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Final Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical &
Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation
Jewelry Sub-sector
Package No. PKSF/SEP/S-13.8 (R)
Submitted to:
Deputy Managing Director 2
Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation (PKSF)
Submitted by
Md Zafar Alam Bhuiyan
Consultant, Sustainable Enterprise Project (SEP), PKSF
Date: Dhaka, February 22,2022
Page | i
Research Team
Md Zafar Alam Bhuiyan Environment & Climate Change Specialist, & Team
Leader
Najmul Kadir Kaikobad Rana Fashion Design & Jewelry Specialist
Samina Prodhan Data Analyst
Sabrina Izdiher Enterprise Specialist
Page | ii
Acknowledgment
This research was conducted based on the contract signed between the researcher (as the
individual consultant) and PKSF (Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation) with the captioned ‘Common
Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry
Sub-sector. This research is fundamentally primary research-based on intensive fieldwork and
the methods were household surveys, Key informants’ interviews (KIIs), and Focused Group
Discussion (FGD). We greatly appreciate the decision and due help of the PKSF authority
Deputy Managing Director 2, Dr. Jashim Uddin, Our heartfelt thanks to Dr. Tapash Kumar
Biswas, Deputy Managing Director 4, Mr. Md Zahir Uddin, PC, Sustainable Enterprise (SEP,)
Mr. Md Mehadi Hasan, Manager (Research), PKSF, for their valued contributions to the
research design, setting research matrix, and overall, the other the steps for this research. We
are also grateful to Md Monjurul Rakib, Program Organizer, Value Chain Development, for his
excellent and cordial communication and required support, for this research. We will never
forget the affable communication and related excellent support of Mr. Md Al Amin, Assistant
Program Officer (Admin & Procurement), Md Masud Parvez, Program Officer (Audit & Finance)
PKSF. We like to extend our thanks to Dr. Shafiqul Islam, Head of the Department, State
University, Bangladesh, Arif M. Faisal, Programme Specialist, Environment Sustainability &
Energy, UNDP, Dr. Abdullah Al Mamun, Project Director, Waste Management, Department of
Environment, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Md Khairul Alam Bhuiyan,
Consultant, Waste Management, UNDP, Md Shams Uddin, Academic and Research
Coordination Specialist, US Forest Service, Prof. Mustafizul Haque, Chairman, Shanto-Mariam
University of Creative Technology, Dept of Fashion Design & Technology of the same university,
Professor Farruque M. Masud, Chairman, Dept of Fashion Design, Uttara University, Ms.
Mantasha Ahmed, SME Foundation, and Design Team of Fashion House Aarong. Under the
close supervision of the consultant, a team has collected data as per the prefixed schedule with
the help of Mr. Monzur Morshed from Savar, Dhaka, Mr. Enamul Haq from Jashore, and
Jhenaidah, focal persons of PKSF in three districts. We convey our heartfelt gratitude to them,
some of the group leaders have extended their help in communication, motivation for the
entrepreneurs for data collection in the field. We are indebted for their contribution to this
research.
Page | iii
Declaration
This research was concentrated on the Imitation Jewelry subsector of Bangladesh for its
required interventions of technological, environmental, marketing, and branding revenue-
generating activities, non-revenue generating activities, and value chain development. To our
best knowledge, this type of research in the jewelry sub-sector is the first time in the
subcontinent. In fact, in the global research activities, we didn’t find even any research related
to this topic to just follow the research process and used tools and techniques. Moreover, the
history of jewelry and Imitation Jewelry in the subcontinent is ancient and that is some of the
inner parts of present India. The separated or individual history of the Imitation Jewelry of
Bangladesh is very limited even in the books published from India or elsewhere in the world.
Notwithstanding our tremendous efforts to escape, we were bound to use the references to
India many times for benefit of the study. However, some of the information is combined with
the Imitation Jewelry of the subcontinent which has been cited from different books, research
papers, articles, and features published in the newspapers and all the references have been
added in the reference sections.
This research has multidimensional interventions that have been added to the
recommendation sections to work immediately to save and flourish the same. As it is
intellectual property by the contract of research, using without formal permission of the
authority the whole paper or any part of the research, information is strictly prohibited.
Our strength to be specified, there is no plagiarism in any section of the paper. We hope the
purpose of the research will be successful and the respondents, PKSF, the people of
Bangladesh, and ultimately the jewelry subsector will be benefitted from this study.
Page | iv
Table of Content
Chapter No Name of the sections Page No
Acknowledgment ii
Declaration iii
Table of Content iv-ix
List of Figure x
List of the Picture xi-xii
List of the Table xiii
Acronyms & Abbreviation xiv
Executive Summary xv-xviii
Chapter 1 Background and Introduction 1-8
1.1 Background 2
1.2 Introduction 4
1.3 Study Area 5
1.4 Statement of the Problem 7
1.5 Objectives of the study 7
1.6 Scope of the study 7
1.7 Justification of the Research 8
1.8 Limitations of the Study 8
Chapter 2 Literature Review 10
2.1. Introduction 10
2.2. Jewelry and Social Development 10
2.3. Jewelry and the religion 11
2.4. Jewelry and primary raw materials 12
2.5. Environmental issues associated with Imitation Jewelry 14
2.6 Technological issues associated with Imitation Jewelry 15
2.7 Waste Management-related issues 15
Chapter 3
Historical perspective of the Imitation Jewelry and the
Subsector Development in Bangladesh
17-23
3.1 Introduction 18
3.2 Bangladesh and its Jewelry Eras 18
3.3 How the Business Cluster Started 19
3.4 The Leader/Protagonists 20
3.5 The Main driving forces behind the growth 20
3.6 Prospect of Imitation Jewelry 21
3.7 Imitation Jewelry Market growth in Bangladesh 22
3.8 Probable Future Growth 22
3.9 Imitation jewelry and Circular Economy 22
Chapter 4 Method and Methodology 24-27
4.1 Sampling Plan with the calculation details 25
4.2 Household Survey 25
4.3 Focus Group Discussion 25
4.4 Key Informants Information (KII) Survey 26
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4.5 Data Collection 26
4.6 Research Design 26
4.7 Data Analysis 26
Results & Discussion (Chapter 5-9)
Chapter 5 Raw materials and Products 28-50
5.1 Raw Materials 29
5.2 Products 31
5.2.1. Nose pin 31
5.2.2. Finger Ring 31
5.2.3. Necklace 31
5.2.4. Pendant set 31
5.2.5. Bangles 31
5.2.6. Earring 32
5.2.7. Mangal sutra 32
5.2.8. Kada 32
5.2.9. Bracelet 32
5.2.10. Payal 32
5.2.11. Hath Pan 32
5.2.12. Brooch 32
5.2.13. Tikka 33
5.2.14. Baju Band 33
5.2.15. Hair clip 33
5.2.16. Chain 33
5.2.17. Ear chain 33
5.2.18. Nose ring 33
5.3 Distributions of products produced by the Entrepreneurs 37
5.4 Artisans 38
5.4.1: Problems facing by the artisans in work 38
5.4.2. Problems for Capital Investment 38
5.4.3: Physical Illness of the artisans 39
5.4.4: Logistic Supports 39
5.4.5: Self-dependency of Jewelry design 40
5.4.6: Development of the Imitation sector 41
5.4.7: Economic Solvency 41
5.4.8. Advantages and disadvantages 43
5.4.9. Empowerment of women and economic solvency 43
5.4.10. Weekly Off day /Holiday 46
5.4.11. Health Hazards and Risks 46
5.4.12: Education of the Artisans 46
5.5 Conditions of the Manufacturing units 47
5.5.1. Factories and Production Process 47
5.4.2: Training 49
5.5.3. Design 50
5.6. Summary 50
Chapter 6
Environmental, Technical, Certification, Ecolabeling &
Lifecycle Assessment (LCA)
51-72
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6.1 Environmental Issues of Imitation jewelry 52
6.1.1. Environmental Certification 52
6.1.2. Environment Conservation Rules, 1997/ 2002 53
6.1.3. Documents Required for Different Categories of
Industrial Units or SME Projects
54
6.1.4. General Process/ Steps for Environmental Clearance
for a Green Category product
54
6.2 Eco-labeling 57
6.2.1. Classification of Ecolabelling 58
6.2.1.1. Type I 58
6.2.1.2. Type II 59
6.2.1.3. Type III 59
6.3
Ecolabeling accreditation process by Ecological Certification
Institute ( Eco-Institute, Germany)
61
6.4 General Steps of Ecolabeling from EU 62
6.4.1. Product Selection 62
6.4.2. Criteria Development 62
6.4.3. Public Review Process 63
6.4.4. Adoption of Final Criteria 63
6.4.5. Application to the competent body for eco-label 64
6.4.6. Testing & Verification 64
6.4.7. Licencing 64
6.5 Ecolabeling of the Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh: 64
6.5.1. A Written Industrial policy for the sector 64
6.5.2 A Quality Guideline 65
6.5.3. Quality testing lab with international standard 65
6.5.4. Certification from DoE 65
6.5.5. Certification from Fire & Civil Defence 65
6.5.6. Certification from International Standard Organization
(ISO 14025)
65
6.5.6.1. To Develop the Management System 65
6.5.6.2. Implementing the system 66
6.5.6.3. Verifying the system 66
6.5.6.4 System Registration 66
6.6 Life Cycle Analysis of an Imitation Jewelry (LCA) 67
6.6.1. Raw materials 67
6.6.2. Production 67
6.6.2.1 Product designing 67
6.6.2.2. Framing 68
6.6.2.3. Piecing 68
6.6.2.4. Assembling 69
6.6.2.5. Welding 69
6.6.2.6 Cutting 70
6.6.2.7 Washing 70
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6.6.2.8. Electroplating 70
6.6.2.9. Packaging & Distribution 71
6.6.2.10. Sales 71
6.6.2.11. Disposal: Product recycle and dumping 71
Chapter 7
Revenue Generating Activities
Non-revenue Generating Common service activities,
Nonrevenue-generating physical activities
73-83
7.1. Revenue Generating Activities 74
7.1.1 Designing of the product 74
7.1.2 Manufacturing 75
7.1.3. Storage of Jewelry 75
7.1.4. Marketing 76
7.1.5. Premium Marketing 77
7.2 Non-Revenue Generating Common Service Activities 79
7.2.1. Summary 80
7.3 Non-revenue-generating physical activities 81
7.3.1. Summary 83
Chapter 8
Business Analysis, Subsector Analysis, Cost-Benefit
Analysis, SWOT Analysis & Value Chain Analysis
84-107
8.1
Business Environment of Imitation Subsector
of Bangladesh
85
8.1.1. Business Environment 85
8.1. 2. Internal Business Environment 85
8.1. 3. External Business Environment 85
8.1.2.1 External Microenvironment: 86
8.1.2.2. Input/Raw Materials Supplies 86
8.1.2.3. Customers 86
8.1.2.4. Competitors and Public 86
8.2 External Macroenvironment 86
8.2.1. Economic 86
8.2.2. Social 87
8.2.3. Technological 87
8.2.4. Political and Legal 87
8.2.5. Demographics 87
8.3 Sub-sector Policy Analysis 90
8.3.1. Steps of policy analysis 90
8.3.1.1 Identification of the problems 90
8.3.1.1.1. Lack of Design 90
8.3.1.1.2. Lack of modern technology 91
8.3.1.1.3. Entrepreneurship 91
8.3.1.1.4. Skilled labor 92
8.3.1.1.5.Govt. support 92
8.3.2. Specification of the objectives 92
8.3.3. Decision on Criteria 92
8.3.4. Selection of the alternatives 92
8.3.5. Analysis of the alternative 92
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8.3.6. Comparison of the Alternatives 93
8.3.7. Implement the chosen alternative 93
8.3.8. Monitor and Evaluation 93
8.4 Cost-Benefit Analysis 94
8.5 SWOT Analysis 96
8.5.1. Summary in a Table 100
8.6 Value Chain Analysis 101
8.6.1. Porter Value Chain 101
8.6.2. Primary Activities 102
8.6.3. Support Activities 102
8.6.4. Value-chain Development Jhenaidah using Porter’s
Value- chain Model:
102
8.6.5. Identifying sub-activities for each primary activity)
: Step I
102
8.6.5.1. Direct Activities 102
8.6.5.2Indirect Activities 103
8.6.5.3. Quality Assurance 103
8.6.6. Identify sub-activities for each support activity:
Step II
103
8.6.6.1. Human Resource Management 103
8.6.6.2. Technology Development 104
8.6.6.3. Procurement Support 105
8.6.7. Identify links: Step III 105
8.7
Value-chain analysis of Jhenaidah Cluster (using Numerical
Field data)
106
8.7.1. Designing 106
8.7.2. Training and HR Development 107
8.7.3. Automation and machinery 107
8.7.4. Raw Materials 107
8.7.5. Marketing and Marketing Promotion 107
8.7.6. Summary 107
Chapter 9
Entrepreneurship Development of
Imitation Jewelry
108-113
9.1. Entrepreneurship and its Development 109
9.2. Imitation Jewelry as Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh 110
9.3. Source of Finance and Associations 111
9.4. Summary 112
Chapter 10 Recommendations for the required interventions 111-117
10.1. Education 115
10.2. Training 115
10.3. Design 115
10.4. Raw Materials 115
10.5. Technical Automation 116
10.6. Environmental Interventions 116
Page | ix
10.7. Certifications & Ecolabeling 116
10.8. Value Chain Development (in Jhenaidah Cluster) 117
10.8.1. Supply Chain Management 117
10.8.2. Digital Marketing 117
10.8.3. Strong Cooperative & Soft loan 117
10.8.4. Entrepreneurship and Green Entrepreneurship 118
10.8.5. Power and Gas supply 118
10.9. Promotional Marketing 118
10. 10. Government Support 118
10.11. Branding & Premium Marketing 118
10.12. Circular Economy 119
Conclusion 119
References 117-119
Appendices 120-127
Page | x
List of Tables
Serial
No
Tables Details
Page
No.
1
Table 5.1: Overall count on Factory weekly off day, daily work hours & daily break
hour 45
2
Table 5.2: Total count on Entrepreneur Gender, Number & Authorized Person in
Family of Entrepreneur. 47
3
Table 5.3: Overall count on Factory Uses of Acid during Production when Using
Acid & Safety Rules taken 49
4
Table 5.4: The frequency of the necessity of new design, collection place of
mold/dice & jewelry design owned. 50
5
Table 6.1.5 Analysis and their corresponding interpretations regarding
Environmental Issues
56
6
Table 7.1.1: Analysis and respective interpretations regarding revenue-generating
activities.
74
7
Table 7.1.2 Overall count on product selling points, advertisement on products &
fair sell 76
8
Table 7.1.3 Overall count on quality control training, product standard check &
preparation for branding 76
7
Table 7.2: Important analysis and corresponding interpretations regarding non-
revenue common service.
79
8
Table 7.3 Analysis and respective interpretations for some non-revenue generating
physical activities. 81
9 Table 8.4: Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Areas of Annual Expenses 94
10
Table 8.4.1: Logical correlation between Initial capital and Entrepreneur’s
approximate profit 94
11 Table 8.5.1: Important correlation approach to SWOT Analysis: 96
12 Table 8. 5.2: The Views of Respondents on SWOT Analysis 96-99
13 Table 8.5.3. Summary (Based on tables 8.5.1 & 8.5.2) 100
14 Table 8.7.1: Analytical Results on Value-chain determinants of jhenaidah 106
15
Table 9.1: Overall Count on Factory ownership, Trade license & Vat Registration
Holder among Factories.
111
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List of Figures
Serial
No
Figures Details
Page
No.
1
Figure 5.1: Distributions of workers' views on the problems faced during the
working period. 29
2 Figure 5.2: Factory Distribution according to the Type of Products Produced 37
3 Figure 5.3: Distributions of physical illness suffered by workers/ artisans 39
4
Figure 5.4: Distributions of worker views on the equipment needed for the
fulfillment of a safe workplace 40
5
Figure 5.5: Distribution according to their thinking of self-dependency in the
improvement of Jewelry design
40
6
Figure 5.6: Distribution according to their practical statement on how this
sector can be developed 41
7
Figure 5.7: Distribution of workers according to the advantages they received
from imitation jewelry sub-sector 42
8
Figure 5.8: Distribution of workers' views according to the disadvantages they
received from imitation jewelry sub-sector 43
9
Figure 5.9: Distribution of workers' views according to the key opportunities
observed in imitation jewelry sub-sector 44
10
Figure 5.10: Distribution of workers' views on the principal risk for the
development of imitation jewelry sub-sector 46
11
Figure 5.11: Distributions of Factory according to their Educational
Qualification 46
12 Figure 5.12. Factory Distribution according to their Production 48
13
Figure 5.13: Pie Chart Presenting Factory Distribution according to their Sources
of Raw Materials.
48
14 Figure 5.14: Frequency Distribution of the Respondent Training Issues. 49
15
Figure 6.1. General Process/ Steps for Environmental Clearance for a Green
Category product 55
15 Figure 6.2. Distribution of factories according to their waste management 57
16
Figure 6.3. Ecolabeling accreditation process (Source: Ecolabel Certificate
Institute
61
17 Figure 6.4. Ecolabeling by the voluntary organization (EU) 64
18 Figure :6.6.1: Life cycle Analysis of Imitation Jewelry 67
19 Figure 7.1.: The Premium Business Strategy, 77
20 Figure 7.2.1: Factory Distributions according to their Water Supply Process 79
21 Figure 7.2.2: Factory Distributions according to their Gas Supply Process 80
Page | xii
22
Figure 7.3.1: Factory Distributions according to Types of Toilets Provided for
Workers
82
23
Figure 7.3.2: Factory Distributions according to Health Protections Provided for
Workers
82
24 Business Environment of Imitation Jewelry 88
25
Figure 8.2. Relation Between External and Internal Business Environments of
Imitation Jewelry Subsector
89
26 Figure 8.3.: Cycle of policy Analysis 90
27 Figure:8.4. Policy Analysis Process flow 91
28 Figure 8.6.1: Porter Value Chain 101
29
Figure 8.7.1. The average cost of components in the Jhenaidah Value chain
against Capital Investment
106
30 Figure 9.1: Histogram of Factory Foundation Year 109
33 Figure 9.2: Distribution of Factories according to their Types 110
34
Figure 9. 3: Distribution of workers according to their involvement in different
foundations.
112
Page | xiii
List of Pictures
Serial No Pictures Details
Page
No.
1 Picture :1.1: Study Area Savar, Dhaka 5
2 Picture: 1.2. Working Area Jashore and Jhenaidah 6
3 Picture: 5.1.1. Copper and Brass wire 29
4 Picture 5.1.2. Secondary Raw Materials 30
5 Picture Group: 5.3. Common Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh 34-36
6 Picture: 6.1. Type I Ecolabeling 58
7 Picture 6.2. Type II Ecolabeling 59
8 Picture:6.3.Type III Ecolabeling 60
9 Picture 6.6.1: Framing 68
10 Picture 6.6.2: Piecing 68
11 Picture 6.6.3. : Assembling 69
12 Picture 6.6.4: Welding 69
13 Picture 6.6.5: Cutting 70
14 Picture 6.6.6.: Washing 70
15 Picture 6.6.7.: Mixing Gold Powder (GP) 71
Page | xiv
Acronyms & Abbreviations
1. BGMEA- Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association
2. BIJMEMA-Bangladesh Imitation Jewelry Manufactures, Exporters, and Merchant
Association
3. BKMEA- Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association
4. BRAC-Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee
5. ECR-Environmental Conservation Rules
6. DoE-Department of Environment
7. DG XI (Directorate-General of the Environment, Nuclear Safety, and Protection
(European Union))
8. ECA-Environment Conservation Act
9. EPZ-Export Processing Zone
10. EPB- Export Promotion Bureau
11. Fire Service and Civil Defence (FSCD)
12. FGD- Focus Group Discussion
13. ILO-International Labour Organization
14. INGO-International Nong Government Organization
15. IGS- In-situ Geotechnical Services
16. KII- Key Informant Interview
17. LCA-Lifecycle Assessment/Life Cycle Analysis
18. PKSF- Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation
19. POs-Partner Organizations
20. SNF-Shisu Niloy Foundation
21. SEP-Sustainable Enterprise Project
22. RMG- Readymade Garment
23. NGO-Nong Government Organization
24. OECD- The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
25. R & D-Research and Development
26. SME- Small to medium-sized enterprise /Small and Medium Enterprise
27. SUS -Social upliftment Society
28. SGS -Standard Global Services
29. VO - (Village Organization)
Page | xv
Executive Summary
This study was concentrated in three districts including Dhaka, Jashore, and Jhenaidah of
Bangladesh where Imitation Jewelry has mostly clustered after the independence of the
country. The sector was initiated in the period of Pakistan with a meager investment. The
study was carried out with the view to achieving six objectives encompassing different issues
of the sub-sector (environmental & technical, revenue-generating activities, non-revenue
generating physical activities, environmental issues, certification, ecolabeling, branding, value
chain development, etc.) and to assess the potential interventions for the Imitation Jewelry
subsector of Bangladesh. The study deployed several tools and techniques for the collection of
data.
