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Research Journal of Education
ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886
Vol. 2, No. 5, pp: 68-75, 2016
URL: http://arpgweb.com/?ic=journal&journal=15&info=aims
*Corresponding Author
68
Academic Research Publishing Group
Factors of Quality Education Enhancement: Review on Higher
Education Practices in Bangladesh
Mohammad Abul Kashem Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, Feni
University, Bangladesh
1. Introduction
Services offered by educational institutions are not tangible in nature and difficult to measure since its reflection
go with the transformation of knowledge, behavior modification and life skills of learners (Tsinidou et al., 2010).
Quality assurance scheme has not only been influenced by a single factors and its assurance mechanism is somewhat
different based on the complexity of the organization (Stensaker, 2004). To identify the quality in higher education
level, most institutions focused in procedures and relied heavily on internal mechanism, which fails to appraise
perfectly the impact of quality learning (ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education),
2008). Again students learning is not only depend on quality teaching initiatives but also on whole institution and
learning environment as well.
To be honest, the yardstick for university rank and value is relied heavily on contribution in research than on
teaching quality. The facts that a great proportion of studies on quality teaching were carried out on a very limited
scale (OECD, 2008). The model of Anglo-Saxon in the study of quality education still bears consequences of the
ways and context on which quality teaching has been thought (OECD, 2008). The key challenges facing higher
education are to quality, governance and educational outcomes for development (Wilkens, 2011).
2. Objectives
The study has been covered the following key objectives, as such:
(i) To analyze the most rated quality factors of education from both teachers and students view point.
(ii) To rank the factors affecting quality education from opinions of sample respondents.
(iii) To provide support for the guidelines for the quality assurance and enhancement, delivery and
management of higher education.
3. Literature Review
Generally research reviews include the factors that are closer to the students actual learning process have the
strongest impact. These factors have greater impact than distant factors at national level (Wang et al., 1993) where
as some highlighted the level of class room teaching has strongest impact there to Scheerens (2003).
Scheerens and Bosker (1997) expressed apprehension about the effective teaching and instruction as the
combination of factors as such, high expectations, orderly climate, instructional conditions: opportunity to learn,
time on task/homework, monitoring at class room level, aspects of structured teaching: cooperative learning,
feedback, reinforcement, differentiation or adaptive instruction.
Quality teaching might be a follower of an instrumental management framework by transparency, involvment,
quality function deployment, quality policy deployment, communication (Van der Wiele, 1995). The trends of higher
Abstract: To maintain equality in higher education level both in private and public universities are very
diverse both in function and in nature in Bangladesh. Quality teaching Initiatives and go-long-maintenance-and-
continuation are basically an interesting issue in higher education landscape and found enormous difficulty with
increasing diversity in the factors’ influence. The study focused on the factors by which effective teaching
quality be enhanced in higher education level along with considerations for perfection in teaching methodology.
This paper determines the research area of critical success factors of quality enhancement and assurance in
higher education level which has potential to be explored and generate new knowledge, to improve the quality
education practices and outcome. By using Factor Analysis and ranking of the factors, it has found that
Teacher’s Distinctiveness, Human Resources Development, Teaching Approach and Quality of Teachers,
Interpersonal and Pedagogy Skills are worth considerable to determine appropriateness in ensuring quality in
higher education level.
Keywords: Teaching factors; Quality education; Higher education; Quality enhancement.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
69
education encompassed through several dimensions likely to increasing targeting resources, performance oriented
funding and competitive procedures (OECD, 2008) whereas, it is now being on market oriented (Green, 1993).
Boyer (1990) urged the necessity of scholarship in teaching whereas (Feldman, 1976a) listed teacher’s
sensitivity to class level and progress, clarity of course requirements, understandable explanation, respect for
students and encouragement of independent thoughts as factors of a good teacher. in the same pathways, Shulman
(1987) emphasized pedagogical knowledge and full command of the curriculum. Marsh (1987) mentioned
appropriate workload, clear, empathy with students’ explanations, openness on the part of the lecturer and quality of
assessment procedures.
