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1
BASIC FIRE SAFETY
M. SRINIVASA RAO
- Manager – EHS
Aptuit Laurus Pvt. Limited,
J. N. Pharma City,
Visakhapatnam – 531021
Andhra Pradesh
Mobile: +919652989892
2
-Fire is a chemical reaction of 3 elements.
What is FIRE?
Need all three
components to start a
fire.
Fire extinguishers
remove one or more
of the components.
3
The “Fire Triangle” identifies the three
components of any Fire:
–Fuel paper, wood, flammable gas, energized
electrical equipment, etc...
–Energy (heat), sufficient to support combustion.
Often referred to as the ignition source.
–Oxidizer (air)
IF ANY ONE OF THESE IS MISSING, A FIRE
CANNOT CONTINUE.
What is FIRE? (Contd….)
4
The Combustion Process
TEMPERATURE
OXYGEN
CHAIN
REACTION
THE FIRE TETRAHEDRONTHE FIRE TETRAHEDRON
(NEW CONCEPT)(NEW CONCEPT)
FUEL
5
Types of
Fire Class Fire Type Materials involved
A General
Wood, paper, cloth, trash
etc…
B
Flammable
Liquids
Flammable solvents, liquids,
Oils, Greases, Paints etc…
C
1. Electrical
2. Flammable
Gases
Energized electrical
equipment and All
flammable gases
D Metals
Water reactive Chemicals,
Combustible metals etc…
D
6
Fire Extinguisher Anatomy
DISCHARGE HOSE
DISCHARGE NOZZLE
DISCHARGE ORIFICE
BODY
DATA PLATE
CARRYING
HANDLE
PRESSURE GAUGE
(not found on CO2
extinguishers)DISCHARGE LEVER
DISCHARGE LOCKING PIN
AND SEAL
7
Different Kinds of Fire Extinguishers
The 4 most common fire
extinguishers:
 Water Type
 Mechanical Foam
 Dry Chemical Powder
 Carbon Dioxide
Each kind of extinguisher has
a specific use
8
Fire Class
Suitability of Extinguishers
Water M/F ABC DCP CO2 Sand
Class A √ √ √ × - × -
Class B × √ √ √ √ ×-
Class C × × √ √ √ ×-
Class D × × × √(Spl.
Grade)
√
Applications of Fire Extinguishers
Note: X- means can be used on Small surface fires.
×
×-
9
How to use a Fire Extinguisher
Remember this easy acronym when using an
extinguisher - P.A.S.S.
Pull the pin.
Aim the nozzle.
Squeeze the handle.
Sweep side to side at the base of the fire.
10
Fire Extinguisher Summary
EXTINGUISHER WORKS AS EFFECTIVE AGAINST
PRESSURIZED
WATER
COOLING
MECHANICAL
FOAM
BLANKETING
DRY CHEMICAL
POWDER
SMOTHERING
CARBON
DIOXIDE
SMOTHERING
DRY SAND BLANKETING D
11
Major Fires
Fire Hydrant System
- Pressure in the System: 7.0 Kg/Cm2
- Water Reservoir Capacity: 2 times than pump capacity
- Main Pump: 273 m3
/Hr
- Diesel Engine Pump (Stand by): 273 m3
/Hr
- Jokey Pump: 10 m3
/Hr
# Single Hydrants,
# Water monitors,
# Water Sprinklers,
# Mobile Foam Monitors
# Different nozzles
12
Major Fires (Contd.)
Fire Suppression System
- FM 200 (or) Carbon dioxide
- DCP flooding system
- Water Sprinklers
- Foam spray system etc...
13
Major Fires (Contd.)
Mutual aid/ External Help
- Fire Tenders
- External Agencies
- External Experts
- Regulatory Authorities etc...
14
Fire Emergency Response
RRescue – rescue clients in immediate danger.
AAlert – Shout Fire! Fire! (or) Pull fire alarm (or)
Dial emergency phone number.
CContain – Close all doors and windows.
EExtinguish/ Evacuate – Extinguish small fires,
evacuate clients, if appropriate.
R
A
C
E
Remember to RACE during a fire
15
Response at Fire situation
FUEL
IGNITION
Indoor Fire
X
AIR
Outdoor Fire
FUEL
IGNITION
AIRXX
X
16
KnowKnow department emergency procedures and evacuation
routes.
KnowKnow locations of extinguishers in your area and how to
use them.
AlwaysAlways sound the alarm regardlessregardless of fire size.
AvoidAvoid smoky conditions.
EnsureEnsure area is evacuated.