The total population of the study was around 4500 in three districts who are members of the
beneficiaries of PKSF through its partner NGOs like SUS, SNF, etc., and engaged in
entrepreneurship and working in the subsector of Imitation Jewelry. The total number of
entrepreneur surveys was 357 (27 from Jashore, 178 from Jhenaidah, and 151 from Dhaka)
The sample of the study was fixed by the stratified sampling techniques assuming the
population is normally distributed. For this study, the research matrix was prepared according
to the objectives. Questionnaires were prepared to collect information from the primary
research (by field survey/ household survey). On the other hand, Key Informants Information
(KII) from the different Design Experts, Experts from Environmental Sciences, Marketing and
Branding Experts, Entrepreneurs, Key people from the certification authority. Some of the
questions were common to the key experts with the specialized issues of entrepreneurship,
environmental, certifications, ecolabeling premium marketing, and branding issue to the
respective key informants. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted for the collection of
collective information from the respondents about their product quality, types, their problems,
design and dices issues, and their suggestions for the development of the sector.
The questionnaire for the field survey information about academic qualifications, knowledge
about environmental pollution, existing environmental conditions, the importance of modern
technology for the production of befitting jewelry, training for better production, promotion
of design, SWOT analysis of the sector, and required interventions to improve the overall
condition of the sector was collected by the research team. After data collection, analysis was
conducted by using the SPSS (IBM 22) software and the outputs of the analysis are in the
Page | xvi
respective chapter where pie charts, bar diagrams, cross-tabulations, correlations between
different variables have been shown. In the Key Informant Interview (KIIs) the qualitative part
of the study, five experts from each specialization like Fashion/Entrepreneurs, Environment
/Climate Change, Branding /Marketing, and two key persons from the Department of
Environment (DoE), have been interviewed. The questions of the KIIs were about the
respective issues like design, entrepreneurship, environment pollution, certification and
ecolabeling, branding of the products, and premium marketing, along with some common
questions to all. Later, the answers sheets from the KIIs have summarized and the relative
information has been added to each segment chapter-wise in the result section.
Four Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted (One in Dhaka, Jhenaidah two, and one
in Jashore from the collective information of the artisans, entrepreneurs, designers, and
workers of the sector. Questions to the artisans have related to their challenges in works, their
health conditions, shortage of capital, their associations, inspirations of the jewelry design,
related training requirement, their suggestions for the development of the Imitation Jewelry
sector, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the sectors. Responses of the
entrepreneurs and other respondents have been summarized using statistical tools (different
charts) in the result sections. Moreover, the results of the analysis have been added in the
different chapters where that was necessary. In FGD, a total of 55.51 percent of the represents
mentioned that raw materials are going to be expensive day by day and fair price is uncertain
because the price has a random fluctuation by the syndicate. 11.11 percent of them mentioned
the lack of availability of raw materials when required. 16.20 percent of the entrepreneurs
have a problem with the investment, 5.6 percent claimed transportation problems. only 5.56
percent agreed that all the raw materials are as per their expectations which is alarming for a
sector.
On the other hand, of the respondents, 24.00 percent from Lumbago, 20.00 percent from Dim-
sighted, 20.00 percent from eye soaring, 20.00 percent from headache 12.00 percent from
shoulder ache, and 4 percent are suffering from hand cramps. Only 20. 00 of them are
comparatively in good health which is another threat to its existence.
Of the workers in the sector for environmental, health safety, and compliance issues, 42.11
percent have claimed that they are short of logistic supports like their seating arrangements.
However, 31.58 percent revealed that they need safety glasses and gloves, especially the
Page | xvii
fireworks and working with chemicals and acids and 15.79 percent of the workers mentioned
the necessity of the working environment. However, 10.53 percent of the workers demanded
they need adequate light for their work. For capital, most of the entrepreneurs are engaged
with different NGOs like BRAC, SUS, Shishu Niloy Foundation, Asa, Grameen Bank (which
breakdown have shown in the association section) for their financial support by loan.
22.22 percent of the respondents opined that development of the sector can be ensured by
reducing the price of raw materials, 16.67 percent of them think they need training, another
16.67 percent of them think the arrangement of sufficient capital can develop the subsector,
one more 16.67 percent think the local arrangement of raw materials can improve the present
condition. However, 11.11 percent of each opined for automation and government
involvement while 5.56 percent of them urged timely design of the Jewelry. Only 29.41
percent of the artisans are self-reliant 23.53 percent of them have achieved economic
solvency, still, 17.65 percent are unemployed only 11.76 percent of each of them have
developed their family economic solvent and started the business with low capital. Great
regret is that in this sector only 5.88 percent of them find advantages while using their self-
made products.
Process of certifications for the Department of Environment (DoE), Fire and Civil Defense,
International Standard Organization (ISO), ecolabeling, premium marketing have been added
based on the comprehensive information from Key Informants Interview (KII’s) and review of
different research papers, articles, and the written constitutions of the respective
organizations. However, according to the experts from design, marketing and branding,
environment and climate change, and entrepreneurs Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh are not
fit for ISO certification, ecolabeling, and to enter into the premium market presently as it has
the minimum brand value even in the national and international markets due to different
limitations.
In SWOT analysis, value chain development of the sector, numerical data from the field have
been used with statistical analysis. Particularly, the Poter Value Chain development framework
and analysis have been used to justify the present situation of the Value Chain in the Imitation
Jewelry subsector of Bangladesh along with numerical data analysis to show the value chain
development of the Jhenaidah cluster. To ensure the forward and backward linkage of Value
chain development for adding value to the product and creation of jobs, design variation in
Page | xviii
production, automation marketing promotion, comprehensive training for skill development
have been identified.
Finally, Entrepreneurship in case of development, present condition of Imitation Jewelry
entrepreneurship has been illustrated with data analysis with related diagrams. Though most
of the information has been taken from the Key Informants Interviews and Focus Group
Discussion, some information from the Household survey. As the entrepreneurship of the
sector had not been started formally, it has some deep-rooted problems which have created
the limitation of the sector to expand within a short time. Formal education, design, and
technical education for this sector, infrastructure developments are vital examples of these
problems.
In some of the chapters, a summary of the study has been added for a better understanding
of the findings. However, in ‘Chapter Ten’, recommendations for the required interventions
for technical, environmental, physical, development, and other common services have been
added based on the whole study.
The research findings and recommendations regarding interventions may be applied in the
Imitation Jewelry sub-sector by PKSF and its other stakeholders for the sustainable
development of the subsector.
1 | P a g e
Chapter One
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Introduction
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Chapter One
1.1. Background of the study:
In Bangladesh, Imitation Jewelry is an emerging segment withstanding its huge limitations in
the present global context. Historically Imitation Jewelry has a good relationship with the same
of India since it had been explored from the central parts of the Indian subcontinent more than
4000 years ago (Dey, 2014). Wearing jewelry was limited to the well-off people of the society,
it extended to the cultural identity of the people of the society which carried a significant
meaning in cultures and religions (Pal, 2017) The Mughals of India had been started using
jewelry to expose their royalty and power. They confined the use of jewelry within themselves.
There are some conceptions of design experts that the Nawab and Zamindars were the
innovators of using jewelry. After that, leaders of the society and their wives started the same
practice. Gradually it shifted to the common people. According to the critics of the above
concept, religious leaders, especially people of Hinduism had expanded the culture of wearing
jewelry through their rituals. However, as a competitor in the world market for jewelry, India
has a great impact and a good brand image to Bangladeshi customers. Its film Industry and the
designs of two famous hubs of jewelry, Mumbai, and Gujarat are influential factors to the
jewelry designers of Bangladesh. Comparatively, with better brand value, the jewelry market
of Bangladesh is flooded with Indian Jewelry that is relatively cheap according to its customers
and retailers. Though our importance in the Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh, unfortunately,
there is not much information about this subsector separately. Still, Jewelry Sector is termed
as the cottage industry of the country, whereas there is nothing about Imitation Jewelry in our
national industrial policy. The major cause may be the absence of the gold policy of the country
which is approved by the government on January 27, 2021, after a long time of independence
from the country. From now, it may be expected that Imitation Jewelry will get priority as a
flourishing sector. Imitation Jewelry Cluster at Bhakurta, Savar in Dhaka started in the 1980s.
Some goldsmiths from old town Dhaka had started the business with very impoverishing
infrastructures and low capital investment. Later, more people were engaged by the financial
support from the local NGOs. According to the community leader, Enamul Haq, Imitation
Jewelry started in Jashore and Jhenaidah for the rising gold price in 2008. Many of the
goldsmiths of two districts had turned their business to the Imitation Jewelry. With their
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traditional practice, they started making Imitation Jewelry and selling it to their neighboring
areas.
Now people of the sector, artisans, workers, entrepreneurs are not self-dependent on their
design, dice, raw materials, etc., which are a major concern of the sector. Their rate of
production is satisfactory, quality of their goods is not parallel to their competitors. There are
many environmental, technical, revenue-generating, non-revenue generating, certification
issues to make a bar to produce quality goods and sell in the competitive market at home and
abroad. The subsector is out of modern management of human resources, supply chain
management, marketing promotion, and digital marketing. Yet the service is not customer-
oriented, which causes the snail pace in its growth. Most of the Imitation Jewelry
manufacturing units are in make-shift houses with very disorganized conditions of power, gas,
and water supply. There is less care for health and safety issues. There is mass participation of
female artisans and workers and child workers who are out of recognition of their rights. On
the other hand, our Imitation Jewelry is coming in illegal ways from other countries. As no tax
is imposed there, goods are cheaper in the market keeping the goods of Bangladesh out from
the competition in sales. On the other hand, in the free market economy, there is Imitation
Jewelry in the market from China, Taiwan, Dubai which are relatively better in quality, have
good brand values with improved finishing and packaging than that Bangladeshis. So, goods
are lagging due to inferior quality product features. In the home market, only in the village
areas, our Imitation Jewelry is popular due to its affordable price.
On contrary, in the urban areas, our Imitation Jewelry is not much popular, which in fact,
shrinkages the market and makes another obstacle to its growth. Moreover, automation in the
Imitation Jewelry sector is the most common phenomenon in almost all competitors of
Bangladesh. Due to robust entrepreneurship and lacking required policy, it is far behind which
makes it another challenge to qualify in the premium market, creating a branding image in the
home and global market. This study has concentrated on addressing all the issues mentioned
above by the research team. We think this sub-sector has the scope of potentiality to increase
the revenues involving more skilled people and innovation of modern technology there. Almost
without any care and with inferior quality, Bangladesh entered the global market in 2019. For
quality good production, solving its technical, environmental, certification, and branding issues
are essential. Sustainability and growth of the market in the present context, premium
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marketing, adding value chain, eco-labeling, and other certifications are vital issues to develop
the subsector to increase foreign earnings and investment.
1.2. Introduction:
Imitation jewelry is an accessory that is made using a range of artificial materials. It’s also
termed Fashion Jewelry for types and their trendy uses (Sabbir, 2017). Imitation Jewelry has
been used as a cut and uncut stone, plastic beads, cast iron, brass, nickel, and other attractive
materials. These types of jewelry are different from place to place dependent on the
availability, fashion, culture, custom even religion of the people. This is the type of jewelry that
allows people to experiment with different styles and events (Fashion, 2016). Moreover, it
reflects the personality of the people of a particular place. It can be artisans made or mass-
produced by the manual techniques as it was started in the community though there is a huge
investment in the same even in the developed countries in the world. With the emergence of
new technology, the Imitation industry is one of the established industries in the world with
trendy design in a healthy environment. Though there is a misconception that artificial jewelry
has not the right representation of valuable jewelry made of gold and other costly metals, it
has the glamorous effects of the precious metals with low budgets and wide options of choice.
It also carries the latest trends without a huge expenditure. Imitation Jewelry is not an
organized sector in Bangladesh like its other sector, the Readymade Garment Industry. It does
not have a fixed structure that may guide any research team even with information. Still, the
sector is neglected though, there are huge possibilities for employment, entrepreneurship, and
foreign earnings.
Presently global Imitation Jewelry market is 28.30 billion and it is increasing which is growth is
6.5% and will be around 40$ billion in 2025 and 59.7$ in 2027 (Research, 2020). With the
increase in customers' preference globally for artificial jewelry (Imitation Jewelry) production
will be increased rapidly creating its forward and backward linkages, job opportunities, revenue
earnings. Unfortunately, the Imitation Jewelry sector of the country is not self-dependent yet,
for its design, dice, skills artisan, and raw materials. It may not be a surprising issue as we were
in greater India, still, the business may have the link with its origin, but a large amount of
dependency on the neighboring country for a sector is not healthy for its expansion or growth.
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1.3. Study Area:
According to the Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF) especially in its Sustainable Enterprise
Program (SEP), there are about 4500 beneficiaries in Jashore, Jhenaidah, and Dhaka. They have
received different pieces of training and logistic support for their growth. There are many
Picture 1.1.
Study Area Savar, Dhaka
possibilities for their further development if the sector gets the attention of the concerned
authorities. This research is a milestone for the identification of the problems and due
recommendations of the sector regarding technological, environmental, marketing, value
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chain development, etc. However, this research will also indicate the processes of certification,
ecolabeling, market linkage, and business development of this sub-sector.
Picture. 1.2: Study Area Jashore and Jhenaidah
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1.4. Statement of the Problem:
This research has been conducted based on primary data regarding the Imitation Jewelry
Subsector (in Jashore, Jhenaidah, and Dhaka) for the required technical and environmental
interventions to be recommended to improve the existing situation supported by the Palli
Karma-Shayak Foundation (PKSF) of Bangladesh. The research team applied a mixed-method
with a structured questionnaire for the quantitative method for the household survey and the
qualitative part, an open-ended questionnaire for the key informants’ interview (KII), and a
questionnaire for the focus group discussion (FGD). SPSS and MS Excel have in the analysis of
the research.
1.5. Objectives of the study:
a. To find out the environmental & technological interventions which are required to improve
the overall environmental condition of the sub-sector.
b. To identify Non-Revenue Generating Physical activities & Revenue generating activities that
increase productivity and help to develop value chain, market linkage, and environmental
conditions of MEs (Microenterprises) and buyers for getting easy access to the market.
c. To find out the non-revenue generating physical activities which will help to develop the
infrastructure of that business cluster and will assist the MEs and the buyers in getting easy
access to the market.
d. To find out the steps to be taken to enhance Eco Labeling and Access to the Premium Market.
e. To identify certification related to the environment and product/service of the MEs from
various agencies which will help them to get access to the premium market.
f. To find out the ways of developing the brand of the product/service of the cluster.
1.6. Scope of the study:
The analysis is based on discussion with sample clusters/businesses, sample buyers, relevant
associations, input suppliers, support services such as designers, machine suppliers, local
people, environment, and /or public health specialists, and sector experts.
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1.7. Justification of the Research:
According to the publication of Charitra Sah, Ram (2012), Toxic Jewelry – ‘An investigation of
Lead in Imitation Jewelry in Nepal’ has signified Imitation Jewelry contain toxic metals and
materials which are severely dangerous for its artisans, workers, and finally its consumers. At
the same time, in the manufacturing process, some technical and non-technical issues are
vulnerable to the environment. Another paper, ‘Analysis of Women's Preference of limitation
Jewelry: Bangladesh Perspective’ by Sabbir, Hossain & Nomi (2017) has signified the research
and promotion design, branding, and marketing of Imitation Jewelry.
This study has found out the reasons for environmental degradation, low income, causes of
barriers to entrepreneurship, entering the premium market, certifications from home and
abroad, and scope to export to the global market to increase the revenue of the subsector and
to develop the value chain of the same. The outcomes of the research will help PKSF and its
partner organizations (POs) to develop skills and other necessary steps to increase income-
generating and related physical activities, infrastructure development for the ultimate socio-
economic development of the country.
1.8. Limitations of the Research:
It is already has been noticed that Jewelry is not a much-focused sector in Bangladesh. Though
it has a great prospect in-home and in the global market for ever-increasing global demand.
Unfortunately, there is very limited information about Imitation Jewelry in the country.
Moreover, there was no research or pool of information to use as the source of secondary
research. We have to depend on the research on the neighboring countries for various
information on the Imitation Jewelry for its history, expansions, and others.
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Chapter Two
Literature Review
Page | 10
Chapter Two
2.0. Literature Review:
2.1. Introduction: Imitation Jewelry’ means ‘artificial jewelry’ that is made using a range of
artificial materials. It’s also termed Fashion Jewelry for types and their trendy uses (Sabbir,
2017). Imitation Jewelry has been used as a cut and uncut stone, plastic beads, cast iron, brass,
nickel, and other attractive materials. These types of jewelry are different from place to place
dependent on the availability, fashion, culture, custom even religion of the people. This is the
type of jewelry that allows people to experiment with different styles and events (Fashion,
2016). Moreover, it reflects the personality of the people of a particular place. It can be artisans
made or mass-produced by the manual techniques as it was started in the community though
there is a huge investment in the same even in the developed countries in the world. With the
emergence of new technology, the Imitation industry is one of the established industries in the
world with trendy design in a healthy environment. Though there is a misconception that
artificial jewelry has not the right representation of valuable jewelry made of gold and other
costly metals, it has the glamorous effects of the precious metals with low budgets and wide
options of choice. It also carries the latest trends without a huge expenditure. Another issue is
markable that, dressing and events are also important for the selection of jewelry types by its
wearers. In India or the perspective of the subcontinent (India, Bangladesh) women wear heavy
and gorgeous jewelry with a sari though, in the present trend, heavy and gorgeous ornaments
are used with lehenga and party dresses (Farha, 2013).
2.2. Jewelry and Social Development: In the historical time, Jewelry also has been considered
a visage of social status irrespective of cultures around the world (Fashion R. , 2021). The
jewelry was made from all kinds of materials available to them stones, animal skins, feathers,
plants, bones, shells, wood, and naturally made semi-precious materials (Sripathi, 2018). Using
Jewelry was an age-old practice in India as in other parts of the world. Jewelry dates back to
4000-3000 B.C in the Indian Subcontinent (Banglapedia, 2020). In the excavation of the Indus
valley site, jewelry (hairpins, earrings, necklaces, bangles, rings) of gold, silver, and bronze were
unearthed. There was some bead jewelry with fashioned-out metals. The Aryans liked gold
jewelry whereas, Yajurveda believed that gold had a magical power (to compel to follow up a
woman her husband’s wishes). For different types of people in society, Brahminical proclaimed
strict rules. Including the knowledge of gems and, looping garland and necklaces the Kamsutra
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(is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text on sexuality, eroticism, and emotional fulfillment in life from
the Indian Subcontinent) mentions sixty-four arts using jewelry. According to Hinduism, gold
and silver are considered sacred metals. Gold is the symbol of the warm sun while silver is for
the cool moon (Pal, 2017).
2.3. Jewelry and the Religion: The Ramayana gives a vivid description of jewelry of the 4th
-6th
Century which is still in use in the subcontinent. The items of jewelry are rings, golden chains,
conch shell bangles, necklaces, a diadem, and a golden crown. The Hanumanji carried Sita the
golden Ring of Rama as proof that he was the messenger of Rama and carried back a hairpin
of Sita made of pearl.
In ancient Rome for denoting status in society, jewelry was used to wear by well-off people.
Lower-class people were not allowed to wear jewelry or they were not allowed to show
wearing any jewelry at cultural or religious events (Fashion, 2016). But in the Indian
Subcontinent, society was not much rigid for the lower-class people about their jewelry
wearing but there is hardly any evidence that the elite classes of the Indian Society had
appreciated the same. It was markable, especially in Indian Jewelry (even in Imitation Jewelry)
some of the types were for religious use only which was set by the culture or religion of the
country. Nose pin, bangles of the seashell, are vital examples of these which were separately
worn by the Hindu Royal Communities at the beginning. Ritual importance or value of the
ornaments are not justified yet but these are in vogue in the society of Hinduism, though
presently wearing a bangle of a seashell or white bangle is a trendy fashion by the fashion-
conscious women (Farha, 2013).
Rulers of India (Kings and emperors) gave much importance to Jewelry which stood as a sign
of their strength treated as a form of visual communication and status symbol (Pal, 2017).,
Almost all were fond of jewelry and for about 2000 years India was the sole supplier of
gemstones to the world (Dey, 2014). Indian Gem mining and gem cutting sector had been
developed by the Mughals. They liked to develop the art of crafting (craftsmanship) of the
artisans of India for their goodwill inside and outside of the country. Their wives also were good
admirers of stone-cut jewelry for their attractive presence to appeal to their husbands as they
were too many in number for each emperor (Archana, 2002). There was a significant value for
designing differently from the Mughals by the artisan or designers. Most probably this is the
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journey of appointing a personal designer or stylist in the world. Moreover, to add a notable
feature for the jewelry of the subcontinent in the world (Ramamrutham, 2001).
However, with the advent of the British, taste and preference for jewelry changed as gems had
lost their appeals in favor of gold, which was salable always in the market when necessary. New
designs of jewelry took place with a gust of cultural changes in society. Diamonds and stones
started to use with sharp edges. Diamond and stone cust of Myanmar (Burma) was famous in
the world, comparatively than that of central India. With the fresh demand for multifaced
stones with European fashioned, previous Kundan (use gold a rounded setting), the setting was
replaced by claw setting of cut stone of Europe which became popular within the short time
around the world.
