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1
SECURITY IMPROVEMENT IN
FREQUENCY HOPPED SPREAD SIGNAL
Project Report submitted by
Ch.Koteswara Rao – 11BEC1015
M.Vidyanath – 11bec1035
K.Harshavardhan Reddy – 11bec1133
V.Bharadwaj – 11BEC1133
in the
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of course of
Digital Communication (ECE305)
In
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
(ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING)
By:
Under the esteemed guidance of
Prof.N.Chandrasekar
2
SL NO CONTENTS Pg NO.
1 ABSTRACT 3
2 THEORY 4
3 BLOCK DIAGRAM 4
4 EXPLANATION 5
5 REALISATION IN MATLAB 5
6 USES 5
7 MATLAB CODE 6
8 OUTPUTS 9
9 RESULT AND CONCLUSION 12
3
ABSTRACT
This project speaks more about FHSS (Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum) and
one method suggested for Security improvement in it. In this report you can find an
in depth information on FHSS from the basic level to the aim of the project. A
detailed explanation is given about the Modulation, Frequency Hopping, PN-
sequence generation, Frequency table w.r.t PN sequence which form crucial
components in generation of the FH-spread signal. And finally demodulation is
done and the obtained waveforms are analyzed. The whole process is simulated in
the well-known simulator MATLAB. Working code is disclosed in the report for
the viewers. One method is suggested to improve the security in the FHSS.
4
THEORY
DEFINITION:
It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission, often to
minimize the effectiveness of "electronic warfare" - that is, the unauthorized
interception or jamming of telecommunications.
 Generate a bit pattern.
 The original message modulates the carrier, thus generating a narrow band
signal.
 The frequency of the carrier is periodically modified (hopped) following a
specific spreading code.
 In FHSS systems, the spreading code is a list of frequencies to be used for
the carrier signal.
 The amount of time spent on each hop is known as dwell time.
 Redundancy is achieved in FHSS systems by the possibility to execute re-
transmissions on frequencies (hops) not affected by noise.
FHSS Transmitter Block Diagram:-
5
FHSS Receiver Block Diagram:-
Implemented Block Diagram Of FHSS Transmitter:-
6
EXPLANATION:
The above block diagram is the transmitter block that is used in FHSS. The
improvised block diagram is given above where all the odd bits use the PN
sequence and the even bits use the encrypted PN-sequence (GRAY CODED) for
frequency synthesizing. This makes the jammer harder to find the PN –sequence
because the repetition occurs after several iterations than the un improvised one.
REALISATION IN MATLAB:
With the help of the block diagram we are able to carry out step by step process.
Firstly a bit sequence is generated, and then follows the modulation of the signal
(BPSK). Then PN-sequence is generated and the even bits are replaced with its
gray code and thus now we have an Improvised PN-sequence. This follows the
frequency synthesizing with the help of Improvised PN-sequence. Thus finally
multiply the frequencies with the modulated signal to give out the FH-spread
signal. Using the grid, plot commands we managed to get the plot between
frequencies and PN-sequence.
USES :
 Important form of encoding for wireless comm.
 Transmit either analog or digital data
 Analog signal (transmission)
 Developed initially for military and intelligence requirements
 Spread data over wider bandwidth
 Makes jamming and interception harder
7
MATLAB CODE:
clc
clear all
close all
even=1;
odd=1;
% generate pn sequence
cp=randint(1,20,[1 7]);
for k=1:20
if(mod(k,2))
dualcode(1,k)=cp(1,k);
evenbits(1,even)=cp(1,k);
even=even+1;
else
oddbits(1,odd)=cp(1,k);
odd=odd+1;
const= bin2gray(cp(1,k),'psk',16);
dualcode(1,k)=const;
end
end
s=round(rand(1,20));
signal=[];
carrier=[];
t=[0:2*pi/119:2*pi];
for k=1:20
if s(1,k)==0
8
sig=-ones(1,120);
else
sig=ones(1,120);
end
c=cos(t);
carrier=[carrier c];
signal=[signal sig];
end
subplot(4,1,1);
plot(signal);
axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]);
title('bfit Original Bit Sequence');
bpsk_sig=signal.*carrier;
subplot(4,1,2);
plot(bpsk_sig)
axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]);
title('bfit BPSK Modulated Signal');