Don’tDon’t attempt to fight unless:
 Alarm is sounded.
 Fire is small and contained.
 You have safe egress route (can be reached without
exposure to fire).
 Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of
fire.
Evacuate!Evacuate! If in doubt.If in doubt.
Firefighting Decision Criteria
17
Most Fire Deaths are NOT BurnVictims!
Causes of Death in Fires -
SMOKE
 Hydrogen cyanide
 Hydro cyanic acid
 Carbon monoxide
 Other toxic vapors
 Trauma (non-burn)
18
Most Important
Only fight a fire in the incipient stage
NEVER fight a fire if any of the following apply:
- Don’t have the proper extinguisher or equipment.
- Fire has spread beyond its point of origin.
- Your instincts tell you GET OUT
When NOT to Fight FIRE?
- Remember to keep an exit to your back.
19
1. STOP! Do not run! (Running only makes the fire bigger)
2. DROP! (Drop to the ground or floor)
3. ROLL! (Roll over and over until the flames are
smothered. Cover face with hands)
You should stop drop and roll,
only when your clothes are on fire.
If your clothes
catch fire, it's
normal to be a bit
scared, but try
not to panic.
By learning how
to Stop, Drop,
and Roll, you will
have a better
chance of being
okay.
STOP, DROP and ROLL
20
FIRE PREVENTION
Prevention is always better than Control. To pre
prevent the Fire accidents we have to eliminate
the common Fire Hazards of the work are
Heat generating appliances.
Static Electricity and Short circuits.
Non-Flame proof equipments.
Storage and handling of flammables/combustibles.
Open flames and Hot surfaces.
Exothermic reactions leads to explosions.
Vehicles and equipment and other unsafe acts &
conditions.
21
Fire can be prevented by
considering the following
issues
Flame proof equipment
Good housekeeping
Proper Ventilation
Anti Static measures
Personnel awareness
Work procedures
Safe work practices
Right tools
FIRE PREVENTION (contd…)
22
Remember the Following
1. Portable fire extinguishers are suitable for small
fires. i.e. The fires are in the incipient stage.
2. Portable fire extinguishers can be handled by any
work place personnel, who had aware in its
handling.
3. If the Fire is large leave it to ERT members
(Firefighting), they can control the fire by using
Fire hydrant / Other appropriate measures.
4. All new entrants should be instructed in Fire safety
awareness and emergency evacuation plans.
Fire safety

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Fire safety

  • 1. 1 BASIC FIRE SAFETY M. SRINIVASA RAO - Manager – EHS Aptuit Laurus Pvt. Limited, J. N. Pharma City, Visakhapatnam – 531021 Andhra Pradesh Mobile: +919652989892
  • 2. 2 -Fire is a chemical reaction of 3 elements. What is FIRE? Need all three components to start a fire. Fire extinguishers remove one or more of the components.
  • 3. 3 The “Fire Triangle” identifies the three components of any Fire: –Fuel paper, wood, flammable gas, energized electrical equipment, etc... –Energy (heat), sufficient to support combustion. Often referred to as the ignition source. –Oxidizer (air) IF ANY ONE OF THESE IS MISSING, A FIRE CANNOT CONTINUE. What is FIRE? (Contd….)
  • 4. 4 The Combustion Process TEMPERATURE OXYGEN CHAIN REACTION THE FIRE TETRAHEDRONTHE FIRE TETRAHEDRON (NEW CONCEPT)(NEW CONCEPT) FUEL
  • 5. 5 Types of Fire Class Fire Type Materials involved A General Wood, paper, cloth, trash etc… B Flammable Liquids Flammable solvents, liquids, Oils, Greases, Paints etc… C 1. Electrical 2. Flammable Gases Energized electrical equipment and All flammable gases D Metals Water reactive Chemicals, Combustible metals etc… D
  • 6. 6 Fire Extinguisher Anatomy DISCHARGE HOSE DISCHARGE NOZZLE DISCHARGE ORIFICE BODY DATA PLATE CARRYING HANDLE PRESSURE GAUGE (not found on CO2 extinguishers)DISCHARGE LEVER DISCHARGE LOCKING PIN AND SEAL
  • 7. 7 Different Kinds of Fire Extinguishers The 4 most common fire extinguishers:  Water Type  Mechanical Foam  Dry Chemical Powder  Carbon Dioxide Each kind of extinguisher has a specific use
  • 8. 8 Fire Class Suitability of Extinguishers Water M/F ABC DCP CO2 Sand Class A √ √ √ × - × - Class B × √ √ √ √ ×- Class C × × √ √ √ ×- Class D × × × √(Spl. Grade) √ Applications of Fire Extinguishers Note: X- means can be used on Small surface fires. × ×-
  • 9. 9 How to use a Fire Extinguisher Remember this easy acronym when using an extinguisher - P.A.S.S. Pull the pin. Aim the nozzle. Squeeze the handle. Sweep side to side at the base of the fire.