2.4. Jewelry and primary raw materials: Jewelry was not just limited to metals like gold, silver,
and copper but also precious stones and shells, and other costly materials. Even in the modern
age in some parts of India, it is believed by people that Jewelry protects people from evil and
the dangers of life (Dey, 2014). Interestingly, in some cultures, ancient people were wearing
bones. Some tribes around the world including India still wear animal bones, skins, leaves,
flowers, fruits, and the bark of trees as ornaments and for their well-being. Jewels were never
detached from human society and culture with the starting of using clothes million years ago
(Archana, 2002). Western jewelry has a sharp difference from the jewelry of the Indian
subcontinent perhaps the difference in culture whereas, Arabian jewelry bears mainly the
culture of the dominance of the Egyptian civilization whenever, European jewelry bears the
dominance of Greek (Chandra, 1979) Though Indian subcontinent is far from culture and
civilization from the other parts of the world, it has played a significant role in the jewelry
industry in the world by the available resources ( gems, stones), craftsmanship and differently
designed (Dey, 2014).
The Jewelry sector of the subcontinent always was ill-paid though the artisans’ skills were
world-class and favored by the people around the world (Chandra, 1979). Unfortunately, this
sector was lack of emancipation or freedom of work as the artisans could not enjoy much of
their life due to meager income and lack of good acceptance in society due to racism practiced
in some portions (which is still in practice) in the subcontinent. The artists were from the lower
castes, lack money, and social status, most of the artists never liked to continue the same job
with the next generation (Dey, 2014). But for the rulers of the country, could not fulfill their
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wishes. As a result, this sector was looser in the long run. On the other hand, though the history
of Imitation Jewelry is ancient, the present condition of Imitation Jewelry is not much better
than in ancient times for the artisans and the workers. Still, they are ill-paid, ill-clad, and
ignorant of the laws of hygiene. Some artisans, from different parts of the country, started to
make jewelry with cheap and available materials at the beginning of the 19th
century. At that
time, Indian people in all the communities used to wear jewelry on bare parts of their bodies
which have recently been changed (Banglapedia, 2020). Brooches(badges), Baju, and clasps
(clips) became popular among the elegant women of the society later which spread over to all
class women in the society. Still, today wearing Brooches and Baju (a piece of jewelry for the
arm of a woman) are in practice, especially among the well-off women in society.
During the partisan time of India, gold ornaments became popular once again because of
troubles raised in society. With peace and initiatives of then the politicians the trend changed.
West Pakistan was famous for its stone setting but East Pakistan for its good manufacturing of
Jewelry. In the 1960s, the Minute pink pearl set became fashionable in politically turbulent East
Pakistan (Banglapedia, 2020).
These were hand-made with crude finishing. Copper, wood, feather bamboo, flower, etc. were
used by the artisans and these were only temporary and incidental in use by the common
women of the country (Archana, 2002).
Gujarat was the hub of Imitation Jewelry along with other big cities of India along with the
development of diamond-cut ornaments for export. Two factors worked there. The price of
the ornaments was cheaper but the workmanship of the jewelry was world-class (Gregorietti,
Jewelry, 2021).
Jewels were the power of Indian rulers with their property and prestige (Pal, 2017). Moreover,
All the time India was the largest manufacturer of beads in the world. The craftsmanship of
Indus valley used semi-precious materials like carnelian, agate, turquoise, faience, steatite, and
feldspar, fashioning them into tubular or barrel shapes, decorating them with carvings, bands,
dots, and patterns, or setting them minutely with gold.
The proverb ‘old is gold’ may be true for the Indian subcontinent as available natural resources
and different cultural and religious factors made the Indian subcontinent a reliable source of
jewelry five thousand years back (Archana, 2002).In this perspective, it is logical to note that,
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the Indian subcontinent has not the magic of design differently from other parts of the world
but the culturally different with the rich values of religious cultures. The emperors of Mughal,
the worship of gods and goddesses by the Hindu community, and other communities of Indian
Subcontinents have added the diversification of form and design of jewelry.
The imitation Jewelry sub-sector of Bangladesh is not independently run by the jewelers of the
country rather they are largely dependent on the same sector of India for their necessities like
design, design dice, designers, raw materials, artisans, etc. Unfortunately, as the sector is not
caring much, hardly there any research is available for its development. Moreover, though
Bangladesh is a country with a great scope of entrepreneurship development in the world, big
companies did not come forward with much investment in this sector. This sector still is a
cottage industry with a great possibility of expansion. Moreover, foreign investment is possible
with very little care because we can ensure the cheapest labor in the world with our RMG
products. On other hand, we have started to export our Imitation Jewelry in Australia, and
some European Countries even from our inorganized informal cottage industries. We think a
huge world market share will be covered by Bangladesh with the due technical, environmental,
and logistic support of the sector by our government or private investors in the country.
Moreover, job opportunities will be opened for the people of the country for the sustainable
development of the sector.
2.5. Environmental issues associated with Imitation Jewelry:
Imitation jewelry needs a different method to be applied or adopt in the manufacturing
process from the collection of raw materials to the shipment of the goods. Many steps in the
manufacturing process are hazardous in respect of maintaining a healthy environment in the
collection of raw materials to the packaging and shipment of the goods. In the collection of the
raw materials, people use the recycling process of metal, plastics which emit poisonous gases
and by-products, hazardous to the environment and the heath of the production people.
Jewelry use Led (Pb) to be heavier as per the choice of the stakeholders (shopkeepers, end-
users) which is hazardous to the human body (Shah, 2012) as well as to the environment.
Moreover, there are poisonous gases like carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide, etc. On the
other hand, the collection of gems, stones, ivory, shells, skin, feathers, from nature,
disturbances of biodiversity, and conservation of the environment are taken place
(Companion, 2019).
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2.6. Technological issues associated with Imitation Jewelry: Imitation Jewelry sector of the
country is still a neglected sector as it is not much independent regarding the collection of raw
materials, dice, and other types of machinery. Many countries of the world are much ahead
regarding the creation of design, its variation, automation, quality control, and creation of
skilled human resources in this sector, the Imitation jewelry sector of Bangladesh is still lagging
being a crafting sector, almost by handmade stage (Mujib, 2012). Comparatively, there are
many countries in the world like China, Taiwan, Singapore, Dubai, even India that have raised
the quality of the products, developed world-class branding by modernizing the sector. Leading
the USA, China is the global leader followed by the other countries mentioned above in the
Imitation Jewelry sector. On the contrary, being jewelry is an informal sector of the country
(lacking the policy of the sector and the required interventions with time), it is still
unnourished. There is skilled manpower, in the Imitation Jewelry sector, based on crating,
these artisans are not trained in modern designing and creation of variation, required finishing
of the goods, and to increase quality production comparatively to others, to expand its market
by developing the value-chain and branding (Sabbir, 2017). Whereas, India is in the world
market, fighting with its competitors like China, USA, Singapore! Very recently, India has toll-
free access for its jewelry product in Dubai, that has added another feather of the success of
the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
2.7. Waste management-related issues: Waste management is a big concern today relating to
any production and development in part of the world, though it was not much addressed in
developing countries in the past. Comparatively to the developed countries still, it is much
more disorganized than the least developed countries regarding many global factors. Metal
pollution like Lead( Pb) , Arsenic, are handled much professionally with care but deposition of
the metals is still questionable (Boma, 2022).
Waste management is still related to other urban issues in many countries like Bangladesh.
People yet have the mindset, waste management is the sole concern of the government of the
country through its city corporation and the municipalities that propels them to manage poorly
their wastes in the particular places indicated by the metropolises or places as the wish of the
community people, (Ashikuzzaman, 2019). Though there is no high volume of waste in the
Imitation Jewelry sector of the country, as there are some poisonous metals and acids which
are hazardous to human health, the management of the wastes should be accomplished
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scientifically. Lacking proper knowledge, training, and overall, unconsciousness of the society
people is dumping the wastes near their manufacturing units of Imitation Jewelry, Boma
Jewelry of India has adopted its Environmental management system (EMS) for waste
management in its interest to ensure the corporate responsibilities to the society (Boma,
2022).
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Chapter Three
Historical perspective of the Imitation Jewelry and the
subsector development in Bangladesh
Page | 18
Chapter Three
3.0. Historical perspective of the Imitation Jewelry and the subsector
development in Bangladesh
3.1. Introduction: To increase the aesthetic look and seductive charm, ornaments have been
used since prehistoric times which represented the status of the people of the society with
identity and belief. In some cases, marital status especially for women. In India and Bangladesh,
gold jewelry was the traditional form of savings, as they are easy to convert into money when
necessary. Ornaments often were associated with enchanted as well as religious possessions
and worn to drive out evil or bring to the prosperity of the family.
The lavish lifestyle of Mughals had created the opportunity to create new design development
and design variations and their designers and artisan had to create huge jewelry designs which
were a painful assignment for them (Gregorietti, Jewelry, 2021). Designers and artisans had to
face punishment for design failure or inferior design. Even today, the designs of Mughals are
being used as those are comparatively artistic, valued in society, and gorgeous (Chandra,
1979). On the other hand, the Indian subcontinent (mainly the central part of India) is full of
natural resources like stone and gems which opened the scope of the emperors to use the
resources and use the country's people to develop craftsmanship in their regimes. Thanks to
the lavish lifestyle and hard work of the artisans.
3.2. Bangladesh and its Jewelry Eras: The history of the jewelry of Bangladesh may be divided
into four parts .1000 BC to 1200 AD,1200AD to 1750AD, 1750AD to 1950AD, and finally 1950
to present (2020). The earliest ornaments found in Bangladesh date back to 1000BC in Wari-
Bateswar, a historically renowned place northwest of Dhaka (Banglapedia, 2020). Knowledge
of the jewelry of Bangladesh is derived from ancient sculptures and terracotta. Furthermore,
the terracotta of Paharpur and Mahasthangarh reveal the types of jewelry worn by people of
the sixth to the eighth century. From the terracotta of the tenth century, it is noted that both
men and women used to wear jewelry (earrings, armlets bracelets were common for both
sexes). The ornaments were leafy simple designs with round beads. Still, designs of the Mughal
era are existing in the jewelry design of Bangladesh, it may the Nawabs of Bengal followed the
arts and cultures of Mughal in their daily life which are being followed by the Zamindars,
affluent people, and later the common people of the country. But some of the Nawabs of
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Bengal used mixed designs of Indian Mughals with European, though these were not in a
remarkable percentage of their society and time.
In present Bangladesh, jewelry designs are not much changed rather a good follower of other
countries through the taste and choice of the people have been changed in many aspects of
their daily life and ongoing fashion flow. Indian films and serials have a good influence on the
costumes and the jewelry design of the country. Gold jewelry was popular among women
always but recently after the 1990s women started choosing Imitation jewelry for their
security, handy use, and small budget options.
3.3. How Business Cluster started: After the independence of Bangladesh, the Imitation jewelry
shop was located in the old town of Dhaka city. Most of the jewelers were Urdu- speaking
people from India and their business was limited. They used mainly copper to make imitation
jewelry but their main product was shankha (conch shell -the ritual and religious importance
for the Hindu community). In the 1980s, the Savar jewelry cluster has formed a village named
Bhakurta, and most of the male jewelry workers used to work at Tantibazar, Dhaka. Gradually,
they became entrepreneurs and started their business at Savar with very limited facilities
supported by some NGOs. They faced trouble in the 1990s with the price fall of finished gold.
At that time there were a limited number of designs in the ornaments and their main
customers were the village women. During that time many of them have changed their
business to other goods. The demand for silver jewelry increased at that time. Imitation
jewelers enjoyed their time with a good profit from 1995s to the 2010s (Rahman, Md Fazlur,
2016). Once again, the silver jewelry market is in the downturn, creating trouble for the
jewelers to continue their trades. Now there are more than 100 shops at Bhakurta, forming a
cluster of imitation jewelry.
In Jashore, the jewelry business cluster had a good connection with India as it is adjacent to
West Bengal. Artisans used their privilege to cross the border, when necessary, for their legal-
illegal business. Even now, most of the jewelry dice, designs, some raw materials, small
machinery are imported from India. However, the availability of all the materials helped
Bangladesh jewelers to be dependent on them (Indian Jewelers, designers, business persons)
and to be weaker in jewelry design than Indian designers. Moreover, some people who have
migrated from India with their business to Bangladesh after the 1965s and 1971s have a better
business setup than those who started later. Therefore, still, the state of the cluster is an
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unfortunate condition regarding infrastructure, logistic support, the touch of modern
production technology and entrepreneurship, and many more.
3.4. The leader/protagonists: The artists who worked in the old town of Dhaka and Jashore
played a significant role to set up the imitation jewelry sector of the country through some
entrepreneurs who worked with them for the development. At the time of inception, they face
much trouble with the required capital, infrastructure even from skilled workers for this sector
which is also demanding at present in this sector. The leading entrepreneurs managed their
capital by the high rate of interest from the NGOs which was a challenge to their survival. Most
of them have flourished in their business and leading in this sector of the country.
3.5. The main driving force behind the growth:
1. Affordable Price and New design: Imitation Jewelry follows the eye-catching design as it has
the reflection of existing fashion flowed the media. Moreover, its price is affordable for the
common people of the country. On the other hand, it has availability in remote areas of the
country which makes another scope of its popularity. Moreover, as the price is not out of reach,
the consumer can change an ornament instantly replaced by another.
2. High Price of Gold: The price of gold is ever increasing which is not possible to purchase by
the common people. On the other hand, some imitation ornaments are like gold in
appearance. Those are secured and convenient for wearing.
3. Ever-growing unsafe perception of women wearing gold ornaments in the public place:
Wearing gold is not safe especially for women as cannot ensure security for all and everywhere
in society. Sometimes it becomes a threat to life.
4. Growing Standard of living coupled with a huge middle-class population: Imitation jewelry is
not only a favorite by the common people of the country but also by all classes of people as
they meet the wide range of demands of the consumers. It ensures the class standard of living
with the minimum budget by the middle-class people of the country.
5. Wearing Fashion Jewelry inspired by the celebrities: Fashion jewelry is followed by the
celebrities of cinema, drama, or other shows in the media. These changes are marked by the
society people and they follow their fashion, costumes, jewelry which creates a flow or trend
in the market demand.
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6. Increased income of women increased aspiration to contemporary fashion: Income has a
direct relationship with consumption. Now, many women are empowered by their income,
choice of independence. They can adore or adopt fashion which was not possible even 20 yrs
back in Bangladesh. Inspiration from fashion increased the demand for jewelry in the market.
7. Trend of fashionable jewelry matching with updated designed dresses: Now fashion is
changing frequently. However, changing dresses means changes in the supporting accessories
of mainstream fashion. Fashion change makes further demand in the market for updated
fashion jewelry.
8. Brand Consciousness of the young generation: Now, fashion-conscious people are brand
conscious and they flow the dresses and jewelry of the particular branded fashion house,
companies, countries, or a favorite celebrity. For example, if a set of jewelry by a world-famous
celebrity (say Aishayria Rai) is available at Aarong, it will be a hot cake to the consumer. There
are many instances like this.
9. Quality jewelry with Fashionable design at an affordable price: Now, the quality of jewelry
has increased. Unfortunately, few designs are made in developed countries. At first sight,
everybody will be confused about its origin. These are comparatively cheap than the original
brands.
10. Online shopping feasibility: Now, online shopping feasibility has extended the scope of a
wide range of marketing as per choice by the selection of images of the relevant product with
price information. There are some options like free delivery, discount, refund, etc., making the
marking wide to increase the demand for imitation jewelry.
3.6. Prospect of Imitation Jewelry: Global Market for Jewelry is near about $ 300 Billion. USA
and China are the leading countries followed by the EU. Among the total Jewelry Market,
fashion or Imitation Jewelry is the major portion (near about $60 Billion) which a growth rate
is 9 percent. Two countries China and India are increasing their investment aggressively in the
Imitation Jewelry Sector. On the other hand, the demand for Imitation Jewelry is increasing in
the USA, EU, and the Middle East (especially in the Arab Emirates). Interestingly, though India
is capable to export Imitation Jewelry to other countries, due to the cheaper price Indian
domestic market is flooded with Chinese jewelry (more than 30 percent of the total demand
of the country) (Dave, 2013). From India, huge Imitation Jewelry is imported illegally by the
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traders of Bangladesh through border transmission which is a huge threat for the subsector of
the country to be flourished. Chinese Imitation Jewelry manufacturers are tech-savvy;
therefore, China has a 25 percent share in the global Imitation Market. In the export policy of
Bangladesh, there is almost nothing about the export of jewelry or Imitation Jewelry which
may be termed as the neglected unfortunate sector of the country.,
3.7. Imitation Jewelry Market growth in Bangladesh: According to a report by the Bangladesh
Imitation Jewelry Manufacturers, Exporters, and Merchant Association Present the market for
Imitation Jewelry is not more than $200 Million. However, Bangladesh exported Imitation
Jewelry worth $33 Million to Armenia in 2019 through the efforts of the entrepreneurs
(Comtrade, 2020) . In 2020 it has raised to $107 Million. The export market growth rate is more
the 224% in only a single country without government support. So, the Imitation Jewelry sector
is the most promising sector of this country in the future regrettably, Bangladesh is lagging in
jewelry design, manufacturing technology, certifications from green production, legal
authorities, and branding to enter the premium market.
3.8. Probable Future Growth: Government ensured the national gold policy on 10th
June 2021
(Ara, 2021). From now onward, importing gold bars and other necessary items for the jewelry
and imitation Jewelry will be easier. Moreover, the government may allow foreign investment
in the jewelry sector which will lead to a formal sector like the RMG sector of the country for
the lower manufacturing advantages.
3.9: Imitation jewelry and Circular Economy: A circular economy is a systematic approach to
development designed to benefit businesses, society, and the environment. In contrast take-
make-waste, a circular economy is regenerated by design and aims to gradually decouple
growth from the consumption of finite resources (Foundation, 2021).
In the case of Imitation jewelry, from the life cycle analysis, LCA (according to the field survey)
in section 6.6 we didn’t find anything to reuse and recycle from the Imitation Jewelry. The
artisans informed us that they do not recycle and reuse the jewelry. The manufacturers of
copper wire may collect the wastes of jewelry from the vendor and they might follow the
process of recycling. For more investigation, the research team contacted the suppliers of the
raw materials. They informed us that just import the wire from India and they do not know
about the matter of recycling. On the contrary, recycling is an environmental issue for any
Page | 23
manufacturing sector, especially the products are manufactured from metals and plastics, or
even in the case of the global fashion industry.
We have connected with some suppliers of raw materials in India. They informed us that they
collect the used and old Imitation Jewelry from some vendors of waste metals and they recycle
those to make raw materials for Imitation Jewelry.
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Chapter Four
Methods and Methodology
Page | 25
Chapter Four
4.0. Methods and Methodology:
4.1. Sampling Plan with the calculation details: As the population of the study is independently
distributed in three districts (Jashore, Jhenaidah, & Dhaka) therefore, we have selected
stratified sampling techniques to collect samples. The predicted sample size assuming the
population is normally distributed has been calculated as below:
Sample Size with a known population,4500 beneficiaries of PKSF in 3 districts
=
( )
( ) pq
Z
e
N
pqN
Z
2
2
2
1 +
−
=
{(1.96)2×0.5×0.5×4500}
[{(4500−1)×(0.05)2}+{0.5×0.5×(1.96)2}
=
2079
.
12
8
.
4321
=354.0167
≈355
In the case of Jashore,
338×355
4500
=26.66 ≈ 27
For Jhenaidah,
2253×355
4500
=177. 73 ≈178
For Savar,
1902×355
4500
=150.40≈ 151 respondents are needed, but to avoid the
fractions in the respondent’s number we had taken the total sample size of 357.
4.2. Household Survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted for 357 respondents as
shown above in three districts within artisans, manufacturers, designers, small traders, and,
entrepreneurs.
4.3. Focus Group Discussion (Jashore 1, Jhenaidah 2 & Dhaka 1) four Focused Group
discussions were conducted with a prefixed questionnaire. 7-9 respondents of the population
of different categories (artisans, manufacturers, entrepreneurs, workers, designers,
consumers, community members) will be interviewed.
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4.4. For Key Informants Interview (KII) Survey:
5 experts from Branding/Marketing
5 experts from Environment/Climate Change
5 Fashion experts/Entrepreneurs
2 key persons from the product certification authority were interviewed
4.5. Data Collection:
i. This research was conducted with primary data based on the household survey with a
structured questionnaire in the three districts for the study of technological & environmental,
revenue-generating, and non-revenue generating activities, as per the requirements of the
intervention for the Imitation Jewelry sub-sector.
ii. For the study of Eco-labeling, to develop the value chain, entry to the premium market,
developing branding (Research Objectives from b to f from ToR), Key informants’ interviews
(KII) were conducted where renowned Fashion & Jewelry Designers, Experts of Environment,
Marketing & Branding Experts, Jewelry entrepreneurs, key people from different certification
authorities.
4.6. Research Design: This research is descriptive and administered to find out the present
status of the target population regarding their technical, environmental, revenue-generating,
and non-revenue generating activities. For the research objectives (from ToR) a, b & portion of
c quantitative data have been collected through a structured questionnaire survey. For the
second portion of the research (for Research objectives c, d, e, and f), qualitative data based
on the in-depth interview of the relevant experts will be collected. Data from the related
publications from related peer-reviewed journals, articles, books, magazines, newspapers, etc
have been collected.
