks), requires careful tuning of the LM configuration  Server crash affects all user attachments  Doesn't make much sense on 32-bit systems 12
  • 13. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov What is Super Classic?  How to use on Windows  The same binary as for the regular Classic  Application: fb_inet_server.exe -a -m  Service: instsvc install -m  How to use on POSIX  New fb_smp_server binary  No need in [x]inetd 13
  • 14. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Combined Efforts  Firebird team  Synchronization inside the core engine  SuperClassic and Embedded modes  Updated lock manager  Remote subsystem rework  SAS Institute  Concurrency testing, SuperClassic/Embedded  RedSoft Corporation  Concurrency testing and bugfixing 14
  • 15. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Evolution in Firebird 3.0  Architecture  Single server, different working modes: - shared – multiple server processes (CS like) - dedicated – standalone server process (SS like)  Per database configuration  Multi-threading abilities  Full cross-attachment concurrency  Prepared statements cache 15
  • 16. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Evolution in Firebird 3.0 Firebird 2.5 SuperServer SuperClassic Classic Dedicated Shared (in-process) (cross-process) Firebird 3.0 16
  • 17. DEVEL-A35 Dmitry Yemanov Thank you! Dmitry Yemanov mailto:dimitr@firebirdsql.org 17