  • 10. 10 Fire Extinguisher Summary EXTINGUISHER WORKS AS EFFECTIVE AGAINST PRESSURIZED WATER COOLING MECHANICAL FOAM BLANKETING DRY CHEMICAL POWDER SMOTHERING CARBON DIOXIDE SMOTHERING DRY SAND BLANKETING D
  • 11. 11 Major Fires Fire Hydrant System - Pressure in the System: 7.0 Kg/Cm2 - Water Reservoir Capacity: 2 times than pump capacity - Main Pump: 273 m3 /Hr - Diesel Engine Pump (Stand by): 273 m3 /Hr - Jokey Pump: 10 m3 /Hr # Single Hydrants, # Water monitors, # Water Sprinklers, # Mobile Foam Monitors # Different nozzles
  • 12. 12 Major Fires (Contd.) Fire Suppression System - FM 200 (or) Carbon dioxide - DCP flooding system - Water Sprinklers - Foam spray system etc...
  • 13. 13 Major Fires (Contd.) Mutual aid/ External Help - Fire Tenders - External Agencies - External Experts - Regulatory Authorities etc...
  • 14. 14 Fire Emergency Response RRescue – rescue clients in immediate danger. AAlert – Shout Fire! Fire! (or) Pull fire alarm (or) Dial emergency phone number. CContain – Close all doors and windows. EExtinguish/ Evacuate – Extinguish small fires, evacuate clients, if appropriate. R A C E Remember to RACE during a fire
  • 15. 15 Response at Fire situation FUEL IGNITION Indoor Fire X AIR Outdoor Fire FUEL IGNITION AIRXX X
  • 16. 16 KnowKnow department emergency procedures and evacuation routes. KnowKnow locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them. AlwaysAlways sound the alarm regardlessregardless of fire size. AvoidAvoid smoky conditions. EnsureEnsure area is evacuated. Don’tDon’t attempt to fight unless:  Alarm is sounded.  Fire is small and contained.  You have safe egress route (can be reached without exposure to fire).  Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of fire. Evacuate!Evacuate! If in doubt.If in doubt. Firefighting Decision Criteria
  • 17. 17 Most Fire Deaths are NOT BurnVictims! Causes of Death in Fires - SMOKE  Hydrogen cyanide  Hydro cyanic acid  Carbon monoxide  Other toxic vapors  Trauma (non-burn)
  • 18. 18 Most Important Only fight a fire in the incipient stage NEVER fight a fire if any of the following apply: - Don’t have the proper extinguisher or equipment. - Fire has spread beyond its point of origin. - Your instincts tell you GET OUT When NOT to Fight FIRE? - Remember to keep an exit to your back.
  • 19. 19 1. STOP! Do not run! (Running only makes the fire bigger) 2. DROP! (Drop to the ground or floor) 3. ROLL! (Roll over and over until the flames are smothered. Cover face with hands) You should stop drop and roll, only when your clothes are on fire. If your clothes catch fire, it's normal to be a bit scared, but try not to panic. By learning how to Stop, Drop, and Roll, you will have a better chance of being okay. STOP, DROP and ROLL
  • 20. 20 FIRE PREVENTION Prevention is always better than Control. To pre prevent the Fire accidents we have to eliminate the common Fire Hazards of the work are Heat generating appliances. Static Electricity and Short circuits. Non-Flame proof equipments. Storage and handling of flammables/combustibles. Open flames and Hot surfaces. Exothermic reactions leads to explosions. Vehicles and equipment and other unsafe acts & conditions.
  • 21. 21 Fire can be prevented by considering the following issues Flame proof equipment Good housekeeping Proper Ventilation Anti Static measures Personnel awareness Work procedures Safe work practices Right tools FIRE PREVENTION (contd…)
  • 22. 22 Remember the Following 1. Portable fire extinguishers are suitable for small fires. i.e. The fires are in the incipient stage. 2. Portable fire extinguishers can be handled by any work place personnel, who had aware in its handling. 3. If the Fire is large leave it to ERT members (Firefighting), they can control the fire by using Fire hydrant / Other appropriate measures. 4. All new entrants should be instructed in Fire safety awareness and emergency evacuation plans.