4.7. Data Analysis: i. The different cross-tabulation analyses have been formulated using SPSS
(IBM 22) and MS Excel (Windows 10), which has helped the researchers' situation analysis of
the sector with its related variables from the field data by the household survey.
ii. Correlation /Regression analysis has been conducted within a key variable to find out the
factor’s responsible for low productivity concerning PKSF on which sector modification is
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needed, regarding environmental and technical issues, revenue-generating, non-revenue
generating, and value chain analysis in views of making micro-entrepreneur competitive for
international markets. Required revenue-generating activities that will help the sub-sector to
take an important part in the national economy, non-revenues generating activities for this
sub-sector for brand development, premium marketing, SWOT analysis, and entrepreneurship
development. Moreover, to address the health, and safety issues to secure the future growth
of the sector. Cost-benefit analysis has been conducted to justify the mark-up or profit and
sustainable development for the Imitation Jewelry sub-sector.
iii. Possibilities of the branding of Imitation Jewelry have been justified depending on the
technical, environmental, revenue-generating, non-revenue generating analysis data from
data analysis no. (i) and (ii) along with related theory, concepts, suggestions from reliable
resources like books, research papers, articles, etc.
iv. Based on KII (Key Informant Interviews) Descriptive analysis has been added for Ecolabeling,
certification, branding, premium marking, and a portion of value chain development. This
analysis will help PKSF to rethink their actions (if necessary), plan, and consequently change or
modification in different sectors of their action plan.
v. Based on FGD (Focus Group Discussion) various types of analysis have been added with the
pie chart, bar diagram, and frequency distribution tables to represent the clear pictures of the
portion of the study that will help PKSF to sort out the important factor or variable to work
with or for modification.
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Data Analysis & Result Discussion
(Chapter Five to Chapter Nine)
The findings of the study have been organized according to the
objectives. However, as some of the findings are interconnected, we
have to addressed in sequential arrangement
Page | 29
Chapter Five
5.0. Raw Materials and Products:
5.1. Raw Materials: The raw materials of the products are metals like copper, brass, Aluminum,
plastic, wood, soil, stones, etc. Comparatively, brass is used in costly items and other materials
Picture 5.1.1. Copper and Brass wire (Primary Raw Materials), Source: Field surveys
like plastic and wood are used in relatively cheap items of jewelry. Cooper is the best raw
material for Imitation Jewelry for its best performance in recycling. Almost 90 percent of
Imitation Jewelry is made of copper.
Figure 5.1: Distributions of workers' views on the problems faced during the working period.
(Source: FGD)
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.According to the question in the focus group discussion (FGD question No. 1), the respondents
explained their problems with raw materials. In each FGD there were 9 respondents according
to the research design (Chapter 4). It can be concluded from figure 5. 2 that 22.2 percent of
the workers/ artisans mentioned that raw materials are being expensive, another 22.2 percent
of the workers mentioned that uncertainty of fair price, 16.67 percent mentioned the capital
problem, 11.11 percent mentioned lack of exact raw materials, another 11.11 percent
mentioned the excessive price of pine (one type of raw materials), 5.56 percent mentioned
transportation problem, 5.56 percent mentioned disturbance of machines and the 5.56
Picture 5.1.2. Secondary Raw Materials, Source: Field survey
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percent mentioned that raw materials are good. Notably, 8.67 percent of the interviewers
claim that their factories collect raw materials from the local or domestic market whereas
10.67 perce
nt collect that from the international market. 80.67 percent answer that they collect raw
materials both from home and abroad. Some more information about raw materials have been
added in the Lifecycle Analysis (LCA)
5.2. Products: There are many jewelry products in Bangladesh which are mostly handicrafts
(made manually), comparatively not good finishes.
5.2.1. Nose pin (Pic 5.2. 01): This jewelry is very common in use in the Indian Subcontinent and
is available in Imitation jewelry. In Bangladesh, it’s a common and traditional item in the society
of all religions. Though the first ritual was started by married women as a sign of marital status,
now it is commonly used by all women. Mainly made of copper and brass. Stones are used to
increasing the decoration of jewelry.
5.2.2. Finger Ring (Pic 5.2.02): Metallic rings are used in the fingers. Men and women both
wear these regularly and at different events. Studs, stones, diamonds, etc. are used for the
decoration and design of a ring. For wedding purposes, rings are also widely used in Bangladesh
and many other countries around the world.
5.2.3. Necklace (Pic 5.2. 10): Chain around the neck with or without a locket (extra jewelry
hanging from the chain. The chain may be loose fittings or as the requirement of the
customers. Design differs from place to place. Generally, in Bangladeshi culture, a necklace
with a fine chain is worn by women.
5.2.4. Pendant set (Pic 5.2.4): A pendant set is a set of chains with jewelry of two ears decorated
with studs or stones. There is a similarity in the artwork of the earpiece with the chain and
locket of the set. There are a lot of variations in the design, motifs, size, and price of the jewelry.
Generally, pendants are made of metals (Fashion, 2016).
5.2.5. Bangles (Pic 5.2.16): A set of jewelry worn on the wrist of women which is seen in the
culture of the subcontinent. Though it is not confined generally married women have worn the
Bangles with sari (long, single attire of women common to Bangladesh, India, and Nepal) in
different social and cultural traditions. Bangles may be of different designs with different
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motifs. The price range may depend on the workmanship and materials are used there
(Banglapedia, 2020).
5.2.6. Earring (Pic 5.2.12): An ornament that attaches to the lobe of the ear by a small screw,
clip, or a wire piercing the ear. Earrings also may be of different designs with different
materials. Copper, brass, plastic is used as the core materials of earrings. Earthen earrings are
also sold in the market to portray the fashion of the different cultural events by enthusiastic
fashion-conscious women.
5.2.7. Mangal sutra (Pic 5.2. 17): Mangal sutra is a type of thread that is used wear by the
people for their well-being by the good wishes of the religious priest. The design has taken
from the theme of the Mangal Sutra to wear a necklace, made of studs with metal. It is a
combination of different colors where black is a common one.
5.2.8. Kada (Pic 5.2. 18): A type of bracelet worn by young, fashionable people (both
men/women). It may be with a gorgeous design or with simple single-colored metal. Stainless
steel, copper, or brass is used for their manufacturing.
5.2.9. Bracelet (Pic 5.2.3): A piece of jewelry worn by both men and women on the wrist on
hand. Generally, men wear in the left hand and men’s bracelets are simple, heavy metallic
forms whereas women may wear them in both hands with fashionable design and
manufacturing with studs.
5.2.10. Payal (Pic 5.2.14): Payel is a piece of jewelry to wear on the foot of a woman. It is a
single piece with different shapes and designs to wear around the foot in a loose-fitting
manner. It is made of metal. Generally, copper, brass, and aluminum are the raw materials of
payels.
5.2.11. Hath Pan (Pic 5.2.13): The hath pan (Hand pan) is worn in the hand to show fashionable
and gorgeous. Generally, young women like to wear their trendy dresses and sari. This is made
of metal like copper, brass, etc.
5.2.12. Brooch (Pic 5.2.15): Brooch is a type of decorative pin, garments parts to be attached
to the body. These are made of metal with trendy design and stud use. Both men and women
use brooch with their different dresses
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5.2.13. Tikka (Pic 5.2.5): Tika is used by women with bridal wear. Nowadays, some fashionable
women are using regular with other dresses and sari at different events. Stones, studs are used
to making eye-catching and decorative tika. Generally, tika is a gold coating. Silver color tikas
are also available.
5.2.14. Baju Band (Pic 5.2.6): This is a piece of jewelry used in the arms of women in different
events, though it is randomly used with bridal wear to increase the attraction of a woman.
Generally, it is made of metal decorated with stones or studs using gold or silver coating.
Previously, this jewelry was worn by landlords and ladies as it was a high-ranking prestigious
item. But presently, it is a common item for fashionable women even from middle to high
society (Archana, 2002).
5.2.15. Hair Clip (Pic 5.2.7): Women are fond of hairpins or hair clips. Longhaired women are
dependent on hairpins to manage their hair and increase their adoration. Hairpins are also in
different designs and colors whereas black is common. Stone and studs often are used to
increase their value. In Bangladesh, hairpins are widely used both in rural and urban areas.
5.2.16. Chain (Pic 5.2. 8): Chain is a piece of jewelry made by the shackling process which is
used by men and women both though its main users are women. Depending on the design of
each unit adjacent one after another, the chain may be of many types. Different metals are
used in making chains. Chains are mainly in gold’s color. While colored chains are also available.
Normally men’s chains are heavier than women’s ones.
5.2.17. Ear Chain (Pic 5.2. 10): Earn Chains are used by trendy women mainly in bridal events.
These are jewelry with fake stones and studs. Different types of Ear chains are available
according to the price. Earn chains are mainly gold coating.
5.2.18. Nose ring (Pic 5.2.11) Nose rings are very common for fashionable women in the Indian
subcontinent in different subcultures. But it has also a trendy use. Generally, young women
wear these their different events and get-together with trendy dresses.
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Pic 5.2.3: Bracelet
Pic 5.2.1: Nose pin Pic 5.2.2: Finger Ring
Pic 5.2.4.: Pedant
Pic 5.2.5: Tikka Pic 5.2. 6:Bazu Band
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Pic 5.2.7: Hair Clips Pic 5.2. 8:Chains
Figure 5.2.9: Ear Chain Pic 5.2.10: Necklace
Picture 5.2.11.: Nose Ring
Picture 5.2.12: Earring
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Picture Group: 5.3. Common Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh (Source: Field Work)
Picture 5.2.13. Hath Pan
Picture5.2. 14:Payel
Picture 5.2. 15: Brooch
Picture 5.2. 16: Bangles
Picture 5.2.17 Mangal Sutra Picture 5.2. 18 Kada
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Figure 5.2: Factory Distribution according to the Type of Products Produced
(Source: House Hold survey)
5.3. Distributions of products produced by the Entrepreneurs:
It is usual to conclude according to the below figure 5.1 data from the FGD and Field survey
that among the products produced by the factory 19.15 percent of them are earrings, 17.02
percent of them are payel, 14.89 percent of them are chain, 4.26 percent of the rings, 4.26
percent of them are nose pin, 4.26 percent of them are bangles, 4.26 percent are baju, 4.26
percent are tikli, 4.26 percent are bracelets, 4.26 percent are anklets and 14.89 percent of their
claims to produce others product. Among the other products majority produced ‘Shitahar’,
‘Ball’, ‘Bell’, ‘Mila’, ‘Lamb’, ‘Chik’, ‘Tayra’, ‘Kolet,’ etc. But these are not very common in use.
Some of the elderly women are fond of these according to the artisans.
Item wise artisans are selected in the production line. For example, if an artisan is skilled in
designing and manufacturing chains, s/he will do the same for more productivity and skilled
production. On the contrary , there are some artisans who are serving as aprentices , do all
sorts of works with the senior artisans, though percentage of this type of apprentices is not
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much in altogether. And apprentices are mainly male , age range 8-12 years and unfortunately
most of them are drop out students from mainstream of education.
5.4. Artisans: Artisans are the people who are directly involved in the sector for the
manufacturing of jewelry. They are key people of the sector to whom quality production,
designing of the jewelry, sustainability of the subsector, income-generating issues are
dependent. Based on the household survey and the Focus group discussion following
information have summarized with statistical tools:
5.4.1: Problems faced by the artisans in work: A query on the problems faced by the workers
was asked in the focus group discussion (FGD), subsequently, all of the workers agreed without
any hesitations that they are facing various kinds of problems working in the factories. And
these problems are much common among the artisans as they are doing relentless production
basis work (more production, more income, and no work, no pay). The types of problems
artisans mention during the working period are listed below with corresponding percentages
through Pie charts.
5.4.2. Problems for Capital Investment: Again, a query on the capital problem was asked among
entrepreneurs who participated in focus group discussions. 16.67 percent of the workers
agreed about the capital problem faced by the factories they worked for. This is also a
concerning issue for this jewelry sub-sector. According to the entrepreneurs, the partner NGOs
of PKSF and other NGOs, help them with the capital for their business but their interest rate is
much higher than SMEs (Small to Medium-sized Enterprises) loans. However, hardly they get
SME loans as there are many terms and conditions for the entrepreneurs. On the other hand,
they think the process is not easier for them to get a loan from SMEs and other government
organizations.
Many entrepreneurs had started their business even only Tk 10000 loan from an NGO in 2005,
as his information, his present assets are more than 4 lacs in the jewelry unit. Moreover, he
had purchased land whose present value is more than 1 lac. Interestingly, the entrepreneurs
like to take personal loans from the other persons on high interest. The rate of the interest is
10-25 percent in a month. Generally the rate increases in the good season of the business
before different festivals and during the time of winter. Otherwise, rate of the products is with
a tendency of fluctuation.
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5.4.3: Physical Illness of the artisans: It is evident from figure 5.3 which has been generated
with the data from the Household Survey ( HHS) that 24 percent of the workers suffered from
Figure 5.3: Distributions of physical illness suffered by artisans (Source: House h. survey)
Lumbago, 20 percent of the workers suffered from Dim-sighted and another 20 percent
suffered from eye-watering, 20 percent of them suffered from severe headache, 12 percent of
them suffered from shoulder ache and the last 4 percent of them reported that they are
suffering from hand cramp (hand pain).
According to the Focus Group Discussions, it is observed that all of the workers/artisans are
agreed of suffering from several kinds of illness. The types of illness suffered by the workers or
artisans are listed below through pie charts.
5.4.4: Logistic Supports: It is usual to conclude from figure 5.4 that 42.11 percent of the
workers mentioned the necessity of a table, chair, 31.58 percent mentioned the necessity of
safety glass, gloves, 15.79 percent of the workers mentioned the necessity of a convenient
working environment, and the final 10.53 percent of the workers mentioned on the necessity
of adequate lights.
But based on our open eye observation we have found , most of the workers were working
sitting on the floor or very impoverish temporary seats . They seemed that they were happy
with this as they can gossip while working sitting in a round arrangement . Mainly the female
workers sat flat in the ground in the production units.
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Figure 5. 4: Distributions of worker views on the equipment needed for the fulfillment of a
safe workplace (Source: Filed Visit)
5.4.5: Self-dependency in the improvement of Jewelry design: Most entrepreneurs raised a
common issue regarding raw materials. We noticed none of the respondents was happy with
the availability of raw materials and their prices. It is evident from figure 5.5 that has been
generated with the information from the House Hold Survey ( HHS) that 31.25 percent of the
workers think that the reduction of the price of raw materials can increase the self-dependency
in this sub-sector, 18.75 percent of the workers think the fair price of products can improve
the self-dependency, 12.50 percent mentioned about adequate training, 12.50 percent
mentioned about the low interested loan, 12.50 percent said they think that higher market
demand can improve self-dependency, 6.25 percent urges for the introduction of new design
and another 6.25 percent urges for the adequate testing lab.
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Figure 5.5: Distribution according to their thinking of self-dependency in the improvement of
Jewelry design (Source: House Hold Survey)
Figure 5.6: Workers distribution according to their practical statement on how this sector can
be developed
Page | 42
5.4.6: Development of the Imitation sector: Suggestions of the artisans were sought from the
artisans in FGD asking how the Imitation Jewelry sector can be developed? their response can
be concluded from figure 5.6 that 22.22 percent of the workers think that the development in
this sub-sector can be done by reducing the price of raw materials, 16.67 percent of them
thinks the trainer is needed, 16.67 percent of them thinks arrangement for the capital can
develop this sub-sector, another 16.67 percent thinks that availability of local raw materials
can be a key factor for developing this sub-sector, 11.11 percent of them urges for machines,
another 11.11 percent urged for government involvement and the last 5.56 percent urges for
up-to-date design.
It is to be noted that all of the workers/ artisans who attended focus group discussions were
agreed that the imitation jewelry sub-sector can be more productive as well as more profitable
if training and modernization can introduce in this sub-sector. They also urge the introduction
of up-to-date design in this sub-sector.
5.4.7: Economic Solvency: It can be concluded from figure 5.6 that about 29.41% of the
workers involving this jewelry sub-sector became self-reliant, 23.53% of them achieved
economic solvency, 17.65% of the unemployed found a job and became employed, 11.76% of
them developed their family conditions as well as economic conditions, 11.76% of them started
their business in low capital, 5.88% of them find advantages while using the self-made product.
Figure 5.7: Distribution of workers according to the advantages they received from imitation
jewelry sub-sector
Page | 43
Figure 5.8: Distribution of workers view according to the disadvantages they received from
imitation jewelry sub-sector
5.4.8. Advantages and disadvantages: It is evident from figure 5.7 that 47.06 percent of the
workers/ artisan feels the main disadvantage of this sub-sector is the increasing price of raw
materials, 17.65 percent of the workers stated that the required salary is very low in this sub-
sector, another 17.65 percent of them feels the lacking of modern machines, 11.76 percent of
them stated that trainers are inadequate and 5.88 percent of the workers think that health
problem is the major disadvantages in this imitation jewelry sub-sector
5.4.9. Empowerment of women and economic solvency: It is evident from figure 5.8 that 66.67
percent of the workers think that the key opportunity in this sub-sector is the earnings of
additional income for the family by rural women, 22.22 percent of them thinks that it is an
opportunity for new business investment and 11.11 percent of them earned economic
solvency by involving in this sub-sector.
Page | 44
Figure 5.9: Distribution of workers view according to the key opportunities observed
in imitation jewelry sub-sector
Figure 5.10: Distribution of workers view on the principal risk for the development of
imitation jewelry sub-sector
Page | 45
Table 5.1: Overall count on Factory weekly off day, daily work hours & daily break hour
Weekly Off Day
Daily Break Hour
Total
.00 .50 1.00 1.50 2.00 3.00
No
Holiday
Daily Work
Hours
3.00 1 0 1 0 0 0 2
4.00 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
5.00 6 17 3 0 3 0 26
6.00 4 4 1 0 3 0 12
7.00 0 0 2 0 0 1 3
8.00 1 2 37 0 26 0 66
9.00 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
10.00 0 0 17 0 147 0 154
11.00 0 0 0 0 2 0 2
12.00 0 0 2 0 18 0 20
Total 13 23 63 0 200 1 300
One Day
Daily Work
Hour
8.00 8 0 15 1 2 0 26
10.00 1 0 2 2 21 0 26
12.00 0 0 0 0 5 0 5
Total 9 0 17 3 28 0 57
Total
Daily Work
Hour
3.00 1 0 1 0 0 0 2
4.00 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
5.00 6 14 3 0 3 0 26
6.00 4 4 1 0 3 0 12
7.00 0 0 2 0 0 1 3
8.00 4 2 42 1 24 0 73
9.00 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
10.00 1 0 18 1 138 0 158
11.00 0 0 0 0 2 0 2
12.00 0 0 2 0 20 0 22
Total 17 20 69 2 191 1 300
Page | 46
5.4.10. Weekly Off day /Holiday: It is evident from table 3.1 that among the interviewers 300
of them have no holiday and 57 of them experienced one day holiday. The majority of the
interviewers experienced daily work hours of 3 to 12 hours and a few of them who experienced
one day holiday have daily work hours of 8 to 12 hours. Again, these workers experienced
different hours of break time which is varied from 0 hours to 3 hours. Among the majority of
them experienced 2 hours of break time.
5.4.11. Health Hazards and Risks: It can be concluded from figure 5.9 that 70% of the workers
think that there remains health risk when working in this jewelry sub-sector and 30% of them
think that the major risk of this sub-sector is environmental pollution.
Figure 5.11: Distributions of Factory according to their Educational Qualification ( Source:
Household Survey)
5.4.12: Education of the Artisans: The level of education of the artisans has been shown in the
chart above. 25.00 percent of them are illiterate which is unfortunate for the sector. Only 33.67
percent have completed their primary education, secondary education by 35.00 percent, 3.33
Page | 47
percent higher secondary education only around 3.00 percent have completed their higher
education.
So, from the above information, it may be concluded that the scenario of the sector is not
healthy to survive and for sustainable growth in present conditions.
Table 5.2: Total count of Entrepreneur gender, number & authorized person in the family of
the entrepreneurs (Source: House Hold Survey)
5.5. Conditions of the Manufacturing units:
5.5.1. Factories and Production Process: It is noted from the House Hold Survey y that 32.33
percent of workers or artisans manufacture their products through the manual process or
simply with the help of their small tools. 67.37 percent of the produce their products by both
Gender of Entrepreneur
Authorized Person in a Family
of Entrepreneurs Total
Male Female
Male
Number of
Entrepreneur
1.00 111 0 111
2.00 8 0 8
3.00 2 0 2
Total 121 0 121
Female
Number of
Entrepreneur
1.00 205 19 224
2.00 9 0 9
4.00 3 0 3
Total 217 19 236
Total
Number of
Entrepreneur
1.00 316 19 335
2.00 17 0 17
3.00 2 0 2
4.00 3 0 3
Total 338 19 357
Page | 48
using hands and machines. Unfortunately, there is no full automation technology anywhere in
the subsector which is an unacceptable point. On the other hand, in the production technology
only 21 entrepreneurs take safety measures using acids, 32 of them use acid without
maintaining any kind of safety measures. Interestingly
Figure 5.12. Factory Distribution according to their Production Process.
Figure 5.13: Factory Distribution according to their Sources of Raw Materials (Source:
Household Survey).