Hativa et al. (2001) focused the attention on lesson organization-clarity, interest in learning and positive class
room climate whereas leadership and management have greater role in this aspect (Radloff, 2004; Taylor, 2003). To
focus relatively on recent articles Boyer (1990) and Gibbs (1995) have been worth considering but recent changes is
incorporated in this study based on information technology changes.
Skelton (2005) highlighted that no unique factors truly identify the teaching excellence, that would be depended
on quality cultures as well and review how the institutions work. Experience matters in teaching effectiveness and
better role players in students’ achievements (Chalmers, 2007; Greenwald et al., 1996).
Marton and Säljö (1976) found that students learning approaches focused mainly on understanding the course
material and on memorizing the material itself whereas students' perception regarding learning environment
influenced as well (Van Rossum and Schenk, 1984). From Benowski (1991) teaching should not be separated from
research, indeed, "professors teach best what they know best”, good researchers are good teachers just a myth
(Terenzini and Pascarella, 1994).
Finally, the researcher accumulated all the issues and factors after reviewing the literature focused on existing
scenario and the encouraged indicators to the adoption of quality education practiced in higher educational institutes.
4. Methodology
The study is descriptive in nature conducted by using a survey method. The population was the population was
the faculties working at and the students of undergraduate and graduate level studying at Chittagong University, Feni
University, BGC Trust University, and University of Information Technology and Sciences (Ctg.). Data regarding
the variables have been collected through a questionnaire. Structured questionnaire was used as a means of data
collection and was collected via personally administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to the
respondents based on considering representatives by personal judgment. In total 250, i.e., 100 faculties and 150
students were randomly selected from the sample universities where response rate was 80%. The instrument was
made up of sections of questions as per the factors in prearranged order. All items were measured on a five-point
Likert Scale ranging from 1 ‘Strongly Disagree’ to 5 ‘Strongly Agree’. Data regarding the variables have been
collected through a questionnaire. The collected data then were analyzed by applying factor analysis using SPSS
17.0.
5. Analysis
5.1. Characteristics of quality education enhancement
Against these background data, we were interested to know from the sample students regarding the
characteristics of quality education for meeting the requirement of job market and knowledge economy. The
collected data have been examined by factor analysis.
5.1.1. Principal Component Analysis
The variables have been further subjected to principal component analysis. The Eigen values, the percentage of
total variance, and rotated sum of squared loadings have been shown in Table-4 in appendix. The factor matrix as
obtained in the principal component analysis has also been further subjected to Varimax Rotation. An examination
of Eigen values has led to the retention of ten factors. These factors have accumulated for 12.26%, 10.56%, 7.65%,
7.07%, 7.04%, and 5.43%, 5.12%, 4.57%, 4.23%, 3.73% of variation. This implies that the total variance
accumulated for by all ten factors is 67.70% and remaining variance is explained by other factors. The KMO value is
0.713 which indicates the sampling adequacy of data.
5.2. Factor Analysis
The rotated factor matrix has been shown in Table-2 in appendix. This shows that variables understudy have
constituted ten groups/factors. It can be mentioned that the variable with factor loading of 0.46 and above has been
considered for inclusion into the factors. These have been discussed as follows.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
70
5.2.1. Factor-I: Teacher’s Distinctiveness
Factor-I explains 12.26% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed this major cluster. This factor belongs to teachers’ availability for
counseling and tutoring , teachers’ regularity in publishing results, teachers’ regularity in taking exams, teachers’
regularity in taking classes, notification from teachers about office timings, course contents covered by the teachers,
notifications from teachers about their leaves, teachers’ encouragement to ask questions in class for development of
quality education. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension, which may be identified as
‘Teacher’s Distinctiveness Factor’.
5.2.2. Factor-II: Human Resources Development
Factor-II explains 10.56% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed second important cluster. This factor is concerned with necessity of
career counseling and workshops, necessity of industrial attachment, necessity of job placement services, necessity
of internship, necessity of internet facilities, importance of teaching methods: role play, importance of teaching
method: case study, necessity of computer lab facilities, necessity of teachers’ researcher records. So, this factor
provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension, which may be identified as ‘Human Resources Development
Factor’.
