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FIBRE CHEMISTRY
Ms. Mohaddesa Dehghani
Assistant Professor
Amity School of Fashion Design and Technology
Amity University Mumbai
ELEMENT, MOLECULE & COMPOUN
ELEMENT: An element is a simplest pure substance, it cannot
be broken down further. The actual physical particles of
elements are atoms or molecules eg. Na, H.
MOLECULE: Is the smallest particle of a pure substance
(element) that can exist independently and retain all the
properties of the substance. Eg. O2, H2
COMPOUND: When different elements combine in a definite
mass, a compound is formed. NaCl, H2O
MONOMER & POLYMERMONOMER
Is a single unit
of a polymer.
Basic unit of an
atom or a small
macromolecule
that combine
together to form
a polymer. POLYMER
Is a long chain
molecule or a
macromolecule
made up of many
units of monomers.
It is technically a
polymolecule i.e.
any molecule
composed of 1 or
more monomer or a
single molecule.
POLYMERIZATION
 The formation of
polymers from monomers
can be done by joining
them together by
covalent bonds. This
process is known as
polymerization.
BONDING
 A chemical bond is a lasting attraction
between atoms that enables the formation
of chemical compounds.
 The bond may result from the electrostatic
force of attraction between atoms with
opposite charges, or through the sharing of
electrons as in the covalent bonds.
POLARITY
IONIC COMPOUNDS
 In chemistry, an ionic compound is a
chemical compound comprising ions held
together by electrostatic forces termed
ionic bonding.
 The compound is neutral overall, but
consists of positively charged ions called
cations and negatively charged ions
called anions.
IONIC COMPOUNDS
 Ionic compounds containing hydrogen
ions (H+) are classified as acids, and
those containing basic ions hydroxide
(OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as
bases.
 Ionic compounds without these ions
are also known as salts and can be
formed by acid–base reactions.
Covalent bonds
 A covalent bond, also called a
molecular bond, is a chemical bond
that involves the sharing of electron
pairs between atoms.
 These electron pairs are known as
shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the
stable balance of attractive and
repulsive forces between atoms, when
they share electrons, is known as
covalent bonding.
BENZENE RING
 Benzene is an important organic
chemical compound with the chemical
formula C6H6.
 The benzene molecule is composed of
6 carbon atoms joined in a ring with 1
hydrogen atom attached to each.
 Because it contains only carbon and
hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed
as a hydrocarbon.
3 TYPES OF BENZENE RINGS
VANDER WAAL FORCES
 Formed between atoms along the length of
adjacent polymer when these are less than
0.3Nm apart but no closer than 0.2Nm.
 They are the only inter-polymer forces of
attraction existing in the polymer system.
 They are considered to be predominant
inter-polymer force of attraction in the
polymer system of acryllic, mod acryllic and
polyester fibre.
MOLECULAR ORIENTATION
 Molecular orientation is of 2 types:
Crystalline
Amorphous
CRYSTALLINITY
 Crystallinity refers to the degree of
structural order in a fibre/any solid.
 In a fibre, the atoms or molecules are
arranged in a regular, periodic manner.
 The degree of crystallinity has a big
influence on hardness, density,
transparency and diffusion of the fibre.
AMORPHOUS REGIONS
 The term amorphous means to have
no defined shape, or an easily altered
shape, like a liquid or a rubber.
DIFFERENCE
 The amorphous nature of polymers is
analogous to a plateful of spaghetti ---
loose and randomly coiled.
 While the crystalline state is more like
the uncooked spaghetti in the box ---
the chains are all tightly bundled and
ordered in the same direction.
WATER AFFINITY
 Hydrophilic means having a tendency to mix
with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
 Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to
attract and hold water molecules from the
surrounding environment.
 Hygroscopic substances include fibers
such as cotton and rayon.
 Hydrophobic means ending to repel or fail to
mix with water. Eg. most synthetic fiber
such as polyester and polypropylene
SOLUBILITY
 The solubility of a fibre in a particular
chemical agent is a means of
identification.
 The fibre can be placed in a chemical at
a particular temperature and the
solubility will confirm the type of fibre.
FIBRE NAME – CHEMICAL NAME
 Cotton – 75% Sulphuric Acid
 Wool & Silk – 5% Sodium
Hydrochlorite,5% NaOH at boil
OXIDATION & REDUCTION
 Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an
increase in oxidation state by a molecule,
atom, or ion. Presence of Oxygen atom.
 Reduction is the gain of electrons or a
decrease in oxidation state by a molecule,
atom, or ion. Presence of a Hydrogen atom.
STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF COTTON
Comfortable Soft hand.
Good absorbency.
Color retention.
Prints well.
Machine-washable.
Dry-cleanable.
Good strength.
Drapes well.
STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF WOOL
Resists wrinkles: wool springs back quickly
Resists soiling
Is durable
Repels moisture
Retains shape: resilient fibers return to size
Resists flames: fibers will not support combustion
Is comfortable in all seasons: keeps layer of air next to skin
STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF
SILKSilk has a smooth, soft texture that
is not slippery, unlike many synthetic
fibers.