Page | 49
304 of the total respondents informed that they don’t use acid in the production process
(which is somewhat impossible according to the necessity of the production process of jewelry)
Table 5.3: Overall count on Factory Uses of Acid during Production when Using Acid & Safety
Rules taken (Source: Household Survey)
Figure 5..14: Frequency Distribution of the Respondent Training Issues (source: Household
Survey)
5.5.2: Training: Most of the workers or artisans have taken their training from home, from their
predecessors, or senior members of the family (Figure 5.14). Very few of them have been taken
Items
Safety Rules When Using Acid
Total
Yes No
Uses of Acid during
Production
Yes 21 32 53
No 0 304 304
Total 21 336 357
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
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Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
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Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
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Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
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Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
Final  Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf
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Final Research Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector.pdf

  • 1. | P a g e Final Report on ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector Package No. PKSF/SEP/S-13.8 (R) Submitted to: Deputy Managing Director 2 Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation (PKSF) Submitted by Md Zafar Alam Bhuiyan Consultant, Sustainable Enterprise Project (SEP), PKSF Date: Dhaka, February 22,2022
  • 2. Page | i Research Team Md Zafar Alam Bhuiyan Environment & Climate Change Specialist, & Team Leader Najmul Kadir Kaikobad Rana Fashion Design & Jewelry Specialist Samina Prodhan Data Analyst Sabrina Izdiher Enterprise Specialist
  • 3. Page | ii Acknowledgment This research was conducted based on the contract signed between the researcher (as the individual consultant) and PKSF (Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation) with the captioned ‘Common Services activities, Technical & Environmental interventions requirement for Imitation Jewelry Sub-sector. This research is fundamentally primary research-based on intensive fieldwork and the methods were household surveys, Key informants’ interviews (KIIs), and Focused Group Discussion (FGD). We greatly appreciate the decision and due help of the PKSF authority Deputy Managing Director 2, Dr. Jashim Uddin, Our heartfelt thanks to Dr. Tapash Kumar Biswas, Deputy Managing Director 4, Mr. Md Zahir Uddin, PC, Sustainable Enterprise (SEP,) Mr. Md Mehadi Hasan, Manager (Research), PKSF, for their valued contributions to the research design, setting research matrix, and overall, the other the steps for this research. We are also grateful to Md Monjurul Rakib, Program Organizer, Value Chain Development, for his excellent and cordial communication and required support, for this research. We will never forget the affable communication and related excellent support of Mr. Md Al Amin, Assistant Program Officer (Admin & Procurement), Md Masud Parvez, Program Officer (Audit & Finance) PKSF. We like to extend our thanks to Dr. Shafiqul Islam, Head of the Department, State University, Bangladesh, Arif M. Faisal, Programme Specialist, Environment Sustainability & Energy, UNDP, Dr. Abdullah Al Mamun, Project Director, Waste Management, Department of Environment, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Md Khairul Alam Bhuiyan, Consultant, Waste Management, UNDP, Md Shams Uddin, Academic and Research Coordination Specialist, US Forest Service, Prof. Mustafizul Haque, Chairman, Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Dept of Fashion Design & Technology of the same university, Professor Farruque M. Masud, Chairman, Dept of Fashion Design, Uttara University, Ms. Mantasha Ahmed, SME Foundation, and Design Team of Fashion House Aarong. Under the close supervision of the consultant, a team has collected data as per the prefixed schedule with the help of Mr. Monzur Morshed from Savar, Dhaka, Mr. Enamul Haq from Jashore, and Jhenaidah, focal persons of PKSF in three districts. We convey our heartfelt gratitude to them, some of the group leaders have extended their help in communication, motivation for the entrepreneurs for data collection in the field. We are indebted for their contribution to this research.
  • 4. Page | iii Declaration This research was concentrated on the Imitation Jewelry subsector of Bangladesh for its required interventions of technological, environmental, marketing, and branding revenue- generating activities, non-revenue generating activities, and value chain development. To our best knowledge, this type of research in the jewelry sub-sector is the first time in the subcontinent. In fact, in the global research activities, we didn’t find even any research related to this topic to just follow the research process and used tools and techniques. Moreover, the history of jewelry and Imitation Jewelry in the subcontinent is ancient and that is some of the inner parts of present India. The separated or individual history of the Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh is very limited even in the books published from India or elsewhere in the world. Notwithstanding our tremendous efforts to escape, we were bound to use the references to India many times for benefit of the study. However, some of the information is combined with the Imitation Jewelry of the subcontinent which has been cited from different books, research papers, articles, and features published in the newspapers and all the references have been added in the reference sections. This research has multidimensional interventions that have been added to the recommendation sections to work immediately to save and flourish the same. As it is intellectual property by the contract of research, using without formal permission of the authority the whole paper or any part of the research, information is strictly prohibited. Our strength to be specified, there is no plagiarism in any section of the paper. We hope the purpose of the research will be successful and the respondents, PKSF, the people of Bangladesh, and ultimately the jewelry subsector will be benefitted from this study.
  • 5. Page | iv Table of Content Chapter No Name of the sections Page No Acknowledgment ii Declaration iii Table of Content iv-ix List of Figure x List of the Picture xi-xii List of the Table xiii Acronyms & Abbreviation xiv Executive Summary xv-xviii Chapter 1 Background and Introduction 1-8 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Introduction 4 1.3 Study Area 5 1.4 Statement of the Problem 7 1.5 Objectives of the study 7 1.6 Scope of the study 7 1.7 Justification of the Research 8 1.8 Limitations of the Study 8 Chapter 2 Literature Review 10 2.1. Introduction 10 2.2. Jewelry and Social Development 10 2.3. Jewelry and the religion 11 2.4. Jewelry and primary raw materials 12 2.5. Environmental issues associated with Imitation Jewelry 14 2.6 Technological issues associated with Imitation Jewelry 15 2.7 Waste Management-related issues 15 Chapter 3 Historical perspective of the Imitation Jewelry and the Subsector Development in Bangladesh 17-23 3.1 Introduction 18 3.2 Bangladesh and its Jewelry Eras 18 3.3 How the Business Cluster Started 19 3.4 The Leader/Protagonists 20 3.5 The Main driving forces behind the growth 20 3.6 Prospect of Imitation Jewelry 21 3.7 Imitation Jewelry Market growth in Bangladesh 22 3.8 Probable Future Growth 22 3.9 Imitation jewelry and Circular Economy 22 Chapter 4 Method and Methodology 24-27 4.1 Sampling Plan with the calculation details 25 4.2 Household Survey 25 4.3 Focus Group Discussion 25 4.4 Key Informants Information (KII) Survey 26
  • 6. Page | v 4.5 Data Collection 26 4.6 Research Design 26 4.7 Data Analysis 26 Results & Discussion (Chapter 5-9) Chapter 5 Raw materials and Products 28-50 5.1 Raw Materials 29 5.2 Products 31 5.2.1. Nose pin 31 5.2.2. Finger Ring 31 5.2.3. Necklace 31 5.2.4. Pendant set 31 5.2.5. Bangles 31 5.2.6. Earring 32 5.2.7. Mangal sutra 32 5.2.8. Kada 32 5.2.9. Bracelet 32 5.2.10. Payal 32 5.2.11. Hath Pan 32 5.2.12. Brooch 32 5.2.13. Tikka 33 5.2.14. Baju Band 33 5.2.15. Hair clip 33 5.2.16. Chain 33 5.2.17. Ear chain 33 5.2.18. Nose ring 33 5.3 Distributions of products produced by the Entrepreneurs 37 5.4 Artisans 38 5.4.1: Problems facing by the artisans in work 38 5.4.2. Problems for Capital Investment 38 5.4.3: Physical Illness of the artisans 39 5.4.4: Logistic Supports 39 5.4.5: Self-dependency of Jewelry design 40 5.4.6: Development of the Imitation sector 41 5.4.7: Economic Solvency 41 5.4.8. Advantages and disadvantages 43 5.4.9. Empowerment of women and economic solvency 43 5.4.10. Weekly Off day /Holiday 46 5.4.11. Health Hazards and Risks 46 5.4.12: Education of the Artisans 46 5.5 Conditions of the Manufacturing units 47 5.5.1. Factories and Production Process 47 5.4.2: Training 49 5.5.3. Design 50 5.6. Summary 50 Chapter 6 Environmental, Technical, Certification, Ecolabeling & Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) 51-72
  • 7. Page | vi 6.1 Environmental Issues of Imitation jewelry 52 6.1.1. Environmental Certification 52 6.1.2. Environment Conservation Rules, 1997/ 2002 53 6.1.3. Documents Required for Different Categories of Industrial Units or SME Projects 54 6.1.4. General Process/ Steps for Environmental Clearance for a Green Category product 54 6.2 Eco-labeling 57 6.2.1. Classification of Ecolabelling 58 6.2.1.1. Type I 58 6.2.1.2. Type II 59 6.2.1.3. Type III 59 6.3 Ecolabeling accreditation process by Ecological Certification Institute ( Eco-Institute, Germany) 61 6.4 General Steps of Ecolabeling from EU 62 6.4.1. Product Selection 62 6.4.2. Criteria Development 62 6.4.3. Public Review Process 63 6.4.4. Adoption of Final Criteria 63 6.4.5. Application to the competent body for eco-label 64 6.4.6. Testing & Verification 64 6.4.7. Licencing 64 6.5 Ecolabeling of the Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh: 64 6.5.1. A Written Industrial policy for the sector 64 6.5.2 A Quality Guideline 65 6.5.3. Quality testing lab with international standard 65 6.5.4. Certification from DoE 65 6.5.5. Certification from Fire & Civil Defence 65 6.5.6. Certification from International Standard Organization (ISO 14025) 65 6.5.6.1. To Develop the Management System 65 6.5.6.2. Implementing the system 66 6.5.6.3. Verifying the system 66 6.5.6.4 System Registration 66 6.6 Life Cycle Analysis of an Imitation Jewelry (LCA) 67 6.6.1. Raw materials 67 6.6.2. Production 67 6.6.2.1 Product designing 67 6.6.2.2. Framing 68 6.6.2.3. Piecing 68 6.6.2.4. Assembling 69 6.6.2.5. Welding 69 6.6.2.6 Cutting 70 6.6.2.7 Washing 70
  • 8. Page | vii 6.6.2.8. Electroplating 70 6.6.2.9. Packaging & Distribution 71 6.6.2.10. Sales 71 6.6.2.11. Disposal: Product recycle and dumping 71 Chapter 7 Revenue Generating Activities Non-revenue Generating Common service activities, Nonrevenue-generating physical activities 73-83 7.1. Revenue Generating Activities 74 7.1.1 Designing of the product 74 7.1.2 Manufacturing 75 7.1.3. Storage of Jewelry 75 7.1.4. Marketing 76 7.1.5. Premium Marketing 77 7.2 Non-Revenue Generating Common Service Activities 79 7.2.1. Summary 80 7.3 Non-revenue-generating physical activities 81 7.3.1. Summary 83 Chapter 8 Business Analysis, Subsector Analysis, Cost-Benefit Analysis, SWOT Analysis & Value Chain Analysis 84-107 8.1 Business Environment of Imitation Subsector of Bangladesh 85 8.1.1. Business Environment 85 8.1. 2. Internal Business Environment 85 8.1. 3. External Business Environment 85 8.1.2.1 External Microenvironment: 86 8.1.2.2. Input/Raw Materials Supplies 86 8.1.2.3. Customers 86 8.1.2.4. Competitors and Public 86 8.2 External Macroenvironment 86 8.2.1. Economic 86 8.2.2. Social 87 8.2.3. Technological 87 8.2.4. Political and Legal 87 8.2.5. Demographics 87 8.3 Sub-sector Policy Analysis 90 8.3.1. Steps of policy analysis 90 8.3.1.1 Identification of the problems 90 8.3.1.1.1. Lack of Design 90 8.3.1.1.2. Lack of modern technology 91 8.3.1.1.3. Entrepreneurship 91 8.3.1.1.4. Skilled labor 92 8.3.1.1.5.Govt. support 92 8.3.2. Specification of the objectives 92 8.3.3. Decision on Criteria 92 8.3.4. Selection of the alternatives 92 8.3.5. Analysis of the alternative 92
  • 9. Page | viii 8.3.6. Comparison of the Alternatives 93 8.3.7. Implement the chosen alternative 93 8.3.8. Monitor and Evaluation 93 8.4 Cost-Benefit Analysis 94 8.5 SWOT Analysis 96 8.5.1. Summary in a Table 100 8.6 Value Chain Analysis 101 8.6.1. Porter Value Chain 101 8.6.2. Primary Activities 102 8.6.3. Support Activities 102 8.6.4. Value-chain Development Jhenaidah using Porter’s Value- chain Model: 102 8.6.5. Identifying sub-activities for each primary activity) : Step I 102 8.6.5.1. Direct Activities 102 8.6.5.2Indirect Activities 103 8.6.5.3. Quality Assurance 103 8.6.6. Identify sub-activities for each support activity: Step II 103 8.6.6.1. Human Resource Management 103 8.6.6.2. Technology Development 104 8.6.6.3. Procurement Support 105 8.6.7. Identify links: Step III 105 8.7 Value-chain analysis of Jhenaidah Cluster (using Numerical Field data) 106 8.7.1. Designing 106 8.7.2. Training and HR Development 107 8.7.3. Automation and machinery 107 8.7.4. Raw Materials 107 8.7.5. Marketing and Marketing Promotion 107 8.7.6. Summary 107 Chapter 9 Entrepreneurship Development of Imitation Jewelry 108-113 9.1. Entrepreneurship and its Development 109 9.2. Imitation Jewelry as Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh 110 9.3. Source of Finance and Associations 111 9.4. Summary 112 Chapter 10 Recommendations for the required interventions 111-117 10.1. Education 115 10.2. Training 115 10.3. Design 115 10.4. Raw Materials 115 10.5. Technical Automation 116 10.6. Environmental Interventions 116
  • 10. Page | ix 10.7. Certifications & Ecolabeling 116 10.8. Value Chain Development (in Jhenaidah Cluster) 117 10.8.1. Supply Chain Management 117 10.8.2. Digital Marketing 117 10.8.3. Strong Cooperative & Soft loan 117 10.8.4. Entrepreneurship and Green Entrepreneurship 118 10.8.5. Power and Gas supply 118 10.9. Promotional Marketing 118 10. 10. Government Support 118 10.11. Branding & Premium Marketing 118 10.12. Circular Economy 119 Conclusion 119 References 117-119 Appendices 120-127
  • 11. Page | x List of Tables Serial No Tables Details Page No. 1 Table 5.1: Overall count on Factory weekly off day, daily work hours & daily break hour 45 2 Table 5.2: Total count on Entrepreneur Gender, Number & Authorized Person in Family of Entrepreneur. 47 3 Table 5.3: Overall count on Factory Uses of Acid during Production when Using Acid & Safety Rules taken 49 4 Table 5.4: The frequency of the necessity of new design, collection place of mold/dice & jewelry design owned. 50 5 Table 6.1.5 Analysis and their corresponding interpretations regarding Environmental Issues 56 6 Table 7.1.1: Analysis and respective interpretations regarding revenue-generating activities. 74 7 Table 7.1.2 Overall count on product selling points, advertisement on products & fair sell 76 8 Table 7.1.3 Overall count on quality control training, product standard check & preparation for branding 76 7 Table 7.2: Important analysis and corresponding interpretations regarding non- revenue common service. 79 8 Table 7.3 Analysis and respective interpretations for some non-revenue generating physical activities. 81 9 Table 8.4: Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Areas of Annual Expenses 94 10 Table 8.4.1: Logical correlation between Initial capital and Entrepreneur’s approximate profit 94 11 Table 8.5.1: Important correlation approach to SWOT Analysis: 96 12 Table 8. 5.2: The Views of Respondents on SWOT Analysis 96-99 13 Table 8.5.3. Summary (Based on tables 8.5.1 & 8.5.2) 100 14 Table 8.7.1: Analytical Results on Value-chain determinants of jhenaidah 106 15 Table 9.1: Overall Count on Factory ownership, Trade license & Vat Registration Holder among Factories. 111
  • 12. Page | xi List of Figures Serial No Figures Details Page No. 1 Figure 5.1: Distributions of workers' views on the problems faced during the working period. 29 2 Figure 5.2: Factory Distribution according to the Type of Products Produced 37 3 Figure 5.3: Distributions of physical illness suffered by workers/ artisans 39 4 Figure 5.4: Distributions of worker views on the equipment needed for the fulfillment of a safe workplace 40 5 Figure 5.5: Distribution according to their thinking of self-dependency in the improvement of Jewelry design 40 6 Figure 5.6: Distribution according to their practical statement on how this sector can be developed 41 7 Figure 5.7: Distribution of workers according to the advantages they received from imitation jewelry sub-sector 42 8 Figure 5.8: Distribution of workers' views according to the disadvantages they received from imitation jewelry sub-sector 43 9 Figure 5.9: Distribution of workers' views according to the key opportunities observed in imitation jewelry sub-sector 44 10 Figure 5.10: Distribution of workers' views on the principal risk for the development of imitation jewelry sub-sector 46 11 Figure 5.11: Distributions of Factory according to their Educational Qualification 46 12 Figure 5.12. Factory Distribution according to their Production 48 13 Figure 5.13: Pie Chart Presenting Factory Distribution according to their Sources of Raw Materials. 48 14 Figure 5.14: Frequency Distribution of the Respondent Training Issues. 49 15 Figure 6.1. General Process/ Steps for Environmental Clearance for a Green Category product 55 15 Figure 6.2. Distribution of factories according to their waste management 57 16 Figure 6.3. Ecolabeling accreditation process (Source: Ecolabel Certificate Institute 61 17 Figure 6.4. Ecolabeling by the voluntary organization (EU) 64 18 Figure :6.6.1: Life cycle Analysis of Imitation Jewelry 67 19 Figure 7.1.: The Premium Business Strategy, 77 20 Figure 7.2.1: Factory Distributions according to their Water Supply Process 79 21 Figure 7.2.2: Factory Distributions according to their Gas Supply Process 80
  • 13. Page | xii 22 Figure 7.3.1: Factory Distributions according to Types of Toilets Provided for Workers 82 23 Figure 7.3.2: Factory Distributions according to Health Protections Provided for Workers 82 24 Business Environment of Imitation Jewelry 88 25 Figure 8.2. Relation Between External and Internal Business Environments of Imitation Jewelry Subsector 89 26 Figure 8.3.: Cycle of policy Analysis 90 27 Figure:8.4. Policy Analysis Process flow 91 28 Figure 8.6.1: Porter Value Chain 101 29 Figure 8.7.1. The average cost of components in the Jhenaidah Value chain against Capital Investment 106 30 Figure 9.1: Histogram of Factory Foundation Year 109 33 Figure 9.2: Distribution of Factories according to their Types 110 34 Figure 9. 3: Distribution of workers according to their involvement in different foundations. 112
  • 14. Page | xiii List of Pictures Serial No Pictures Details Page No. 1 Picture :1.1: Study Area Savar, Dhaka 5 2 Picture: 1.2. Working Area Jashore and Jhenaidah 6 3 Picture: 5.1.1. Copper and Brass wire 29 4 Picture 5.1.2. Secondary Raw Materials 30 5 Picture Group: 5.3. Common Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh 34-36 6 Picture: 6.1. Type I Ecolabeling 58 7 Picture 6.2. Type II Ecolabeling 59 8 Picture:6.3.Type III Ecolabeling 60 9 Picture 6.6.1: Framing 68 10 Picture 6.6.2: Piecing 68 11 Picture 6.6.3. : Assembling 69 12 Picture 6.6.4: Welding 69 13 Picture 6.6.5: Cutting 70 14 Picture 6.6.6.: Washing 70 15 Picture 6.6.7.: Mixing Gold Powder (GP) 71
  • 15. Page | xiv Acronyms & Abbreviations 1. BGMEA- Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association 2. BIJMEMA-Bangladesh Imitation Jewelry Manufactures, Exporters, and Merchant Association 3. BKMEA- Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association 4. BRAC-Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee 5. ECR-Environmental Conservation Rules 6. DoE-Department of Environment 7. DG XI (Directorate-General of the Environment, Nuclear Safety, and Protection (European Union)) 8. ECA-Environment Conservation Act 9. EPZ-Export Processing Zone 10. EPB- Export Promotion Bureau 11. Fire Service and Civil Defence (FSCD) 12. FGD- Focus Group Discussion 13. ILO-International Labour Organization 14. INGO-International Nong Government Organization 15. IGS- In-situ Geotechnical Services 16. KII- Key Informant Interview 17. LCA-Lifecycle Assessment/Life Cycle Analysis 18. PKSF- Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation 19. POs-Partner Organizations 20. SNF-Shisu Niloy Foundation 21. SEP-Sustainable Enterprise Project 22. RMG- Readymade Garment 23. NGO-Nong Government Organization 24. OECD- The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 25. R & D-Research and Development 26. SME- Small to medium-sized enterprise /Small and Medium Enterprise 27. SUS -Social upliftment Society 28. SGS -Standard Global Services 29. VO - (Village Organization)