5.2.3. Factor-III: Interpersonal skill
Factor-III explains 7.65% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed third cluster. This factor is related to importance of team and
interpersonal skill, importance of networking and specialization, importance of knowledge regarding industries,
importance of oral communication skill, and importance of IT skill. So, this factor provides a basis for
conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Inter Personal Skill Factor’.
5.2.4. Factor-IV: Pedagogy Skill
Factor-IV explains 7.07% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed fourth cluster. This factor is related to importance of subject
knowledge, necessity of teachers’ academic background, necessity of teachers’ depth in subject knowledge,
importance of teaching method: lecture. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension, which
may be identified as ‘Pedagogy Skill Factor’.
5.2.5. Factor-V: Logistic Support
Factor-V: explains 7.04% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed fifth cluster. This factor is related to necessity of printing facilities,
necessity of photocopy facilities, and importance of written communication skill. So, this factor provides a basis for
conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Logistic Support Factor’.
5.2.6. Factor-VI: Relationship Skill
Factor-VI explains 5.43% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed sixth cluster. This factor is related to necessity of teachers’ year of
experience, necessity of teachers’ to be student friendly, necessity of teachers’ delivery skills. So, this factor
provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Relationship Skill Factor’.
5.2.7. Factor-VII: Infrastructure Facilities
Factor-VII explains 5.12% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed seventh cluster. This factor is related to necessity of infrastructure
facilities, importance of teaching Method: others. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a
dimension which may be identified as ‘Infrastructure Facilities Factor’.
5.2.8. Factor-VIII: Teacher’s Qualification
Factor-VIII explains 4.57% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed eighth cluster. This factor is related to necessity of teachers’ PhD
degree, necessity of teachers’ industry job experiences. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a
dimension which may be identified as ‘Teacher’s Qualification Factor’.
5.2.9. Factor-IX: Interaction
Factor-IX explains 4.23% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed ninth cluster. This factor is related to teachers’ encouragements in
asking questions and interactions, importance of teaching method: presentation. So, this factor provides a basis for
conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Interaction Factor’.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
71
5.2.10. Factor-X: Teaching Approach
Factor-X explains 3.73% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor
loadings on these variables which have formed tenth cluster. This factor is related to the importance of teaching
method: assignment, teachers’ qualification and in depth subject knowledge. So, this factor provides a basis for
conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Teaching Approach Factor’. Finally the rankings
obtained on the basis of factor wise average scores are shown in table-1 and also Scree-plot of the factors in figure-1
in appendix.
The ranking show that Pedagogy Skill Factor is the most important factor that leads the quality education. This
factor includes variables i.e. importance of subject knowledge, necessity of teachers’ academic background,
necessity of teachers’ depth in subject knowledge, importance of teaching method: lecture. These implies that the
development of quality education in the respective field.
The second most important factor is the Relationship Skill Factor. This factor includes variables such as
necessity of teachers’ year of experience, necessity of teachers’ friendly relationship with students, necessity of
teachers’ delivery skills.
The factors which draw attention to policy makers, professionals and market participants for the enhancement of
quality education are shown as follows in order of magnitudes:
Teacher's Distinctiveness, Human Resources Development, Interpersonal Skill, Pedagogy Skill, Logistics
Support, Relationship Skill, Infrastructure Facilities, Qualification of Teachers, Interaction, and Teaching Approach.
6. Recommendation
The study reflected the context on the quality enhancement and assurance in higher education level. The issue
itself added a greater sense of urgency and purpose to deliberations, as well as hope that systematic obstacles that
had blocked higher education reform efforts in the past might give way in the current climate focusing on the need
for improvements in the quality assurance and enhancement, delivery and management of higher education.
1. The UGC should play the overseer roles to maintain quality in higher education by intervention and
involvement through the hard and fast rules, quality assurance structures, and establishing quality
benchmarks.
2. Higher education institute should focus on adopting and internalizing a culture of evaluation and
accountability at every level among faculty, administrators and students assessing teaching, program quality
and student outcome.
3. University should explore expanded partnership with the private sectors name PPP (Public Private
Partnership) and also co-op opportunities along with high-value career counseling.