Silk is one of the strongest natural
fibers.
It has a good moisture regain .
Its elasticity is moderate to poor:
if elongated even a small amount, it
remains stretched.
STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF
NYLON
Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very
lustrous, semilustrous or dull.
Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts,
tire cords, ballistic cloth and other uses.
High elongation.
Excellent abrasion resistance.
Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)
Paved the way for easy-care garments.
STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF
POLYESTER
Polyester is very durable, resistant to most chemicals,
stretching and shrinking, wrinkle resistant, mildew and
abrasion resistant.
Polyester is hydrophobic in nature and ensures quick
drying.
Fibre chemistry

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Fibre chemistry

  • 1. FIBRE CHEMISTRY Ms. Mohaddesa Dehghani Assistant Professor Amity School of Fashion Design and Technology Amity University Mumbai
  • 2. ELEMENT, MOLECULE & COMPOUN ELEMENT: An element is a simplest pure substance, it cannot be broken down further. The actual physical particles of elements are atoms or molecules eg. Na, H. MOLECULE: Is the smallest particle of a pure substance (element) that can exist independently and retain all the properties of the substance. Eg. O2, H2 COMPOUND: When different elements combine in a definite mass, a compound is formed. NaCl, H2O
  • 3. MONOMER & POLYMERMONOMER Is a single unit of a polymer. Basic unit of an atom or a small macromolecule that combine together to form a polymer. POLYMER Is a long chain molecule or a macromolecule made up of many units of monomers. It is technically a polymolecule i.e. any molecule composed of 1 or more monomer or a single molecule.
  • 4.
  • 5. POLYMERIZATION  The formation of polymers from monomers can be done by joining them together by covalent bonds. This process is known as polymerization.
  • 6. BONDING  A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds.  The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. IONIC COMPOUNDS  In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound comprising ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.  The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions.
  • 11. IONIC COMPOUNDS  Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as bases.  Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions.
  • 12. Covalent bonds  A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.  These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding.
  • 13. BENZENE RING  Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.  The benzene molecule is composed of 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each.  Because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.
  • 14. 3 TYPES OF BENZENE RINGS
  • 15. VANDER WAAL FORCES  Formed between atoms along the length of adjacent polymer when these are less than 0.3Nm apart but no closer than 0.2Nm.  They are the only inter-polymer forces of attraction existing in the polymer system.  They are considered to be predominant inter-polymer force of attraction in the polymer system of acryllic, mod acryllic and polyester fibre.
  • 16. MOLECULAR ORIENTATION  Molecular orientation is of 2 types: Crystalline Amorphous
  • 17. CRYSTALLINITY  Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a fibre/any solid.  In a fibre, the atoms or molecules are arranged in a regular, periodic manner.  The degree of crystallinity has a big influence on hardness, density, transparency and diffusion of the fibre.
  • 18. AMORPHOUS REGIONS  The term amorphous means to have no defined shape, or an easily altered shape, like a liquid or a rubber.
  • 19. DIFFERENCE  The amorphous nature of polymers is analogous to a plateful of spaghetti --- loose and randomly coiled.  While the crystalline state is more like the uncooked spaghetti in the box --- the chains are all tightly bundled and ordered in the same direction.
  • 20. WATER AFFINITY  Hydrophilic means having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.  Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract and hold water molecules from the surrounding environment.  Hygroscopic substances include fibers such as cotton and rayon.  Hydrophobic means ending to repel or fail to mix with water. Eg. most synthetic fiber such as polyester and polypropylene
  • 21. SOLUBILITY  The solubility of a fibre in a particular chemical agent is a means of identification.  The fibre can be placed in a chemical at a particular temperature and the solubility will confirm the type of fibre. FIBRE NAME – CHEMICAL NAME  Cotton – 75% Sulphuric Acid  Wool & Silk – 5% Sodium Hydrochlorite,5% NaOH at boil
  • 22. OXIDATION & REDUCTION  Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. Presence of Oxygen atom.  Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. Presence of a Hydrogen atom.
  • 23.
  • 24. STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF COTTON Comfortable Soft hand. Good absorbency. Color retention. Prints well. Machine-washable. Dry-cleanable. Good strength. Drapes well.
  • 25. STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF WOOL Resists wrinkles: wool springs back quickly Resists soiling Is durable Repels moisture Retains shape: resilient fibers return to size Resists flames: fibers will not support combustion Is comfortable in all seasons: keeps layer of air next to skin
  • 26. STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF SILKSilk has a smooth, soft texture that is not slippery, unlike many synthetic fibers. Silk is one of the strongest natural fibers. It has a good moisture regain . Its elasticity is moderate to poor: if elongated even a small amount, it remains stretched.
  • 27. STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF NYLON Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very lustrous, semilustrous or dull. Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts, tire cords, ballistic cloth and other uses. High elongation. Excellent abrasion resistance. Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set) Paved the way for easy-care garments.
  • 28. STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER Polyester is very durable, resistant to most chemicals, stretching and shrinking, wrinkle resistant, mildew and abrasion resistant. Polyester is hydrophobic in nature and ensures quick drying.