  • 16. Page | xv Executive Summary This study was concentrated in three districts including Dhaka, Jashore, and Jhenaidah of Bangladesh where Imitation Jewelry has mostly clustered after the independence of the country. The sector was initiated in the period of Pakistan with a meager investment. The study was carried out with the view to achieving six objectives encompassing different issues of the sub-sector (environmental & technical, revenue-generating activities, non-revenue generating physical activities, environmental issues, certification, ecolabeling, branding, value chain development, etc.) and to assess the potential interventions for the Imitation Jewelry subsector of Bangladesh. The study deployed several tools and techniques for the collection of data. The total population of the study was around 4500 in three districts who are members of the beneficiaries of PKSF through its partner NGOs like SUS, SNF, etc., and engaged in entrepreneurship and working in the subsector of Imitation Jewelry. The total number of entrepreneur surveys was 357 (27 from Jashore, 178 from Jhenaidah, and 151 from Dhaka) The sample of the study was fixed by the stratified sampling techniques assuming the population is normally distributed. For this study, the research matrix was prepared according to the objectives. Questionnaires were prepared to collect information from the primary research (by field survey/ household survey). On the other hand, Key Informants Information (KII) from the different Design Experts, Experts from Environmental Sciences, Marketing and Branding Experts, Entrepreneurs, Key people from the certification authority. Some of the questions were common to the key experts with the specialized issues of entrepreneurship, environmental, certifications, ecolabeling premium marketing, and branding issue to the respective key informants. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted for the collection of collective information from the respondents about their product quality, types, their problems, design and dices issues, and their suggestions for the development of the sector. The questionnaire for the field survey information about academic qualifications, knowledge about environmental pollution, existing environmental conditions, the importance of modern technology for the production of befitting jewelry, training for better production, promotion of design, SWOT analysis of the sector, and required interventions to improve the overall condition of the sector was collected by the research team. After data collection, analysis was conducted by using the SPSS (IBM 22) software and the outputs of the analysis are in the
  • 17. Page | xvi respective chapter where pie charts, bar diagrams, cross-tabulations, correlations between different variables have been shown. In the Key Informant Interview (KIIs) the qualitative part of the study, five experts from each specialization like Fashion/Entrepreneurs, Environment /Climate Change, Branding /Marketing, and two key persons from the Department of Environment (DoE), have been interviewed. The questions of the KIIs were about the respective issues like design, entrepreneurship, environment pollution, certification and ecolabeling, branding of the products, and premium marketing, along with some common questions to all. Later, the answers sheets from the KIIs have summarized and the relative information has been added to each segment chapter-wise in the result section. Four Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted (One in Dhaka, Jhenaidah two, and one in Jashore from the collective information of the artisans, entrepreneurs, designers, and workers of the sector. Questions to the artisans have related to their challenges in works, their health conditions, shortage of capital, their associations, inspirations of the jewelry design, related training requirement, their suggestions for the development of the Imitation Jewelry sector, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the sectors. Responses of the entrepreneurs and other respondents have been summarized using statistical tools (different charts) in the result sections. Moreover, the results of the analysis have been added in the different chapters where that was necessary. In FGD, a total of 55.51 percent of the represents mentioned that raw materials are going to be expensive day by day and fair price is uncertain because the price has a random fluctuation by the syndicate. 11.11 percent of them mentioned the lack of availability of raw materials when required. 16.20 percent of the entrepreneurs have a problem with the investment, 5.6 percent claimed transportation problems. only 5.56 percent agreed that all the raw materials are as per their expectations which is alarming for a sector. On the other hand, of the respondents, 24.00 percent from Lumbago, 20.00 percent from Dim- sighted, 20.00 percent from eye soaring, 20.00 percent from headache 12.00 percent from shoulder ache, and 4 percent are suffering from hand cramps. Only 20. 00 of them are comparatively in good health which is another threat to its existence. Of the workers in the sector for environmental, health safety, and compliance issues, 42.11 percent have claimed that they are short of logistic supports like their seating arrangements. However, 31.58 percent revealed that they need safety glasses and gloves, especially the
  • 18. Page | xvii fireworks and working with chemicals and acids and 15.79 percent of the workers mentioned the necessity of the working environment. However, 10.53 percent of the workers demanded they need adequate light for their work. For capital, most of the entrepreneurs are engaged with different NGOs like BRAC, SUS, Shishu Niloy Foundation, Asa, Grameen Bank (which breakdown have shown in the association section) for their financial support by loan. 22.22 percent of the respondents opined that development of the sector can be ensured by reducing the price of raw materials, 16.67 percent of them think they need training, another 16.67 percent of them think the arrangement of sufficient capital can develop the subsector, one more 16.67 percent think the local arrangement of raw materials can improve the present condition. However, 11.11 percent of each opined for automation and government involvement while 5.56 percent of them urged timely design of the Jewelry. Only 29.41 percent of the artisans are self-reliant 23.53 percent of them have achieved economic solvency, still, 17.65 percent are unemployed only 11.76 percent of each of them have developed their family economic solvent and started the business with low capital. Great regret is that in this sector only 5.88 percent of them find advantages while using their self- made products. Process of certifications for the Department of Environment (DoE), Fire and Civil Defense, International Standard Organization (ISO), ecolabeling, premium marketing have been added based on the comprehensive information from Key Informants Interview (KII’s) and review of different research papers, articles, and the written constitutions of the respective organizations. However, according to the experts from design, marketing and branding, environment and climate change, and entrepreneurs Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh are not fit for ISO certification, ecolabeling, and to enter into the premium market presently as it has the minimum brand value even in the national and international markets due to different limitations. In SWOT analysis, value chain development of the sector, numerical data from the field have been used with statistical analysis. Particularly, the Poter Value Chain development framework and analysis have been used to justify the present situation of the Value Chain in the Imitation Jewelry subsector of Bangladesh along with numerical data analysis to show the value chain development of the Jhenaidah cluster. To ensure the forward and backward linkage of Value chain development for adding value to the product and creation of jobs, design variation in
  • 19. Page | xviii production, automation marketing promotion, comprehensive training for skill development have been identified. Finally, Entrepreneurship in case of development, present condition of Imitation Jewelry entrepreneurship has been illustrated with data analysis with related diagrams. Though most of the information has been taken from the Key Informants Interviews and Focus Group Discussion, some information from the Household survey. As the entrepreneurship of the sector had not been started formally, it has some deep-rooted problems which have created the limitation of the sector to expand within a short time. Formal education, design, and technical education for this sector, infrastructure developments are vital examples of these problems. In some of the chapters, a summary of the study has been added for a better understanding of the findings. However, in ‘Chapter Ten’, recommendations for the required interventions for technical, environmental, physical, development, and other common services have been added based on the whole study. The research findings and recommendations regarding interventions may be applied in the Imitation Jewelry sub-sector by PKSF and its other stakeholders for the sustainable development of the subsector.
  • 20. 1 | P a g e Chapter One 1.1. Background of the Study 1.2. Introduction
  • 21. Page | 2 Chapter One 1.1. Background of the study: In Bangladesh, Imitation Jewelry is an emerging segment withstanding its huge limitations in the present global context. Historically Imitation Jewelry has a good relationship with the same of India since it had been explored from the central parts of the Indian subcontinent more than 4000 years ago (Dey, 2014). Wearing jewelry was limited to the well-off people of the society, it extended to the cultural identity of the people of the society which carried a significant meaning in cultures and religions (Pal, 2017) The Mughals of India had been started using jewelry to expose their royalty and power. They confined the use of jewelry within themselves. There are some conceptions of design experts that the Nawab and Zamindars were the innovators of using jewelry. After that, leaders of the society and their wives started the same practice. Gradually it shifted to the common people. According to the critics of the above concept, religious leaders, especially people of Hinduism had expanded the culture of wearing jewelry through their rituals. However, as a competitor in the world market for jewelry, India has a great impact and a good brand image to Bangladeshi customers. Its film Industry and the designs of two famous hubs of jewelry, Mumbai, and Gujarat are influential factors to the jewelry designers of Bangladesh. Comparatively, with better brand value, the jewelry market of Bangladesh is flooded with Indian Jewelry that is relatively cheap according to its customers and retailers. Though our importance in the Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh, unfortunately, there is not much information about this subsector separately. Still, Jewelry Sector is termed as the cottage industry of the country, whereas there is nothing about Imitation Jewelry in our national industrial policy. The major cause may be the absence of the gold policy of the country which is approved by the government on January 27, 2021, after a long time of independence from the country. From now, it may be expected that Imitation Jewelry will get priority as a flourishing sector. Imitation Jewelry Cluster at Bhakurta, Savar in Dhaka started in the 1980s. Some goldsmiths from old town Dhaka had started the business with very impoverishing infrastructures and low capital investment. Later, more people were engaged by the financial support from the local NGOs. According to the community leader, Enamul Haq, Imitation Jewelry started in Jashore and Jhenaidah for the rising gold price in 2008. Many of the goldsmiths of two districts had turned their business to the Imitation Jewelry. With their
  • 22. Page | 3 traditional practice, they started making Imitation Jewelry and selling it to their neighboring areas. Now people of the sector, artisans, workers, entrepreneurs are not self-dependent on their design, dice, raw materials, etc., which are a major concern of the sector. Their rate of production is satisfactory, quality of their goods is not parallel to their competitors. There are many environmental, technical, revenue-generating, non-revenue generating, certification issues to make a bar to produce quality goods and sell in the competitive market at home and abroad. The subsector is out of modern management of human resources, supply chain management, marketing promotion, and digital marketing. Yet the service is not customer- oriented, which causes the snail pace in its growth. Most of the Imitation Jewelry manufacturing units are in make-shift houses with very disorganized conditions of power, gas, and water supply. There is less care for health and safety issues. There is mass participation of female artisans and workers and child workers who are out of recognition of their rights. On the other hand, our Imitation Jewelry is coming in illegal ways from other countries. As no tax is imposed there, goods are cheaper in the market keeping the goods of Bangladesh out from the competition in sales. On the other hand, in the free market economy, there is Imitation Jewelry in the market from China, Taiwan, Dubai which are relatively better in quality, have good brand values with improved finishing and packaging than that Bangladeshis. So, goods are lagging due to inferior quality product features. In the home market, only in the village areas, our Imitation Jewelry is popular due to its affordable price. On contrary, in the urban areas, our Imitation Jewelry is not much popular, which in fact, shrinkages the market and makes another obstacle to its growth. Moreover, automation in the Imitation Jewelry sector is the most common phenomenon in almost all competitors of Bangladesh. Due to robust entrepreneurship and lacking required policy, it is far behind which makes it another challenge to qualify in the premium market, creating a branding image in the home and global market. This study has concentrated on addressing all the issues mentioned above by the research team. We think this sub-sector has the scope of potentiality to increase the revenues involving more skilled people and innovation of modern technology there. Almost without any care and with inferior quality, Bangladesh entered the global market in 2019. For quality good production, solving its technical, environmental, certification, and branding issues are essential. Sustainability and growth of the market in the present context, premium
  • 23. Page | 4 marketing, adding value chain, eco-labeling, and other certifications are vital issues to develop the subsector to increase foreign earnings and investment. 1.2. Introduction: Imitation jewelry is an accessory that is made using a range of artificial materials. It’s also termed Fashion Jewelry for types and their trendy uses (Sabbir, 2017). Imitation Jewelry has been used as a cut and uncut stone, plastic beads, cast iron, brass, nickel, and other attractive materials. These types of jewelry are different from place to place dependent on the availability, fashion, culture, custom even religion of the people. This is the type of jewelry that allows people to experiment with different styles and events (Fashion, 2016). Moreover, it reflects the personality of the people of a particular place. It can be artisans made or mass- produced by the manual techniques as it was started in the community though there is a huge investment in the same even in the developed countries in the world. With the emergence of new technology, the Imitation industry is one of the established industries in the world with trendy design in a healthy environment. Though there is a misconception that artificial jewelry has not the right representation of valuable jewelry made of gold and other costly metals, it has the glamorous effects of the precious metals with low budgets and wide options of choice. It also carries the latest trends without a huge expenditure. Imitation Jewelry is not an organized sector in Bangladesh like its other sector, the Readymade Garment Industry. It does not have a fixed structure that may guide any research team even with information. Still, the sector is neglected though, there are huge possibilities for employment, entrepreneurship, and foreign earnings. Presently global Imitation Jewelry market is 28.30 billion and it is increasing which is growth is 6.5% and will be around 40$ billion in 2025 and 59.7$ in 2027 (Research, 2020). With the increase in customers' preference globally for artificial jewelry (Imitation Jewelry) production will be increased rapidly creating its forward and backward linkages, job opportunities, revenue earnings. Unfortunately, the Imitation Jewelry sector of the country is not self-dependent yet, for its design, dice, skills artisan, and raw materials. It may not be a surprising issue as we were in greater India, still, the business may have the link with its origin, but a large amount of dependency on the neighboring country for a sector is not healthy for its expansion or growth.
  • 24. Page | 5 1.3. Study Area: According to the Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF) especially in its Sustainable Enterprise Program (SEP), there are about 4500 beneficiaries in Jashore, Jhenaidah, and Dhaka. They have received different pieces of training and logistic support for their growth. There are many Picture 1.1. Study Area Savar, Dhaka possibilities for their further development if the sector gets the attention of the concerned authorities. This research is a milestone for the identification of the problems and due recommendations of the sector regarding technological, environmental, marketing, value
  • 25. Page | 6 chain development, etc. However, this research will also indicate the processes of certification, ecolabeling, market linkage, and business development of this sub-sector. Picture. 1.2: Study Area Jashore and Jhenaidah
  • 26. Page | 7 1.4. Statement of the Problem: This research has been conducted based on primary data regarding the Imitation Jewelry Subsector (in Jashore, Jhenaidah, and Dhaka) for the required technical and environmental interventions to be recommended to improve the existing situation supported by the Palli Karma-Shayak Foundation (PKSF) of Bangladesh. The research team applied a mixed-method with a structured questionnaire for the quantitative method for the household survey and the qualitative part, an open-ended questionnaire for the key informants’ interview (KII), and a questionnaire for the focus group discussion (FGD). SPSS and MS Excel have in the analysis of the research. 1.5. Objectives of the study: a. To find out the environmental & technological interventions which are required to improve the overall environmental condition of the sub-sector. b. To identify Non-Revenue Generating Physical activities & Revenue generating activities that increase productivity and help to develop value chain, market linkage, and environmental conditions of MEs (Microenterprises) and buyers for getting easy access to the market. c. To find out the non-revenue generating physical activities which will help to develop the infrastructure of that business cluster and will assist the MEs and the buyers in getting easy access to the market. d. To find out the steps to be taken to enhance Eco Labeling and Access to the Premium Market. e. To identify certification related to the environment and product/service of the MEs from various agencies which will help them to get access to the premium market. f. To find out the ways of developing the brand of the product/service of the cluster. 1.6. Scope of the study: The analysis is based on discussion with sample clusters/businesses, sample buyers, relevant associations, input suppliers, support services such as designers, machine suppliers, local people, environment, and /or public health specialists, and sector experts.
  • 27. Page | 8 1.7. Justification of the Research: According to the publication of Charitra Sah, Ram (2012), Toxic Jewelry – ‘An investigation of Lead in Imitation Jewelry in Nepal’ has signified Imitation Jewelry contain toxic metals and materials which are severely dangerous for its artisans, workers, and finally its consumers. At the same time, in the manufacturing process, some technical and non-technical issues are vulnerable to the environment. Another paper, ‘Analysis of Women's Preference of limitation Jewelry: Bangladesh Perspective’ by Sabbir, Hossain & Nomi (2017) has signified the research and promotion design, branding, and marketing of Imitation Jewelry. This study has found out the reasons for environmental degradation, low income, causes of barriers to entrepreneurship, entering the premium market, certifications from home and abroad, and scope to export to the global market to increase the revenue of the subsector and to develop the value chain of the same. The outcomes of the research will help PKSF and its partner organizations (POs) to develop skills and other necessary steps to increase income- generating and related physical activities, infrastructure development for the ultimate socio- economic development of the country. 1.8. Limitations of the Research: It is already has been noticed that Jewelry is not a much-focused sector in Bangladesh. Though it has a great prospect in-home and in the global market for ever-increasing global demand. Unfortunately, there is very limited information about Imitation Jewelry in the country. Moreover, there was no research or pool of information to use as the source of secondary research. We have to depend on the research on the neighboring countries for various information on the Imitation Jewelry for its history, expansions, and others.