t0=[0:2*pi/4:2*pi];
t1=[0:2*pi/9:2*pi];
t2=[0:2*pi/19:2*pi];
t3=[0:2*pi/29:2*pi];
t4=[0:2*pi/39:2*pi];
t5=[0:2*pi/59:2*pi];
t6=[0:2*pi/119:2*pi];
c0=cos(t0);
c0=[c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0
c0 c0 c0 c0];
c1=cos(t1);
c1=[c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1];
c2=cos(t2);
c2=[c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2];
c3=cos(t3);
c3=[c3 c3 c3 c3];
c4=cos(t4);
c4=[c4 c4 c4];
c5=cos(t5);
c5=[c5 c5];
c6=cos(t6);
% Random frequency hopps to form a spread signal
9
spread_signal=[];
for n=1:20
c=dualcode(1,n);
switch(c)
case(1)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c0];
case(2)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c1];
case(3)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c2];
case(4)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c3];
case(5)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c4];
case(6)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c5];
case(7)
spread_signal=[spread_signal c6];
end
end
subplot(4,1,3)
plot([1:2400],spread_signal);
axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]);
title('bfit Spread Signal with 7 frequencies');
% Spreading BPSK Signal into wider band with total of 12
frequencies
freq_hopped_sig=bpsk_sig.*spread_signal;
subplot(4,1,4)
plot([1:2400],freq_hopped_sig);
axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]);
title('bfit Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Signal');
% Expressing the FFTs
rec=freq_hopped_sig.*spread_signal;
lpf=fdesign.lowpass('n,fc',50,0.0168,119);
10
d=design(lpf);
j=filter(d,rec);
figure,plot(j);
figure,subplot(2,1,1)
plot([1:2400],freq_hopped_sig);
axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]);
title('bfit Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum signal and its
FFT');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot([1:2400],abs(fft(freq_hopped_sig)));
cc=zeros(size(dualcode));
cc=dualcode;
figure
fit=[];
for k=1:20
sig=(cc(1,k)-0.5)*ones(1,10);
fit=[fit sig] ;
end
plot(fit,'oblack','linewidth',8);
axis([-10 200 0 8]);
grid on
hold on
for k=10:20:190
stem(k,9,'--','black')
hold on end
11
OUTPUTS
BIT SEQUENCE:
BPSK MODULATED SIGNAL:
BPSK MODULATED SIGNAL :
12
SPREAD SIGNAL WITH SEVEN FREQUENCIES:
FH-SPREAD SIGNAL:
13
FFT OF FH-SPREAD SIGNAL:
DEMODULATED WAVE:
14
FREQUENCY vs PN-SEQUENCE:
RESULT and CONCLUSION:
Thus we have tried hard to reach the aim in getting all the plots as
desired and the results match with the theoretical background. FHSS is
implemented in MATLAB and its fft plot gave us a clear insight on it
regarding the spreading of the signal over the entire spectrum. And the
improvised PN sequence is implemented to improve the security in the
FHSS transmitted signals and is achieved .frequency vs PN-sequence
plot gave a clear picture on how the frequency is allotted for the given
PN sequence.

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fhss

  • 1. 1 SECURITY IMPROVEMENT IN FREQUENCY HOPPED SPREAD SIGNAL Project Report submitted by Ch.Koteswara Rao – 11BEC1015 M.Vidyanath – 11bec1035 K.Harshavardhan Reddy – 11bec1133 V.Bharadwaj – 11BEC1133 in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of course of Digital Communication (ECE305) In BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING) By: Under the esteemed guidance of Prof.N.Chandrasekar
  • 2. 2 SL NO CONTENTS Pg NO. 1 ABSTRACT 3 2 THEORY 4 3 BLOCK DIAGRAM 4 4 EXPLANATION 5 5 REALISATION IN MATLAB 5 6 USES 5 7 MATLAB CODE 6 8 OUTPUTS 9 9 RESULT AND CONCLUSION 12
  • 3. 3 ABSTRACT This project speaks more about FHSS (Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum) and one method suggested for Security improvement in it. In this report you can find an in depth information on FHSS from the basic level to the aim of the project. A detailed explanation is given about the Modulation, Frequency Hopping, PN- sequence generation, Frequency table w.r.t PN sequence which form crucial components in generation of the FH-spread signal. And finally demodulation is done and the obtained waveforms are analyzed. The whole process is simulated in the well-known simulator MATLAB. Working code is disclosed in the report for the viewers. One method is suggested to improve the security in the FHSS.