4. Students learning platform may be more enriched through ‘Collaborative Learning’ means to collaboration
with the other group members than on individual learning based on different skill levels among members.
5. Team learning has influenced the learners in different scenario of learning through discussion, sharing and
peer influence as well than on individual learning.
6. Another process like ‘Learning Centered Approach’ can be introduced where group of people engaged in
intellectual interaction for learning (Cross, 1998). This would be applicable in three different ways, as such,
philosophical: new conception of knowledge base, research base: satisfaction of interaction in learning
process; & pragmatic reason: learn about group dynamics. (Cross, 1998)
To develop quality culture in higher education institute would be an effective ways to ensure quality education,
by develop a vision and a mission, establish a sense of necessity, explaining why culture is needed, create a guiding
coalition: form an empowered team to lead developments, communicate widely and continually, be prepared to
listen, develop a shared commitment-balance, purposeful and cohesive; generate some early successes, consolidate
and embed the gains, don't rest on laurel (Yorke, 2000).
7. Conclusion
There are various factors inside and outside the educational institute contributing to the higher education quality
enhancement. The study only consider the factors that usually focused by UGC and what is supported by the
literature. The key aspects of the educators is to educate their students with utmost care and consider the factors what
students opined in. usually study progress and way of teaching depend on the logistic facilities available in the
campus and the pedagogy they are following. It is very much concerning that though few faculties have been used to
follow the North-American standard and so and so, but they cannot ensure changes radically in all others. In this
practice, private universities are ahead with ultra-modern infrastructure and facilities, but lack of the provision not
have an option enormously in research like public university teachers. The literature stressed that good teaching is
necessarily student-centered where attention should given to not simply teachers pedagogical skills but must address
the students’ needs. Collaborative learning through intellectual interaction to build knowledge might enhance
students’ learning methinks.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
72
References
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Boyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton University Press: The
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Princeton, N.J.
Chalmers, D. (2007). A review of Australian and international quality systems and indicators of learning and
teaching. Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education Ltd, Sydney, NSW.
Cross, K. P. (1998). Why Learning Communities? Why Now? About Campus, 3(3): 4-11.
ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) (2008). Quality procedures in the
european higher education area and beyond – Second ENQA Survey, Occasional Paper 14, Helsinki.
Feldman, K. A. (1976a). Grades and college students’ evaluations of their courses and teachers. Research in Higher
Education, 4(1): 69-111.
Gibbs, G. (1995). The relationship between quality in research and quality in teaching, . Quality in Higher
Education, 1(2): 147-57.
Green, D. (1993). What is quality in higher education? : Society for Research into Higher Education and Open
University Press: Buckingham.
Greenwald, R., Hedges, L. V. and Laine, R. D. (1996). The effect of school resources on student achievement.
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Hativa, N., Barak, R. and Simhi, E. (2001). Exemplary university teachers: Knowledge and beliefs regarding
effective teaching dimension and strategies. The Journal of Higher Education, 72(6): 699-729.
Marsh, H. W. (1987). Students’ evaluation of university teaching: research findings, methodological issues and
directions for future research. International Journal of Educational Research, 11(3): 255- 378.
Marton, F. and Säljö, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning, outcome and process. British Journal of
Educational Psychology, 46(1): 4-11.
OECD (2008). Tertiary education for the knowledge society. OECD: Paris. 1.
Radloff, A. (2004). Decentralized approaches to education development: supporting quality teaching and learning
from within a faculty. Education Development and leadership in Higher Education, Kim Fraser (ed).
Scheerens, J. (2003). Integrated models of educational effectiveness: searching for ‘the silver bullet’, in J. Scheerens
and A.J. Visscher (eds.), School Effectiveness and Training Effects: Liber Amoricum for Prof. dr. R.J.
Bosker, Department of Educational Organisation and Management, University of Twente, Enschede. 137-
58.
Scheerens, J. and Bosker, R. J. (1997). The foundations of educational effectiveness. Oxfor: lsevier Science Ltd:
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review,
57(1): 1-22.