  • 28. Page | 9 Chapter Two Literature Review
  • 29. Page | 10 Chapter Two 2.0. Literature Review: 2.1. Introduction: Imitation Jewelry’ means ‘artificial jewelry’ that is made using a range of artificial materials. It’s also termed Fashion Jewelry for types and their trendy uses (Sabbir, 2017). Imitation Jewelry has been used as a cut and uncut stone, plastic beads, cast iron, brass, nickel, and other attractive materials. These types of jewelry are different from place to place dependent on the availability, fashion, culture, custom even religion of the people. This is the type of jewelry that allows people to experiment with different styles and events (Fashion, 2016). Moreover, it reflects the personality of the people of a particular place. It can be artisans made or mass-produced by the manual techniques as it was started in the community though there is a huge investment in the same even in the developed countries in the world. With the emergence of new technology, the Imitation industry is one of the established industries in the world with trendy design in a healthy environment. Though there is a misconception that artificial jewelry has not the right representation of valuable jewelry made of gold and other costly metals, it has the glamorous effects of the precious metals with low budgets and wide options of choice. It also carries the latest trends without a huge expenditure. Another issue is markable that, dressing and events are also important for the selection of jewelry types by its wearers. In India or the perspective of the subcontinent (India, Bangladesh) women wear heavy and gorgeous jewelry with a sari though, in the present trend, heavy and gorgeous ornaments are used with lehenga and party dresses (Farha, 2013). 2.2. Jewelry and Social Development: In the historical time, Jewelry also has been considered a visage of social status irrespective of cultures around the world (Fashion R. , 2021). The jewelry was made from all kinds of materials available to them stones, animal skins, feathers, plants, bones, shells, wood, and naturally made semi-precious materials (Sripathi, 2018). Using Jewelry was an age-old practice in India as in other parts of the world. Jewelry dates back to 4000-3000 B.C in the Indian Subcontinent (Banglapedia, 2020). In the excavation of the Indus valley site, jewelry (hairpins, earrings, necklaces, bangles, rings) of gold, silver, and bronze were unearthed. There was some bead jewelry with fashioned-out metals. The Aryans liked gold jewelry whereas, Yajurveda believed that gold had a magical power (to compel to follow up a woman her husband’s wishes). For different types of people in society, Brahminical proclaimed strict rules. Including the knowledge of gems and, looping garland and necklaces the Kamsutra
  • 30. Page | 11 (is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text on sexuality, eroticism, and emotional fulfillment in life from the Indian Subcontinent) mentions sixty-four arts using jewelry. According to Hinduism, gold and silver are considered sacred metals. Gold is the symbol of the warm sun while silver is for the cool moon (Pal, 2017). 2.3. Jewelry and the Religion: The Ramayana gives a vivid description of jewelry of the 4th -6th Century which is still in use in the subcontinent. The items of jewelry are rings, golden chains, conch shell bangles, necklaces, a diadem, and a golden crown. The Hanumanji carried Sita the golden Ring of Rama as proof that he was the messenger of Rama and carried back a hairpin of Sita made of pearl. In ancient Rome for denoting status in society, jewelry was used to wear by well-off people. Lower-class people were not allowed to wear jewelry or they were not allowed to show wearing any jewelry at cultural or religious events (Fashion, 2016). But in the Indian Subcontinent, society was not much rigid for the lower-class people about their jewelry wearing but there is hardly any evidence that the elite classes of the Indian Society had appreciated the same. It was markable, especially in Indian Jewelry (even in Imitation Jewelry) some of the types were for religious use only which was set by the culture or religion of the country. Nose pin, bangles of the seashell, are vital examples of these which were separately worn by the Hindu Royal Communities at the beginning. Ritual importance or value of the ornaments are not justified yet but these are in vogue in the society of Hinduism, though presently wearing a bangle of a seashell or white bangle is a trendy fashion by the fashion- conscious women (Farha, 2013). Rulers of India (Kings and emperors) gave much importance to Jewelry which stood as a sign of their strength treated as a form of visual communication and status symbol (Pal, 2017)., Almost all were fond of jewelry and for about 2000 years India was the sole supplier of gemstones to the world (Dey, 2014). Indian Gem mining and gem cutting sector had been developed by the Mughals. They liked to develop the art of crafting (craftsmanship) of the artisans of India for their goodwill inside and outside of the country. Their wives also were good admirers of stone-cut jewelry for their attractive presence to appeal to their husbands as they were too many in number for each emperor (Archana, 2002). There was a significant value for designing differently from the Mughals by the artisan or designers. Most probably this is the
  • 31. Page | 12 journey of appointing a personal designer or stylist in the world. Moreover, to add a notable feature for the jewelry of the subcontinent in the world (Ramamrutham, 2001). However, with the advent of the British, taste and preference for jewelry changed as gems had lost their appeals in favor of gold, which was salable always in the market when necessary. New designs of jewelry took place with a gust of cultural changes in society. Diamonds and stones started to use with sharp edges. Diamond and stone cust of Myanmar (Burma) was famous in the world, comparatively than that of central India. With the fresh demand for multifaced stones with European fashioned, previous Kundan (use gold a rounded setting), the setting was replaced by claw setting of cut stone of Europe which became popular within the short time around the world. 2.4. Jewelry and primary raw materials: Jewelry was not just limited to metals like gold, silver, and copper but also precious stones and shells, and other costly materials. Even in the modern age in some parts of India, it is believed by people that Jewelry protects people from evil and the dangers of life (Dey, 2014). Interestingly, in some cultures, ancient people were wearing bones. Some tribes around the world including India still wear animal bones, skins, leaves, flowers, fruits, and the bark of trees as ornaments and for their well-being. Jewels were never detached from human society and culture with the starting of using clothes million years ago (Archana, 2002). Western jewelry has a sharp difference from the jewelry of the Indian subcontinent perhaps the difference in culture whereas, Arabian jewelry bears mainly the culture of the dominance of the Egyptian civilization whenever, European jewelry bears the dominance of Greek (Chandra, 1979) Though Indian subcontinent is far from culture and civilization from the other parts of the world, it has played a significant role in the jewelry industry in the world by the available resources ( gems, stones), craftsmanship and differently designed (Dey, 2014). The Jewelry sector of the subcontinent always was ill-paid though the artisans’ skills were world-class and favored by the people around the world (Chandra, 1979). Unfortunately, this sector was lack of emancipation or freedom of work as the artisans could not enjoy much of their life due to meager income and lack of good acceptance in society due to racism practiced in some portions (which is still in practice) in the subcontinent. The artists were from the lower castes, lack money, and social status, most of the artists never liked to continue the same job with the next generation (Dey, 2014). But for the rulers of the country, could not fulfill their
  • 32. Page | 13 wishes. As a result, this sector was looser in the long run. On the other hand, though the history of Imitation Jewelry is ancient, the present condition of Imitation Jewelry is not much better than in ancient times for the artisans and the workers. Still, they are ill-paid, ill-clad, and ignorant of the laws of hygiene. Some artisans, from different parts of the country, started to make jewelry with cheap and available materials at the beginning of the 19th century. At that time, Indian people in all the communities used to wear jewelry on bare parts of their bodies which have recently been changed (Banglapedia, 2020). Brooches(badges), Baju, and clasps (clips) became popular among the elegant women of the society later which spread over to all class women in the society. Still, today wearing Brooches and Baju (a piece of jewelry for the arm of a woman) are in practice, especially among the well-off women in society. During the partisan time of India, gold ornaments became popular once again because of troubles raised in society. With peace and initiatives of then the politicians the trend changed. West Pakistan was famous for its stone setting but East Pakistan for its good manufacturing of Jewelry. In the 1960s, the Minute pink pearl set became fashionable in politically turbulent East Pakistan (Banglapedia, 2020). These were hand-made with crude finishing. Copper, wood, feather bamboo, flower, etc. were used by the artisans and these were only temporary and incidental in use by the common women of the country (Archana, 2002). Gujarat was the hub of Imitation Jewelry along with other big cities of India along with the development of diamond-cut ornaments for export. Two factors worked there. The price of the ornaments was cheaper but the workmanship of the jewelry was world-class (Gregorietti, Jewelry, 2021). Jewels were the power of Indian rulers with their property and prestige (Pal, 2017). Moreover, All the time India was the largest manufacturer of beads in the world. The craftsmanship of Indus valley used semi-precious materials like carnelian, agate, turquoise, faience, steatite, and feldspar, fashioning them into tubular or barrel shapes, decorating them with carvings, bands, dots, and patterns, or setting them minutely with gold. The proverb ‘old is gold’ may be true for the Indian subcontinent as available natural resources and different cultural and religious factors made the Indian subcontinent a reliable source of jewelry five thousand years back (Archana, 2002).In this perspective, it is logical to note that,
  • 33. Page | 14 the Indian subcontinent has not the magic of design differently from other parts of the world but the culturally different with the rich values of religious cultures. The emperors of Mughal, the worship of gods and goddesses by the Hindu community, and other communities of Indian Subcontinents have added the diversification of form and design of jewelry. The imitation Jewelry sub-sector of Bangladesh is not independently run by the jewelers of the country rather they are largely dependent on the same sector of India for their necessities like design, design dice, designers, raw materials, artisans, etc. Unfortunately, as the sector is not caring much, hardly there any research is available for its development. Moreover, though Bangladesh is a country with a great scope of entrepreneurship development in the world, big companies did not come forward with much investment in this sector. This sector still is a cottage industry with a great possibility of expansion. Moreover, foreign investment is possible with very little care because we can ensure the cheapest labor in the world with our RMG products. On other hand, we have started to export our Imitation Jewelry in Australia, and some European Countries even from our inorganized informal cottage industries. We think a huge world market share will be covered by Bangladesh with the due technical, environmental, and logistic support of the sector by our government or private investors in the country. Moreover, job opportunities will be opened for the people of the country for the sustainable development of the sector. 2.5. Environmental issues associated with Imitation Jewelry: Imitation jewelry needs a different method to be applied or adopt in the manufacturing process from the collection of raw materials to the shipment of the goods. Many steps in the manufacturing process are hazardous in respect of maintaining a healthy environment in the collection of raw materials to the packaging and shipment of the goods. In the collection of the raw materials, people use the recycling process of metal, plastics which emit poisonous gases and by-products, hazardous to the environment and the heath of the production people. Jewelry use Led (Pb) to be heavier as per the choice of the stakeholders (shopkeepers, end- users) which is hazardous to the human body (Shah, 2012) as well as to the environment. Moreover, there are poisonous gases like carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide, etc. On the other hand, the collection of gems, stones, ivory, shells, skin, feathers, from nature, disturbances of biodiversity, and conservation of the environment are taken place (Companion, 2019).
  • 34. Page | 15 2.6. Technological issues associated with Imitation Jewelry: Imitation Jewelry sector of the country is still a neglected sector as it is not much independent regarding the collection of raw materials, dice, and other types of machinery. Many countries of the world are much ahead regarding the creation of design, its variation, automation, quality control, and creation of skilled human resources in this sector, the Imitation jewelry sector of Bangladesh is still lagging being a crafting sector, almost by handmade stage (Mujib, 2012). Comparatively, there are many countries in the world like China, Taiwan, Singapore, Dubai, even India that have raised the quality of the products, developed world-class branding by modernizing the sector. Leading the USA, China is the global leader followed by the other countries mentioned above in the Imitation Jewelry sector. On the contrary, being jewelry is an informal sector of the country (lacking the policy of the sector and the required interventions with time), it is still unnourished. There is skilled manpower, in the Imitation Jewelry sector, based on crating, these artisans are not trained in modern designing and creation of variation, required finishing of the goods, and to increase quality production comparatively to others, to expand its market by developing the value-chain and branding (Sabbir, 2017). Whereas, India is in the world market, fighting with its competitors like China, USA, Singapore! Very recently, India has toll- free access for its jewelry product in Dubai, that has added another feather of the success of the neighboring country of Bangladesh. 2.7. Waste management-related issues: Waste management is a big concern today relating to any production and development in part of the world, though it was not much addressed in developing countries in the past. Comparatively to the developed countries still, it is much more disorganized than the least developed countries regarding many global factors. Metal pollution like Lead( Pb) , Arsenic, are handled much professionally with care but deposition of the metals is still questionable (Boma, 2022). Waste management is still related to other urban issues in many countries like Bangladesh. People yet have the mindset, waste management is the sole concern of the government of the country through its city corporation and the municipalities that propels them to manage poorly their wastes in the particular places indicated by the metropolises or places as the wish of the community people, (Ashikuzzaman, 2019). Though there is no high volume of waste in the Imitation Jewelry sector of the country, as there are some poisonous metals and acids which are hazardous to human health, the management of the wastes should be accomplished
  • 35. Page | 16 scientifically. Lacking proper knowledge, training, and overall, unconsciousness of the society people is dumping the wastes near their manufacturing units of Imitation Jewelry, Boma Jewelry of India has adopted its Environmental management system (EMS) for waste management in its interest to ensure the corporate responsibilities to the society (Boma, 2022).
  • 36. Page | 17 Chapter Three Historical perspective of the Imitation Jewelry and the subsector development in Bangladesh
  • 37. Page | 18 Chapter Three 3.0. Historical perspective of the Imitation Jewelry and the subsector development in Bangladesh 3.1. Introduction: To increase the aesthetic look and seductive charm, ornaments have been used since prehistoric times which represented the status of the people of the society with identity and belief. In some cases, marital status especially for women. In India and Bangladesh, gold jewelry was the traditional form of savings, as they are easy to convert into money when necessary. Ornaments often were associated with enchanted as well as religious possessions and worn to drive out evil or bring to the prosperity of the family. The lavish lifestyle of Mughals had created the opportunity to create new design development and design variations and their designers and artisan had to create huge jewelry designs which were a painful assignment for them (Gregorietti, Jewelry, 2021). Designers and artisans had to face punishment for design failure or inferior design. Even today, the designs of Mughals are being used as those are comparatively artistic, valued in society, and gorgeous (Chandra, 1979). On the other hand, the Indian subcontinent (mainly the central part of India) is full of natural resources like stone and gems which opened the scope of the emperors to use the resources and use the country's people to develop craftsmanship in their regimes. Thanks to the lavish lifestyle and hard work of the artisans. 3.2. Bangladesh and its Jewelry Eras: The history of the jewelry of Bangladesh may be divided into four parts .1000 BC to 1200 AD,1200AD to 1750AD, 1750AD to 1950AD, and finally 1950 to present (2020). The earliest ornaments found in Bangladesh date back to 1000BC in Wari- Bateswar, a historically renowned place northwest of Dhaka (Banglapedia, 2020). Knowledge of the jewelry of Bangladesh is derived from ancient sculptures and terracotta. Furthermore, the terracotta of Paharpur and Mahasthangarh reveal the types of jewelry worn by people of the sixth to the eighth century. From the terracotta of the tenth century, it is noted that both men and women used to wear jewelry (earrings, armlets bracelets were common for both sexes). The ornaments were leafy simple designs with round beads. Still, designs of the Mughal era are existing in the jewelry design of Bangladesh, it may the Nawabs of Bengal followed the arts and cultures of Mughal in their daily life which are being followed by the Zamindars, affluent people, and later the common people of the country. But some of the Nawabs of
  • 38. Page | 19 Bengal used mixed designs of Indian Mughals with European, though these were not in a remarkable percentage of their society and time. In present Bangladesh, jewelry designs are not much changed rather a good follower of other countries through the taste and choice of the people have been changed in many aspects of their daily life and ongoing fashion flow. Indian films and serials have a good influence on the costumes and the jewelry design of the country. Gold jewelry was popular among women always but recently after the 1990s women started choosing Imitation jewelry for their security, handy use, and small budget options. 3.3. How Business Cluster started: After the independence of Bangladesh, the Imitation jewelry shop was located in the old town of Dhaka city. Most of the jewelers were Urdu- speaking people from India and their business was limited. They used mainly copper to make imitation jewelry but their main product was shankha (conch shell -the ritual and religious importance for the Hindu community). In the 1980s, the Savar jewelry cluster has formed a village named Bhakurta, and most of the male jewelry workers used to work at Tantibazar, Dhaka. Gradually, they became entrepreneurs and started their business at Savar with very limited facilities supported by some NGOs. They faced trouble in the 1990s with the price fall of finished gold. At that time there were a limited number of designs in the ornaments and their main customers were the village women. During that time many of them have changed their business to other goods. The demand for silver jewelry increased at that time. Imitation jewelers enjoyed their time with a good profit from 1995s to the 2010s (Rahman, Md Fazlur, 2016). Once again, the silver jewelry market is in the downturn, creating trouble for the jewelers to continue their trades. Now there are more than 100 shops at Bhakurta, forming a cluster of imitation jewelry. In Jashore, the jewelry business cluster had a good connection with India as it is adjacent to West Bengal. Artisans used their privilege to cross the border, when necessary, for their legal- illegal business. Even now, most of the jewelry dice, designs, some raw materials, small machinery are imported from India. However, the availability of all the materials helped Bangladesh jewelers to be dependent on them (Indian Jewelers, designers, business persons) and to be weaker in jewelry design than Indian designers. Moreover, some people who have migrated from India with their business to Bangladesh after the 1965s and 1971s have a better business setup than those who started later. Therefore, still, the state of the cluster is an
  • 39. Page | 20 unfortunate condition regarding infrastructure, logistic support, the touch of modern production technology and entrepreneurship, and many more. 3.4. The leader/protagonists: The artists who worked in the old town of Dhaka and Jashore played a significant role to set up the imitation jewelry sector of the country through some entrepreneurs who worked with them for the development. At the time of inception, they face much trouble with the required capital, infrastructure even from skilled workers for this sector which is also demanding at present in this sector. The leading entrepreneurs managed their capital by the high rate of interest from the NGOs which was a challenge to their survival. Most of them have flourished in their business and leading in this sector of the country. 3.5. The main driving force behind the growth: 1. Affordable Price and New design: Imitation Jewelry follows the eye-catching design as it has the reflection of existing fashion flowed the media. Moreover, its price is affordable for the common people of the country. On the other hand, it has availability in remote areas of the country which makes another scope of its popularity. Moreover, as the price is not out of reach, the consumer can change an ornament instantly replaced by another. 2. High Price of Gold: The price of gold is ever increasing which is not possible to purchase by the common people. On the other hand, some imitation ornaments are like gold in appearance. Those are secured and convenient for wearing. 3. Ever-growing unsafe perception of women wearing gold ornaments in the public place: Wearing gold is not safe especially for women as cannot ensure security for all and everywhere in society. Sometimes it becomes a threat to life. 4. Growing Standard of living coupled with a huge middle-class population: Imitation jewelry is not only a favorite by the common people of the country but also by all classes of people as they meet the wide range of demands of the consumers. It ensures the class standard of living with the minimum budget by the middle-class people of the country. 5. Wearing Fashion Jewelry inspired by the celebrities: Fashion jewelry is followed by the celebrities of cinema, drama, or other shows in the media. These changes are marked by the society people and they follow their fashion, costumes, jewelry which creates a flow or trend in the market demand.
  • 40. Page | 21 6. Increased income of women increased aspiration to contemporary fashion: Income has a direct relationship with consumption. Now, many women are empowered by their income, choice of independence. They can adore or adopt fashion which was not possible even 20 yrs back in Bangladesh. Inspiration from fashion increased the demand for jewelry in the market. 7. Trend of fashionable jewelry matching with updated designed dresses: Now fashion is changing frequently. However, changing dresses means changes in the supporting accessories of mainstream fashion. Fashion change makes further demand in the market for updated fashion jewelry. 8. Brand Consciousness of the young generation: Now, fashion-conscious people are brand conscious and they flow the dresses and jewelry of the particular branded fashion house, companies, countries, or a favorite celebrity. For example, if a set of jewelry by a world-famous celebrity (say Aishayria Rai) is available at Aarong, it will be a hot cake to the consumer. There are many instances like this. 9. Quality jewelry with Fashionable design at an affordable price: Now, the quality of jewelry has increased. Unfortunately, few designs are made in developed countries. At first sight, everybody will be confused about its origin. These are comparatively cheap than the original brands. 10. Online shopping feasibility: Now, online shopping feasibility has extended the scope of a wide range of marketing as per choice by the selection of images of the relevant product with price information. There are some options like free delivery, discount, refund, etc., making the marking wide to increase the demand for imitation jewelry. 3.6. Prospect of Imitation Jewelry: Global Market for Jewelry is near about $ 300 Billion. USA and China are the leading countries followed by the EU. Among the total Jewelry Market, fashion or Imitation Jewelry is the major portion (near about $60 Billion) which a growth rate is 9 percent. Two countries China and India are increasing their investment aggressively in the Imitation Jewelry Sector. On the other hand, the demand for Imitation Jewelry is increasing in the USA, EU, and the Middle East (especially in the Arab Emirates). Interestingly, though India is capable to export Imitation Jewelry to other countries, due to the cheaper price Indian domestic market is flooded with Chinese jewelry (more than 30 percent of the total demand of the country) (Dave, 2013). From India, huge Imitation Jewelry is imported illegally by the
  • 41. Page | 22 traders of Bangladesh through border transmission which is a huge threat for the subsector of the country to be flourished. Chinese Imitation Jewelry manufacturers are tech-savvy; therefore, China has a 25 percent share in the global Imitation Market. In the export policy of Bangladesh, there is almost nothing about the export of jewelry or Imitation Jewelry which may be termed as the neglected unfortunate sector of the country., 3.7. Imitation Jewelry Market growth in Bangladesh: According to a report by the Bangladesh Imitation Jewelry Manufacturers, Exporters, and Merchant Association Present the market for Imitation Jewelry is not more than $200 Million. However, Bangladesh exported Imitation Jewelry worth $33 Million to Armenia in 2019 through the efforts of the entrepreneurs (Comtrade, 2020) . In 2020 it has raised to $107 Million. The export market growth rate is more the 224% in only a single country without government support. So, the Imitation Jewelry sector is the most promising sector of this country in the future regrettably, Bangladesh is lagging in jewelry design, manufacturing technology, certifications from green production, legal authorities, and branding to enter the premium market. 3.8. Probable Future Growth: Government ensured the national gold policy on 10th June 2021 (Ara, 2021). From now onward, importing gold bars and other necessary items for the jewelry and imitation Jewelry will be easier. Moreover, the government may allow foreign investment in the jewelry sector which will lead to a formal sector like the RMG sector of the country for the lower manufacturing advantages. 3.9: Imitation jewelry and Circular Economy: A circular economy is a systematic approach to development designed to benefit businesses, society, and the environment. In contrast take- make-waste, a circular economy is regenerated by design and aims to gradually decouple growth from the consumption of finite resources (Foundation, 2021). In the case of Imitation jewelry, from the life cycle analysis, LCA (according to the field survey) in section 6.6 we didn’t find anything to reuse and recycle from the Imitation Jewelry. The artisans informed us that they do not recycle and reuse the jewelry. The manufacturers of copper wire may collect the wastes of jewelry from the vendor and they might follow the process of recycling. For more investigation, the research team contacted the suppliers of the raw materials. They informed us that just import the wire from India and they do not know about the matter of recycling. On the contrary, recycling is an environmental issue for any
  • 42. Page | 23 manufacturing sector, especially the products are manufactured from metals and plastics, or even in the case of the global fashion industry. We have connected with some suppliers of raw materials in India. They informed us that they collect the used and old Imitation Jewelry from some vendors of waste metals and they recycle those to make raw materials for Imitation Jewelry.
  • 43. Page | 24 Chapter Four Methods and Methodology
  • 44. Page | 25 Chapter Four 4.0. Methods and Methodology: 4.1. Sampling Plan with the calculation details: As the population of the study is independently distributed in three districts (Jashore, Jhenaidah, & Dhaka) therefore, we have selected stratified sampling techniques to collect samples. The predicted sample size assuming the population is normally distributed has been calculated as below: Sample Size with a known population,4500 beneficiaries of PKSF in 3 districts = ( ) ( ) pq Z e N pqN Z 2 2 2 1 + − = {(1.96)2×0.5×0.5×4500} [{(4500−1)×(0.05)2}+{0.5×0.5×(1.96)2} = 2079 . 12 8 . 4321 =354.0167 ≈355 In the case of Jashore, 338×355 4500 =26.66 ≈ 27 For Jhenaidah, 2253×355 4500 =177. 73 ≈178 For Savar, 1902×355 4500 =150.40≈ 151 respondents are needed, but to avoid the fractions in the respondent’s number we had taken the total sample size of 357. 4.2. Household Survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted for 357 respondents as shown above in three districts within artisans, manufacturers, designers, small traders, and, entrepreneurs. 4.3. Focus Group Discussion (Jashore 1, Jhenaidah 2 & Dhaka 1) four Focused Group discussions were conducted with a prefixed questionnaire. 7-9 respondents of the population of different categories (artisans, manufacturers, entrepreneurs, workers, designers, consumers, community members) will be interviewed.
  • 45. Page | 26 4.4. For Key Informants Interview (KII) Survey: 5 experts from Branding/Marketing 5 experts from Environment/Climate Change 5 Fashion experts/Entrepreneurs 2 key persons from the product certification authority were interviewed 4.5. Data Collection: i. This research was conducted with primary data based on the household survey with a structured questionnaire in the three districts for the study of technological & environmental, revenue-generating, and non-revenue generating activities, as per the requirements of the intervention for the Imitation Jewelry sub-sector. ii. For the study of Eco-labeling, to develop the value chain, entry to the premium market, developing branding (Research Objectives from b to f from ToR), Key informants’ interviews (KII) were conducted where renowned Fashion & Jewelry Designers, Experts of Environment, Marketing & Branding Experts, Jewelry entrepreneurs, key people from different certification authorities. 4.6. Research Design: This research is descriptive and administered to find out the present status of the target population regarding their technical, environmental, revenue-generating, and non-revenue generating activities. For the research objectives (from ToR) a, b & portion of c quantitative data have been collected through a structured questionnaire survey. For the second portion of the research (for Research objectives c, d, e, and f), qualitative data based on the in-depth interview of the relevant experts will be collected. Data from the related publications from related peer-reviewed journals, articles, books, magazines, newspapers, etc have been collected. 4.7. Data Analysis: i. The different cross-tabulation analyses have been formulated using SPSS (IBM 22) and MS Excel (Windows 10), which has helped the researchers' situation analysis of the sector with its related variables from the field data by the household survey. ii. Correlation /Regression analysis has been conducted within a key variable to find out the factor’s responsible for low productivity concerning PKSF on which sector modification is
  • 46. Page | 27 needed, regarding environmental and technical issues, revenue-generating, non-revenue generating, and value chain analysis in views of making micro-entrepreneur competitive for international markets. Required revenue-generating activities that will help the sub-sector to take an important part in the national economy, non-revenues generating activities for this sub-sector for brand development, premium marketing, SWOT analysis, and entrepreneurship development. Moreover, to address the health, and safety issues to secure the future growth of the sector. Cost-benefit analysis has been conducted to justify the mark-up or profit and sustainable development for the Imitation Jewelry sub-sector. iii. Possibilities of the branding of Imitation Jewelry have been justified depending on the technical, environmental, revenue-generating, non-revenue generating analysis data from data analysis no. (i) and (ii) along with related theory, concepts, suggestions from reliable resources like books, research papers, articles, etc. iv. Based on KII (Key Informant Interviews) Descriptive analysis has been added for Ecolabeling, certification, branding, premium marking, and a portion of value chain development. This analysis will help PKSF to rethink their actions (if necessary), plan, and consequently change or modification in different sectors of their action plan. v. Based on FGD (Focus Group Discussion) various types of analysis have been added with the pie chart, bar diagram, and frequency distribution tables to represent the clear pictures of the portion of the study that will help PKSF to sort out the important factor or variable to work with or for modification.
