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Female Reproductive
      System
Female Reproductive System
   Produce sex hormones
       Estrogen, Progesterone

   Produce egg (ova)

   Support & protect developing embryo

   Give birth to new baby
Major Organs

    Cervix
    Vagina
    Ovaries [gonads]
    Uterine tubes [fallopian tubes]
    Uterus
The Cervix
   The lower portion or neck of the uterus.

   The cervix is lined with mucus, known as
    cervical mucus

       Cervical mucus provides lubrication &
        sperm transport during sexual intercourse
       During ovulation secretion of cervical
        mucus increases in response to estrogen
       But when an egg is ready for fertilization,
        the mucus then becomes thin and slippery,
        offering a “friendly environment” to sperm
The Cervix

At the end of pregnancy

The cervix acts as the passage
through which the baby exits
the uterus into the vagina.

The cervical canal expands to
roughly 50 times its normal
width for the passage of the
baby during birth
The Vagina
   A muscular, ridged sheath
    connecting the external
    genitals to the uterus.

   Functions as a two-way street,
    accepting the penis and sperm
    during intercourse

   Serving as the avenue of birth
    through which the new baby
    enters the world
External genetalia
   Vulva—which runs from the pubic area downward to the rectum.

   Labia majora or "greater lips" are the part around the vagina
    containing two glands (Bartholin’s glands) which helps lubrication
    during intercourse.

   Labia minora or "lesser lips" are
    the thin hairless ridges at the
    entrance of the vagina, which
    joins behind and in front. In front
    they split to enclose the clitoris

   The clitoris is a small pea-
    shaped structure. It plays an
    important part in sexual
    excitement in females.
External genetalia
   The urethral orifice or external
    urinary opening is below the clitoris
    on the upper wall of the vagina and
    is the passage for urine

   Opening of the vagina is separate
    from the urinary opening and
    located below it.

   The hymen is a thin cresentic fold
    of tissue which partially covers the
    opening of the vagina. medically it
    is no longer considered to be a
    100% proof of female virginity.
Ovaries
   Also known as female gonads

   They produce eggs (also
    called ova) every female is
    born with a lifetime supply of
    eggs

   They also produce hormones:
    Estrogen & Progesterone
Fallopian tubes [uterine tubes]
   Stretch from the uterus to the ovaries and measure about 8
    to 13 cm in length.

   The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries
    feather into ends called fimbria

   Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of
    the fallopian tubes.

   The cilia beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching
    the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the
    uterine cavity.

   Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube
Uterus
   Pear-shaped muscular organ in the female reproductive tract.
   The fundus is the upper portion of the uterus where
    pregnancy occurs.
   The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects
    with the vagina and serves as a sphincter to keep the uterus
    closed during pregnancy until it is time to deliver a baby.
   The uterus expands considerably during the reproductive
    process.
   The organ grows to from 10 to 20 times its normal size during
    pregnancy.
Uterus

   The main body consists
    of a firm outer coat of
    muscle (myometrium)
    and an inner lining of
    vascular, glandular
    material (endometrium).



   The endometrium thickens during the menstrual cycle to
    allow implantation of a fertilized egg.


   Pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants
    successfully into the endometrial lining.
Endometrium
   The endometrium is the innermost
    layer as a lining for the uterus

   During    the menstrual     cycle, the
    endometrium grows to a thick, blood
    vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer.

   This    represents    an     optimal
    environment for the implantation of
    a blastocyst upon its arrival in the
    uterus.
Endometrium
   The endometrium is central,
    echogenic (detectable using
    ultrasound scanners), and has
    an average thickness of 6.7
    mm.

   During pregnancy,    the blood
    vessels in  the endometrium
    further increase in size and
    number, forming the placenta,

   Placenta supplies oxygen and
    nutrition to the embryo & fetus.
Female reproductive system