Skelton, A. (2005). Understanding teaching excellence in higher education, towards a critical approach. Routledge:
Oxon.
Stensaker, B. (2004). The transformation of organisational identities: Interpretations of policies concerning the
quality of teaching and learning in Norwegian higher education. Center for Higher Education and Policy
Studies, (CHEPS): Enschede.
Taylor, M. (2003). Teaching capabilities and professional development and qualifications framework project: stage
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26(1): 28-32.
Tsinidou, M., Gerogiannis, V. and Fitsilis, P. (2010). Evaluation of the factors that determine quality in higher
education: an empirical study. Quality Assurance in Education, 18(3): 227-44.
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Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
73
Table-1. Rankings of the influencing factors
Factor Average Score Rank
I Teacher’s Distinctiveness 2.24 9
II Human Resources Development 2.58 6
III Inter personal skill 2.57 7
IV Teaching Skill 2.97 1
V Logistic Support 2.63 4
VI Relationship Skill 2.92 2
VII Infrastructure Facilities 2.63 5
VIII Teacher’s Qualification 2.71 3
IX Interaction 2.21 10
X Teaching Approach 2.33 8
Note: Data have been compiled by the researcher
Table-2. Rotated Component Matrix(a)
Component
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Teachers' Availability for Counseling
and Tutoring .849 .071 .085 .019 .020
-
.068
.115 .103 .074 .133
Teachers' Regularity in Publishing
Results .834 .085 .043 .030
-
.108
.166 -.072
-
.010
.106 .045
Teachers' Regularity in Taking Exams
.831 .030 .043
-
.089
-
.160
.156 .012
-
.126
.148
-
.029
Teachers' Regularity in Taking Classes
.722
-
.086
.208 .130 .081
-
.200
.057
-
.238
.018
-
.069
Notification from Teachers about Office
Timings .701
-
.097
-
.192
-
.014
.110
-
.035
-.077 .075
-
.333
-
.059
Course Contents Covered by the
Teachers .683
-
.034
.268 .267 .054
-
.116
.262
-
.044
-
.017
-
.027
Notifications from Teachers About their
Leaves .662 .209
-
.020
.150
-
.266
.130 .104 .037
-
.218
-
.090
Teachers' Encouragement to Ask
Questions in Class .607 .171 .134 .389
-
.010
.053 -.016 .073
-
.207
.259
Necessity of Career Counselling anf
Workshops .014 .759 .187 .027 .178 .067 -.117
-
.142
.164 .167
Necessity of Industrial
Attachment/Apprenticeship .183 .730
-
.036
-
.080
-
.002
-
.088
.111 .066
-
.228
.040
Necessity of Job Placement Services
.110 .713
-
.126
-
.060
.184 .044 .149 .043 .025
-
.280
Necessity of Internship -
.044
.671 .243 .109 .083 .222 .003 .113 .052 .127
Necessity of Internet Facilities -
.093
.601 .222 .201 .316 .167 .025
-
.153
.065
-
.150
Importance of Teaching Method: Role
Play .086 .581 .166
-
.004
-
.141
.044 .353 .159 .066
-
.084
Importance of Teaching Method: Case
Study
-
.013
.530 .431 .176
-
.114
-
.070
.237 .064 .141 .158
Necessity of Computer Lab Facilities -
.081
.522 .091 .101 .479 .145 .046
-
.282
-
.165
.096
Necessity of Teachers' Research Records
.178 .389 .188 .225
-
.014
.202 .250 .336 .287 .125
Importance of Team and Interpersonal
Skill .262 .132 .754 .116
-
.007
.037 -.128 .158
-
.113
.011
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
74
Importance of Networking and
Socialization .130 .048 .682
-
.148
.193 .186 .139 .022 .100 .036
Importance of Knowledge Regarding
Industries
-
.037
.223 .672 .095
-
.031
-
.124
.173
-
.122
-
.131
.015
Importance of Oral Communication Skill
.256 .056 .504 .126
-
.126
.221 -.073
-
.287
.075
-
.413
Importance of IT Skill
.055 .399 .474
-
.078
.245 .310 -.064
-
.315
-
.030
.054
Importance of Subject Knowledge
.154 .026
-
.182
.792 .027 .010 .037
-
.032
-
.072
.123
Necessity Of Teachers' Academic
Background .013
-
.019
.129 .734 .239 .087 -.028 .158
-
.068
.089
Necessity of Teachers' Depth in Subject
Knowledge .082 .194 .187 .698 .019 .115 .067 .081 .054 .083
Importance of Teaching Method: Lecture
.208
-
.110
-
.044
.590 .326 .096 .013
-
.093
.072
-
.359
Necessity of Printing Facilities -
.083
.125 .083 .063 .840 .119 .029 .191 .053 .133
Necessity of Photocopy Facilities -
.119
.070
-
.010
.146 .760 .085 .183 .226 .065 .018
Importance of Written Communication
Skill .001 .356 .049 .278 .581 .218
-9.921E-
05
-
.019
.064 .002
Necessity of Teachers' Year of
Experience
-
.007
.111 .040 .158 .027 .742 .096 .197 .070
-
.054
Necessity of Teachers' to be Student
Friendly .062
-
.043
.096 .058 .246 .642 .067
-
.108
-
.110
.307
Necessity of Teachers' Lecture Delivery
Skills .042 .279 .059 .071 .233 .639 .225 .150 .065
-
.088
Necessity of Others Facilities