  • 4. 4 THEORY DEFINITION: It is the repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission, often to minimize the effectiveness of "electronic warfare" - that is, the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications.  Generate a bit pattern.  The original message modulates the carrier, thus generating a narrow band signal.  The frequency of the carrier is periodically modified (hopped) following a specific spreading code.  In FHSS systems, the spreading code is a list of frequencies to be used for the carrier signal.  The amount of time spent on each hop is known as dwell time.  Redundancy is achieved in FHSS systems by the possibility to execute re- transmissions on frequencies (hops) not affected by noise. FHSS Transmitter Block Diagram:-
  • 5. 5 FHSS Receiver Block Diagram:- Implemented Block Diagram Of FHSS Transmitter:-
  • 6. 6 EXPLANATION: The above block diagram is the transmitter block that is used in FHSS. The improvised block diagram is given above where all the odd bits use the PN sequence and the even bits use the encrypted PN-sequence (GRAY CODED) for frequency synthesizing. This makes the jammer harder to find the PN –sequence because the repetition occurs after several iterations than the un improvised one. REALISATION IN MATLAB: With the help of the block diagram we are able to carry out step by step process. Firstly a bit sequence is generated, and then follows the modulation of the signal (BPSK). Then PN-sequence is generated and the even bits are replaced with its gray code and thus now we have an Improvised PN-sequence. This follows the frequency synthesizing with the help of Improvised PN-sequence. Thus finally multiply the frequencies with the modulated signal to give out the FH-spread signal. Using the grid, plot commands we managed to get the plot between frequencies and PN-sequence. USES :  Important form of encoding for wireless comm.  Transmit either analog or digital data  Analog signal (transmission)  Developed initially for military and intelligence requirements  Spread data over wider bandwidth  Makes jamming and interception harder
  • 7. 7 MATLAB CODE: clc clear all close all even=1; odd=1; % generate pn sequence cp=randint(1,20,[1 7]); for k=1:20 if(mod(k,2)) dualcode(1,k)=cp(1,k); evenbits(1,even)=cp(1,k); even=even+1; else oddbits(1,odd)=cp(1,k); odd=odd+1; const= bin2gray(cp(1,k),'psk',16); dualcode(1,k)=const; end end s=round(rand(1,20)); signal=[]; carrier=[]; t=[0:2*pi/119:2*pi]; for k=1:20 if s(1,k)==0
  • 8. 8 sig=-ones(1,120); else sig=ones(1,120); end c=cos(t); carrier=[carrier c]; signal=[signal sig]; end subplot(4,1,1); plot(signal); axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]); title('bfit Original Bit Sequence'); bpsk_sig=signal.*carrier; subplot(4,1,2); plot(bpsk_sig) axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]); title('bfit BPSK Modulated Signal'); t0=[0:2*pi/4:2*pi]; t1=[0:2*pi/9:2*pi]; t2=[0:2*pi/19:2*pi]; t3=[0:2*pi/29:2*pi]; t4=[0:2*pi/39:2*pi]; t5=[0:2*pi/59:2*pi]; t6=[0:2*pi/119:2*pi]; c0=cos(t0); c0=[c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0]; c1=cos(t1); c1=[c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1 c1]; c2=cos(t2); c2=[c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2]; c3=cos(t3); c3=[c3 c3 c3 c3]; c4=cos(t4); c4=[c4 c4 c4]; c5=cos(t5); c5=[c5 c5]; c6=cos(t6); % Random frequency hopps to form a spread signal
  • 9. 9 spread_signal=[]; for n=1:20 c=dualcode(1,n); switch(c) case(1) spread_signal=[spread_signal c0]; case(2) spread_signal=[spread_signal c1]; case(3) spread_signal=[spread_signal c2]; case(4) spread_signal=[spread_signal c3]; case(5) spread_signal=[spread_signal c4]; case(6) spread_signal=[spread_signal c5]; case(7) spread_signal=[spread_signal c6]; end end subplot(4,1,3) plot([1:2400],spread_signal); axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]); title('bfit Spread Signal with 7 frequencies'); % Spreading BPSK Signal into wider band with total of 12 frequencies freq_hopped_sig=bpsk_sig.*spread_signal; subplot(4,1,4) plot([1:2400],freq_hopped_sig); axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]); title('bfit Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum Signal'); % Expressing the FFTs rec=freq_hopped_sig.*spread_signal; lpf=fdesign.lowpass('n,fc',50,0.0168,119);
  • 10. 10 d=design(lpf); j=filter(d,rec); figure,plot(j); figure,subplot(2,1,1) plot([1:2400],freq_hopped_sig); axis([-100 2500 -1.5 1.5]); title('bfit Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum signal and its FFT'); subplot(2,1,2); plot([1:2400],abs(fft(freq_hopped_sig))); cc=zeros(size(dualcode)); cc=dualcode; figure fit=[]; for k=1:20 sig=(cc(1,k)-0.5)*ones(1,10); fit=[fit sig] ; end plot(fit,'oblack','linewidth',8); axis([-10 200 0 8]); grid on hold on for k=10:20:190 stem(k,9,'--','black') hold on end
  • 11. 11 OUTPUTS BIT SEQUENCE: BPSK MODULATED SIGNAL: BPSK MODULATED SIGNAL :
  • 12. 12 SPREAD SIGNAL WITH SEVEN FREQUENCIES: FH-SPREAD SIGNAL:
  • 13. 13 FFT OF FH-SPREAD SIGNAL: DEMODULATED WAVE:
  • 14. 14 FREQUENCY vs PN-SEQUENCE: RESULT and CONCLUSION: Thus we have tried hard to reach the aim in getting all the plots as desired and the results match with the theoretical background. FHSS is implemented in MATLAB and its fft plot gave us a clear insight on it regarding the spreading of the signal over the entire spectrum. And the improvised PN sequence is implemented to improve the security in the FHSS transmitted signals and is achieved .frequency vs PN-sequence plot gave a clear picture on how the frequency is allotted for the given PN sequence.