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Female reproductive system

  • 2. Female Reproductive System  Produce sex hormones  Estrogen, Progesterone  Produce egg (ova)  Support & protect developing embryo  Give birth to new baby
  • 3. Major Organs  Cervix  Vagina  Ovaries [gonads]  Uterine tubes [fallopian tubes]  Uterus
  • 4. The Cervix  The lower portion or neck of the uterus.  The cervix is lined with mucus, known as cervical mucus  Cervical mucus provides lubrication & sperm transport during sexual intercourse  During ovulation secretion of cervical mucus increases in response to estrogen  But when an egg is ready for fertilization, the mucus then becomes thin and slippery, offering a “friendly environment” to sperm
  • 5. The Cervix At the end of pregnancy The cervix acts as the passage through which the baby exits the uterus into the vagina. The cervical canal expands to roughly 50 times its normal width for the passage of the baby during birth
  • 6. The Vagina  A muscular, ridged sheath connecting the external genitals to the uterus.  Functions as a two-way street, accepting the penis and sperm during intercourse  Serving as the avenue of birth through which the new baby enters the world
  • 7. External genetalia  Vulva—which runs from the pubic area downward to the rectum.  Labia majora or "greater lips" are the part around the vagina containing two glands (Bartholin’s glands) which helps lubrication during intercourse.  Labia minora or "lesser lips" are the thin hairless ridges at the entrance of the vagina, which joins behind and in front. In front they split to enclose the clitoris  The clitoris is a small pea- shaped structure. It plays an important part in sexual excitement in females.
  • 8.
  • 9. External genetalia  The urethral orifice or external urinary opening is below the clitoris on the upper wall of the vagina and is the passage for urine  Opening of the vagina is separate from the urinary opening and located below it.  The hymen is a thin cresentic fold of tissue which partially covers the opening of the vagina. medically it is no longer considered to be a 100% proof of female virginity.
  • 10. Ovaries  Also known as female gonads  They produce eggs (also called ova) every female is born with a lifetime supply of eggs  They also produce hormones: Estrogen & Progesterone
  • 11.
  • 12. Fallopian tubes [uterine tubes]  Stretch from the uterus to the ovaries and measure about 8 to 13 cm in length.  The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries feather into ends called fimbria  Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes.  The cilia beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the uterine cavity.  Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube
  • 13.
  • 14. Uterus  Pear-shaped muscular organ in the female reproductive tract.  The fundus is the upper portion of the uterus where pregnancy occurs.  The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina and serves as a sphincter to keep the uterus closed during pregnancy until it is time to deliver a baby.  The uterus expands considerably during the reproductive process.  The organ grows to from 10 to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy.
  • 15. Uterus  The main body consists of a firm outer coat of muscle (myometrium) and an inner lining of vascular, glandular material (endometrium).  The endometrium thickens during the menstrual cycle to allow implantation of a fertilized egg.  Pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants successfully into the endometrial lining.
  • 16. Endometrium  The endometrium is the innermost layer as a lining for the uterus  During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer.  This represents an optimal environment for the implantation of a blastocyst upon its arrival in the uterus.
  • 17. Endometrium  The endometrium is central, echogenic (detectable using ultrasound scanners), and has an average thickness of 6.7 mm.  During pregnancy, the blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number, forming the placenta,  Placenta supplies oxygen and nutrition to the embryo & fetus.

Editor's Notes

  1. The vagina ends at the cervix, (cervical mucus changes: employed by birth control pills, shots and implants. One of the ways they prevent conception is to render the cervical mucus thick, sparse, and hostile to sperm.)
  2. It was thought to be proof of virginity as it is broken after the first sexual intercourse. However it is stretchable, and may break due to vigorous exercises, cycling, gymnastics or tampon use.Therefore
  3. They are among the first organs to be formed as a female baby develops in the uterus. At the 20-week mark, the structures that will become the ovaries house roughly 6 to 7 million potential egg cells. From that point on, the number begins to decrease rapidly. A newborn infant has between 1 million to 2 million egg cells. By puberty the number has plummeted to 300,000. For every egg that matures and undergoes ovulation, roughly a thousand will fail, so that by menopause, only a few thousand remain. During the course of an average reproductive lifespan, roughly 300 mature eggs are produced for potential conception. The ovaries produce these hormones throughout the fertile period of a woman's life. It is the hormones that control the menstrual cycle. As you get older and menopause approaches, the ovaries make less and less of these hormones and the periods eventually stop altogether. So the normal ovaries cannot usually be felt in a clinical examination except in young, thin women. The ovaries are the main source of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone). These hormones control the development of female body characteristics, such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. What is estrogen? Estrogen is a group of female sex hormones that stimulate the appearance of secondary female sex characteristics in girls at puberty. Estrogen controls controls the growth of the lining of the uterus during the first part of the menstrual cycle, cause breast development in pregnancy and regulates various metabolic processes.
  4. (4 to 6 inches) = length called fimbria (Latin for "fringes" or "fingers").each tube has about about 20 to 25 Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes. The cilia beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the uterine cavity. Other cells in the tube's inner lining or endothelium nourish the egg and lubricate it's path during its stay inside the fallopian tube. Once inside the fallopian tube, the egg and sperm meet and the egg is fertilized. If an egg doesn't become fertilized within 24 to 36 hours after ovulation, it will deteriorate and be removed by the body's immune system like any other dead cell in the body.
  5. Size = 3 in long x2 inch diameter Weighs about 1-1.5 oz Pregnancy – watermelon sized 
  6. Endometrium is about 10% of uterus mass – myometrium almost 90% - thin outer coat called perimetrium This cyclic process – the menstrual cycle – results from the interaction between the female reproductive organs and the endocrine system.