.076 .144 .109 .018 .070 .049 .857
-
.058
.038 .082
Importance of Teaching Method: Others
.092 .124 .008 .037 .140 .245 .821 .097 .014
-
.041
Necessity of Teachers' PhD Degree -
.028
-
.083
-
.184
.076 .217 .138 -.045 .736
-
.127
.056
Necessity of Teachers' Industry Job
Experience
-
.132
.238 .372 .125 .221 .173 .168 .643 .142
-
.137
Teachers Discourragemnets in Asking
Questions and Interactions -
.063
-
.044
-
.290
-
.104
.019
-
.089
-.038
-
.050
.764 .068
Importance of Teaching Method:
Presentation
-
.003
.162 .331 .035 .143 .190 .147 .054 .570
-
.022
Importance of Teaching Method:
Assignment .081 .034
-
.026
.265 .306 .086 .071
-
.139
.322 .693
Teachers Qualification and Indepth
Subject Knowledge .340 .032 .108 .310
-
.042
.227 -.034 .177
-
.290
.460
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a Rotation converged in 11 iterations.
Table-3. KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling
Adequacy.
.713
Bartlett's Test of
Sphericity
Approx. Chi-Square 4505.602
df 780
Sig. .000
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75
75
Table-4. Total Variance Explained
Component
Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Total
% of
Variance
Cumulative
% Total
% of
Variance
Cumulative
%
1 7.771 19.429 19.429 4.907 12.268 12.268
2 4.960 12.400 31.829 4.227 10.567 22.835
3 3.111 7.777 39.606 3.063 7.657 30.492
4 2.072 5.181 44.787 2.831 7.076 37.568
5 1.894 4.735 49.522 2.817 7.043 44.611
6 1.767 4.417 53.939 2.173 5.433 50.044
7 1.571 3.929 57.868 2.051 5.127 55.170
8 1.393 3.482 61.350 1.830 4.575 59.745
9 1.301 3.253 64.602 1.692 4.230 63.976
10 1.242 3.106 67.708 1.493 3.733 67.708
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Fig-1. Scree Plot

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Factors of Quality Education Enhancement: Review on Higher Education Practices in Bangladesh

  • 1. Research Journal of Education ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886 Vol. 2, No. 5, pp: 68-75, 2016 URL: http://arpgweb.com/?ic=journal&journal=15&info=aims *Corresponding Author 68 Academic Research Publishing Group Factors of Quality Education Enhancement: Review on Higher Education Practices in Bangladesh Mohammad Abul Kashem Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, Feni University, Bangladesh 1. Introduction Services offered by educational institutions are not tangible in nature and difficult to measure since its reflection go with the transformation of knowledge, behavior modification and life skills of learners (Tsinidou et al., 2010). Quality assurance scheme has not only been influenced by a single factors and its assurance mechanism is somewhat different based on the complexity of the organization (Stensaker, 2004). To identify the quality in higher education level, most institutions focused in procedures and relied heavily on internal mechanism, which fails to appraise perfectly the impact of quality learning (ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2008). Again students learning is not only depend on quality teaching initiatives but also on whole institution and learning environment as well. To be honest, the yardstick for university rank and value is relied heavily on contribution in research than on teaching quality. The facts that a great proportion of studies on quality teaching were carried out on a very limited scale (OECD, 2008). The model of Anglo-Saxon in the study of quality education still bears consequences of the ways and context on which quality teaching has been thought (OECD, 2008). The key challenges facing higher education are to quality, governance and educational outcomes for development (Wilkens, 2011). 2. Objectives The study has been covered the following key objectives, as such: (i) To analyze the most rated quality factors of education from both teachers and students view point. (ii) To rank the factors affecting quality education from opinions of sample respondents. (iii) To provide support for the guidelines for the quality assurance and enhancement, delivery and management of higher education. 