  • 47. Page | 28 Data Analysis & Result Discussion (Chapter Five to Chapter Nine) The findings of the study have been organized according to the objectives. However, as some of the findings are interconnected, we have to addressed in sequential arrangement
  • 48. Page | 29 Chapter Five 5.0. Raw Materials and Products: 5.1. Raw Materials: The raw materials of the products are metals like copper, brass, Aluminum, plastic, wood, soil, stones, etc. Comparatively, brass is used in costly items and other materials Picture 5.1.1. Copper and Brass wire (Primary Raw Materials), Source: Field surveys like plastic and wood are used in relatively cheap items of jewelry. Cooper is the best raw material for Imitation Jewelry for its best performance in recycling. Almost 90 percent of Imitation Jewelry is made of copper. Figure 5.1: Distributions of workers' views on the problems faced during the working period. (Source: FGD)
  • 49. Page | 30 .According to the question in the focus group discussion (FGD question No. 1), the respondents explained their problems with raw materials. In each FGD there were 9 respondents according to the research design (Chapter 4). It can be concluded from figure 5. 2 that 22.2 percent of the workers/ artisans mentioned that raw materials are being expensive, another 22.2 percent of the workers mentioned that uncertainty of fair price, 16.67 percent mentioned the capital problem, 11.11 percent mentioned lack of exact raw materials, another 11.11 percent mentioned the excessive price of pine (one type of raw materials), 5.56 percent mentioned transportation problem, 5.56 percent mentioned disturbance of machines and the 5.56 Picture 5.1.2. Secondary Raw Materials, Source: Field survey
  • 50. Page | 31 percent mentioned that raw materials are good. Notably, 8.67 percent of the interviewers claim that their factories collect raw materials from the local or domestic market whereas 10.67 perce nt collect that from the international market. 80.67 percent answer that they collect raw materials both from home and abroad. Some more information about raw materials have been added in the Lifecycle Analysis (LCA) 5.2. Products: There are many jewelry products in Bangladesh which are mostly handicrafts (made manually), comparatively not good finishes. 5.2.1. Nose pin (Pic 5.2. 01): This jewelry is very common in use in the Indian Subcontinent and is available in Imitation jewelry. In Bangladesh, it’s a common and traditional item in the society of all religions. Though the first ritual was started by married women as a sign of marital status, now it is commonly used by all women. Mainly made of copper and brass. Stones are used to increasing the decoration of jewelry. 5.2.2. Finger Ring (Pic 5.2.02): Metallic rings are used in the fingers. Men and women both wear these regularly and at different events. Studs, stones, diamonds, etc. are used for the decoration and design of a ring. For wedding purposes, rings are also widely used in Bangladesh and many other countries around the world. 5.2.3. Necklace (Pic 5.2. 10): Chain around the neck with or without a locket (extra jewelry hanging from the chain. The chain may be loose fittings or as the requirement of the customers. Design differs from place to place. Generally, in Bangladeshi culture, a necklace with a fine chain is worn by women. 5.2.4. Pendant set (Pic 5.2.4): A pendant set is a set of chains with jewelry of two ears decorated with studs or stones. There is a similarity in the artwork of the earpiece with the chain and locket of the set. There are a lot of variations in the design, motifs, size, and price of the jewelry. Generally, pendants are made of metals (Fashion, 2016). 5.2.5. Bangles (Pic 5.2.16): A set of jewelry worn on the wrist of women which is seen in the culture of the subcontinent. Though it is not confined generally married women have worn the Bangles with sari (long, single attire of women common to Bangladesh, India, and Nepal) in different social and cultural traditions. Bangles may be of different designs with different
  • 51. Page | 32 motifs. The price range may depend on the workmanship and materials are used there (Banglapedia, 2020). 5.2.6. Earring (Pic 5.2.12): An ornament that attaches to the lobe of the ear by a small screw, clip, or a wire piercing the ear. Earrings also may be of different designs with different materials. Copper, brass, plastic is used as the core materials of earrings. Earthen earrings are also sold in the market to portray the fashion of the different cultural events by enthusiastic fashion-conscious women. 5.2.7. Mangal sutra (Pic 5.2. 17): Mangal sutra is a type of thread that is used wear by the people for their well-being by the good wishes of the religious priest. The design has taken from the theme of the Mangal Sutra to wear a necklace, made of studs with metal. It is a combination of different colors where black is a common one. 5.2.8. Kada (Pic 5.2. 18): A type of bracelet worn by young, fashionable people (both men/women). It may be with a gorgeous design or with simple single-colored metal. Stainless steel, copper, or brass is used for their manufacturing. 5.2.9. Bracelet (Pic 5.2.3): A piece of jewelry worn by both men and women on the wrist on hand. Generally, men wear in the left hand and men’s bracelets are simple, heavy metallic forms whereas women may wear them in both hands with fashionable design and manufacturing with studs. 5.2.10. Payal (Pic 5.2.14): Payel is a piece of jewelry to wear on the foot of a woman. It is a single piece with different shapes and designs to wear around the foot in a loose-fitting manner. It is made of metal. Generally, copper, brass, and aluminum are the raw materials of payels. 5.2.11. Hath Pan (Pic 5.2.13): The hath pan (Hand pan) is worn in the hand to show fashionable and gorgeous. Generally, young women like to wear their trendy dresses and sari. This is made of metal like copper, brass, etc. 5.2.12. Brooch (Pic 5.2.15): Brooch is a type of decorative pin, garments parts to be attached to the body. These are made of metal with trendy design and stud use. Both men and women use brooch with their different dresses
  • 52. Page | 33 5.2.13. Tikka (Pic 5.2.5): Tika is used by women with bridal wear. Nowadays, some fashionable women are using regular with other dresses and sari at different events. Stones, studs are used to making eye-catching and decorative tika. Generally, tika is a gold coating. Silver color tikas are also available. 5.2.14. Baju Band (Pic 5.2.6): This is a piece of jewelry used in the arms of women in different events, though it is randomly used with bridal wear to increase the attraction of a woman. Generally, it is made of metal decorated with stones or studs using gold or silver coating. Previously, this jewelry was worn by landlords and ladies as it was a high-ranking prestigious item. But presently, it is a common item for fashionable women even from middle to high society (Archana, 2002). 5.2.15. Hair Clip (Pic 5.2.7): Women are fond of hairpins or hair clips. Longhaired women are dependent on hairpins to manage their hair and increase their adoration. Hairpins are also in different designs and colors whereas black is common. Stone and studs often are used to increase their value. In Bangladesh, hairpins are widely used both in rural and urban areas. 5.2.16. Chain (Pic 5.2. 8): Chain is a piece of jewelry made by the shackling process which is used by men and women both though its main users are women. Depending on the design of each unit adjacent one after another, the chain may be of many types. Different metals are used in making chains. Chains are mainly in gold’s color. While colored chains are also available. Normally men’s chains are heavier than women’s ones. 5.2.17. Ear Chain (Pic 5.2. 10): Earn Chains are used by trendy women mainly in bridal events. These are jewelry with fake stones and studs. Different types of Ear chains are available according to the price. Earn chains are mainly gold coating. 5.2.18. Nose ring (Pic 5.2.11) Nose rings are very common for fashionable women in the Indian subcontinent in different subcultures. But it has also a trendy use. Generally, young women wear these their different events and get-together with trendy dresses.
  • 53. Page | 34 Pic 5.2.3: Bracelet Pic 5.2.1: Nose pin Pic 5.2.2: Finger Ring Pic 5.2.4.: Pedant Pic 5.2.5: Tikka Pic 5.2. 6:Bazu Band
  • 54. Page | 35 Pic 5.2.7: Hair Clips Pic 5.2. 8:Chains Figure 5.2.9: Ear Chain Pic 5.2.10: Necklace Picture 5.2.11.: Nose Ring Picture 5.2.12: Earring
  • 55. Page | 36 Picture Group: 5.3. Common Imitation Jewelry of Bangladesh (Source: Field Work) Picture 5.2.13. Hath Pan Picture5.2. 14:Payel Picture 5.2. 15: Brooch Picture 5.2. 16: Bangles Picture 5.2.17 Mangal Sutra Picture 5.2. 18 Kada
  • 56. Page | 37 Figure 5.2: Factory Distribution according to the Type of Products Produced (Source: House Hold survey) 5.3. Distributions of products produced by the Entrepreneurs: It is usual to conclude according to the below figure 5.1 data from the FGD and Field survey that among the products produced by the factory 19.15 percent of them are earrings, 17.02 percent of them are payel, 14.89 percent of them are chain, 4.26 percent of the rings, 4.26 percent of them are nose pin, 4.26 percent of them are bangles, 4.26 percent are baju, 4.26 percent are tikli, 4.26 percent are bracelets, 4.26 percent are anklets and 14.89 percent of their claims to produce others product. Among the other products majority produced ‘Shitahar’, ‘Ball’, ‘Bell’, ‘Mila’, ‘Lamb’, ‘Chik’, ‘Tayra’, ‘Kolet,’ etc. But these are not very common in use. Some of the elderly women are fond of these according to the artisans. Item wise artisans are selected in the production line. For example, if an artisan is skilled in designing and manufacturing chains, s/he will do the same for more productivity and skilled production. On the contrary , there are some artisans who are serving as aprentices , do all sorts of works with the senior artisans, though percentage of this type of apprentices is not
  • 57. Page | 38 much in altogether. And apprentices are mainly male , age range 8-12 years and unfortunately most of them are drop out students from mainstream of education. 5.4. Artisans: Artisans are the people who are directly involved in the sector for the manufacturing of jewelry. They are key people of the sector to whom quality production, designing of the jewelry, sustainability of the subsector, income-generating issues are dependent. Based on the household survey and the Focus group discussion following information have summarized with statistical tools: 5.4.1: Problems faced by the artisans in work: A query on the problems faced by the workers was asked in the focus group discussion (FGD), subsequently, all of the workers agreed without any hesitations that they are facing various kinds of problems working in the factories. And these problems are much common among the artisans as they are doing relentless production basis work (more production, more income, and no work, no pay). The types of problems artisans mention during the working period are listed below with corresponding percentages through Pie charts. 5.4.2. Problems for Capital Investment: Again, a query on the capital problem was asked among entrepreneurs who participated in focus group discussions. 16.67 percent of the workers agreed about the capital problem faced by the factories they worked for. This is also a concerning issue for this jewelry sub-sector. According to the entrepreneurs, the partner NGOs of PKSF and other NGOs, help them with the capital for their business but their interest rate is much higher than SMEs (Small to Medium-sized Enterprises) loans. However, hardly they get SME loans as there are many terms and conditions for the entrepreneurs. On the other hand, they think the process is not easier for them to get a loan from SMEs and other government organizations. Many entrepreneurs had started their business even only Tk 10000 loan from an NGO in 2005, as his information, his present assets are more than 4 lacs in the jewelry unit. Moreover, he had purchased land whose present value is more than 1 lac. Interestingly, the entrepreneurs like to take personal loans from the other persons on high interest. The rate of the interest is 10-25 percent in a month. Generally the rate increases in the good season of the business before different festivals and during the time of winter. Otherwise, rate of the products is with a tendency of fluctuation.
  • 58. Page | 39 5.4.3: Physical Illness of the artisans: It is evident from figure 5.3 which has been generated with the data from the Household Survey ( HHS) that 24 percent of the workers suffered from Figure 5.3: Distributions of physical illness suffered by artisans (Source: House h. survey) Lumbago, 20 percent of the workers suffered from Dim-sighted and another 20 percent suffered from eye-watering, 20 percent of them suffered from severe headache, 12 percent of them suffered from shoulder ache and the last 4 percent of them reported that they are suffering from hand cramp (hand pain). According to the Focus Group Discussions, it is observed that all of the workers/artisans are agreed of suffering from several kinds of illness. The types of illness suffered by the workers or artisans are listed below through pie charts. 5.4.4: Logistic Supports: It is usual to conclude from figure 5.4 that 42.11 percent of the workers mentioned the necessity of a table, chair, 31.58 percent mentioned the necessity of safety glass, gloves, 15.79 percent of the workers mentioned the necessity of a convenient working environment, and the final 10.53 percent of the workers mentioned on the necessity of adequate lights. But based on our open eye observation we have found , most of the workers were working sitting on the floor or very impoverish temporary seats . They seemed that they were happy with this as they can gossip while working sitting in a round arrangement . Mainly the female workers sat flat in the ground in the production units.
  • 59. Page | 40 Figure 5. 4: Distributions of worker views on the equipment needed for the fulfillment of a safe workplace (Source: Filed Visit) 5.4.5: Self-dependency in the improvement of Jewelry design: Most entrepreneurs raised a common issue regarding raw materials. We noticed none of the respondents was happy with the availability of raw materials and their prices. It is evident from figure 5.5 that has been generated with the information from the House Hold Survey ( HHS) that 31.25 percent of the workers think that the reduction of the price of raw materials can increase the self-dependency in this sub-sector, 18.75 percent of the workers think the fair price of products can improve the self-dependency, 12.50 percent mentioned about adequate training, 12.50 percent mentioned about the low interested loan, 12.50 percent said they think that higher market demand can improve self-dependency, 6.25 percent urges for the introduction of new design and another 6.25 percent urges for the adequate testing lab.
  • 60. Page | 41 Figure 5.5: Distribution according to their thinking of self-dependency in the improvement of Jewelry design (Source: House Hold Survey) Figure 5.6: Workers distribution according to their practical statement on how this sector can be developed
  • 61. Page | 42 5.4.6: Development of the Imitation sector: Suggestions of the artisans were sought from the artisans in FGD asking how the Imitation Jewelry sector can be developed? their response can be concluded from figure 5.6 that 22.22 percent of the workers think that the development in this sub-sector can be done by reducing the price of raw materials, 16.67 percent of them thinks the trainer is needed, 16.67 percent of them thinks arrangement for the capital can develop this sub-sector, another 16.67 percent thinks that availability of local raw materials can be a key factor for developing this sub-sector, 11.11 percent of them urges for machines, another 11.11 percent urged for government involvement and the last 5.56 percent urges for up-to-date design. It is to be noted that all of the workers/ artisans who attended focus group discussions were agreed that the imitation jewelry sub-sector can be more productive as well as more profitable if training and modernization can introduce in this sub-sector. They also urge the introduction of up-to-date design in this sub-sector. 5.4.7: Economic Solvency: It can be concluded from figure 5.6 that about 29.41% of the workers involving this jewelry sub-sector became self-reliant, 23.53% of them achieved economic solvency, 17.65% of the unemployed found a job and became employed, 11.76% of them developed their family conditions as well as economic conditions, 11.76% of them started their business in low capital, 5.88% of them find advantages while using the self-made product. Figure 5.7: Distribution of workers according to the advantages they received from imitation jewelry sub-sector
  • 62. Page | 43 Figure 5.8: Distribution of workers view according to the disadvantages they received from imitation jewelry sub-sector 5.4.8. Advantages and disadvantages: It is evident from figure 5.7 that 47.06 percent of the workers/ artisan feels the main disadvantage of this sub-sector is the increasing price of raw materials, 17.65 percent of the workers stated that the required salary is very low in this sub- sector, another 17.65 percent of them feels the lacking of modern machines, 11.76 percent of them stated that trainers are inadequate and 5.88 percent of the workers think that health problem is the major disadvantages in this imitation jewelry sub-sector 5.4.9. Empowerment of women and economic solvency: It is evident from figure 5.8 that 66.67 percent of the workers think that the key opportunity in this sub-sector is the earnings of additional income for the family by rural women, 22.22 percent of them thinks that it is an opportunity for new business investment and 11.11 percent of them earned economic solvency by involving in this sub-sector.
  • 63. Page | 44 Figure 5.9: Distribution of workers view according to the key opportunities observed in imitation jewelry sub-sector Figure 5.10: Distribution of workers view on the principal risk for the development of imitation jewelry sub-sector
  • 64. Page | 45 Table 5.1: Overall count on Factory weekly off day, daily work hours & daily break hour Weekly Off Day Daily Break Hour Total .00 .50 1.00 1.50 2.00 3.00 No Holiday Daily Work Hours 3.00 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 4.00 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5.00 6 17 3 0 3 0 26 6.00 4 4 1 0 3 0 12 7.00 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 8.00 1 2 37 0 26 0 66 9.00 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 10.00 0 0 17 0 147 0 154 11.00 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 12.00 0 0 2 0 18 0 20 Total 13 23 63 0 200 1 300 One Day Daily Work Hour 8.00 8 0 15 1 2 0 26 10.00 1 0 2 2 21 0 26 12.00 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 Total 9 0 17 3 28 0 57 Total Daily Work Hour 3.00 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 4.00 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5.00 6 14 3 0 3 0 26 6.00 4 4 1 0 3 0 12 7.00 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 8.00 4 2 42 1 24 0 73 9.00 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 10.00 1 0 18 1 138 0 158 11.00 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 12.00 0 0 2 0 20 0 22 Total 17 20 69 2 191 1 300
  • 65. Page | 46 5.4.10. Weekly Off day /Holiday: It is evident from table 3.1 that among the interviewers 300 of them have no holiday and 57 of them experienced one day holiday. The majority of the interviewers experienced daily work hours of 3 to 12 hours and a few of them who experienced one day holiday have daily work hours of 8 to 12 hours. Again, these workers experienced different hours of break time which is varied from 0 hours to 3 hours. Among the majority of them experienced 2 hours of break time. 5.4.11. Health Hazards and Risks: It can be concluded from figure 5.9 that 70% of the workers think that there remains health risk when working in this jewelry sub-sector and 30% of them think that the major risk of this sub-sector is environmental pollution. Figure 5.11: Distributions of Factory according to their Educational Qualification ( Source: Household Survey) 5.4.12: Education of the Artisans: The level of education of the artisans has been shown in the chart above. 25.00 percent of them are illiterate which is unfortunate for the sector. Only 33.67 percent have completed their primary education, secondary education by 35.00 percent, 3.33
  • 66. Page | 47 percent higher secondary education only around 3.00 percent have completed their higher education. So, from the above information, it may be concluded that the scenario of the sector is not healthy to survive and for sustainable growth in present conditions. Table 5.2: Total count of Entrepreneur gender, number & authorized person in the family of the entrepreneurs (Source: House Hold Survey) 5.5. Conditions of the Manufacturing units: 5.5.1. Factories and Production Process: It is noted from the House Hold Survey y that 32.33 percent of workers or artisans manufacture their products through the manual process or simply with the help of their small tools. 67.37 percent of the produce their products by both Gender of Entrepreneur Authorized Person in a Family of Entrepreneurs Total Male Female Male Number of Entrepreneur 1.00 111 0 111 2.00 8 0 8 3.00 2 0 2 Total 121 0 121 Female Number of Entrepreneur 1.00 205 19 224 2.00 9 0 9 4.00 3 0 3 Total 217 19 236 Total Number of Entrepreneur 1.00 316 19 335 2.00 17 0 17 3.00 2 0 2 4.00 3 0 3 Total 338 19 357
  • 67. Page | 48 using hands and machines. Unfortunately, there is no full automation technology anywhere in the subsector which is an unacceptable point. On the other hand, in the production technology only 21 entrepreneurs take safety measures using acids, 32 of them use acid without maintaining any kind of safety measures. Interestingly Figure 5.12. Factory Distribution according to their Production Process. Figure 5.13: Factory Distribution according to their Sources of Raw Materials (Source: Household Survey).
  • 68. Page | 49 304 of the total respondents informed that they don’t use acid in the production process (which is somewhat impossible according to the necessity of the production process of jewelry) Table 5.3: Overall count on Factory Uses of Acid during Production when Using Acid & Safety Rules taken (Source: Household Survey) Figure 5..14: Frequency Distribution of the Respondent Training Issues (source: Household Survey) 5.5.2: Training: Most of the workers or artisans have taken their training from home, from their predecessors, or senior members of the family (Figure 5.14). Very few of them have been taken Items Safety Rules When Using Acid Total Yes No Uses of Acid during Production Yes 21 32 53 No 0 304 304 Total 21 336 357