3. Literature Review Generally research reviews include the factors that are closer to the students actual learning process have the strongest impact. These factors have greater impact than distant factors at national level (Wang et al., 1993) where as some highlighted the level of class room teaching has strongest impact there to Scheerens (2003). Scheerens and Bosker (1997) expressed apprehension about the effective teaching and instruction as the combination of factors as such, high expectations, orderly climate, instructional conditions: opportunity to learn, time on task/homework, monitoring at class room level, aspects of structured teaching: cooperative learning, feedback, reinforcement, differentiation or adaptive instruction. Quality teaching might be a follower of an instrumental management framework by transparency, involvment, quality function deployment, quality policy deployment, communication (Van der Wiele, 1995). The trends of higher Abstract: To maintain equality in higher education level both in private and public universities are very diverse both in function and in nature in Bangladesh. Quality teaching Initiatives and go-long-maintenance-and- continuation are basically an interesting issue in higher education landscape and found enormous difficulty with increasing diversity in the factors’ influence. The study focused on the factors by which effective teaching quality be enhanced in higher education level along with considerations for perfection in teaching methodology. This paper determines the research area of critical success factors of quality enhancement and assurance in higher education level which has potential to be explored and generate new knowledge, to improve the quality education practices and outcome. By using Factor Analysis and ranking of the factors, it has found that Teacher’s Distinctiveness, Human Resources Development, Teaching Approach and Quality of Teachers, Interpersonal and Pedagogy Skills are worth considerable to determine appropriateness in ensuring quality in higher education level. Keywords: Teaching factors; Quality education; Higher education; Quality enhancement.
  • 2. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75 69 education encompassed through several dimensions likely to increasing targeting resources, performance oriented funding and competitive procedures (OECD, 2008) whereas, it is now being on market oriented (Green, 1993). Boyer (1990) urged the necessity of scholarship in teaching whereas (Feldman, 1976a) listed teacher’s sensitivity to class level and progress, clarity of course requirements, understandable explanation, respect for students and encouragement of independent thoughts as factors of a good teacher. in the same pathways, Shulman (1987) emphasized pedagogical knowledge and full command of the curriculum. Marsh (1987) mentioned appropriate workload, clear, empathy with students’ explanations, openness on the part of the lecturer and quality of assessment procedures. Hativa et al. (2001) focused the attention on lesson organization-clarity, interest in learning and positive class room climate whereas leadership and management have greater role in this aspect (Radloff, 2004; Taylor, 2003). To focus relatively on recent articles Boyer (1990) and Gibbs (1995) have been worth considering but recent changes is incorporated in this study based on information technology changes. Skelton (2005) highlighted that no unique factors truly identify the teaching excellence, that would be depended on quality cultures as well and review how the institutions work. Experience matters in teaching effectiveness and better role players in students’ achievements (Chalmers, 2007; Greenwald et al., 1996). Marton and Säljö (1976) found that students learning approaches focused mainly on understanding the course material and on memorizing the material itself whereas students' perception regarding learning environment influenced as well (Van Rossum and Schenk, 1984). From Benowski (1991) teaching should not be separated from research, indeed, "professors teach best what they know best”, good researchers are good teachers just a myth (Terenzini and Pascarella, 1994). Finally, the researcher accumulated all the issues and factors after reviewing the literature focused on existing scenario and the encouraged indicators to the adoption of quality education practiced in higher educational institutes. 4. Methodology The study is descriptive in nature conducted by using a survey method. The population was the population was the faculties working at and the students of undergraduate and graduate level studying at Chittagong University, Feni University, BGC Trust University, and University of Information Technology and Sciences (Ctg.). Data regarding the variables have been collected through a questionnaire. Structured questionnaire was used as a means of data collection and was collected via personally administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to the respondents based on considering representatives by personal judgment. In total 250, i.e., 100 faculties and 150 students were randomly selected from the sample universities where response rate was 80%. The instrument was made up of sections of questions as per the factors in prearranged order. All items were measured on a five-point Likert Scale ranging from 1 ‘Strongly Disagree’ to 5 ‘Strongly Agree’. Data regarding the variables have been collected through a questionnaire. The collected data then were analyzed by applying factor analysis using SPSS 17.0. 5. Analysis 5.1. Characteristics of quality education enhancement Against these background data, we were interested to know from the sample students regarding the characteristics of quality education for meeting the requirement of job market and knowledge economy. The collected data have been examined by factor analysis. 5.1.1. Principal Component Analysis The variables have been further subjected to principal component analysis. The Eigen values, the percentage of total variance, and rotated sum of squared loadings have been shown in Table-4 in appendix. The factor matrix as obtained in the principal component analysis has also been further subjected to Varimax Rotation. An examination of Eigen values has led to the retention of ten factors. These factors have accumulated for 12.26%, 10.56%, 7.65%, 7.07%, 7.04%, and 5.43%, 5.12%, 4.57%, 4.23%, 3.73% of variation. This implies that the total variance accumulated for by all ten factors is 67.70% and remaining variance is explained by other factors. The KMO value is 0.713 which indicates the sampling adequacy of data. 5.2. Factor Analysis The rotated factor matrix has been shown in Table-2 in appendix. This shows that variables understudy have constituted ten groups/factors. It can be mentioned that the variable with factor loading of 0.46 and above has been considered for inclusion into the factors. These have been discussed as follows.
  • 3. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75 70 5.2.1. Factor-I: Teacher’s Distinctiveness Factor-I explains 12.26% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed this major cluster. This factor belongs to teachers’ availability for counseling and tutoring , teachers’ regularity in publishing results, teachers’ regularity in taking exams, teachers’ regularity in taking classes, notification from teachers about office timings, course contents covered by the teachers, notifications from teachers about their leaves, teachers’ encouragement to ask questions in class for development of quality education. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension, which may be identified as ‘Teacher’s Distinctiveness Factor’. 5.2.2. Factor-II: Human Resources Development Factor-II explains 10.56% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed second important cluster. This factor is concerned with necessity of career counseling and workshops, necessity of industrial attachment, necessity of job placement services, necessity of internship, necessity of internet facilities, importance of teaching methods: role play, importance of teaching method: case study, necessity of computer lab facilities, necessity of teachers’ researcher records. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension, which may be identified as ‘Human Resources Development Factor’. 5.2.3. Factor-III: Interpersonal skill Factor-III explains 7.65% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed third cluster. This factor is related to importance of team and interpersonal skill, importance of networking and specialization, importance of knowledge regarding industries, importance of oral communication skill, and importance of IT skill. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Inter Personal Skill Factor’. 5.2.4. Factor-IV: Pedagogy Skill Factor-IV explains 7.07% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed fourth cluster. This factor is related to importance of subject knowledge, necessity of teachers’ academic background, necessity of teachers’ depth in subject knowledge, importance of teaching method: lecture. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension, which may be identified as ‘Pedagogy Skill Factor’. 5.2.5. Factor-V: Logistic Support Factor-V: explains 7.04% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed fifth cluster. This factor is related to necessity of printing facilities, necessity of photocopy facilities, and importance of written communication skill. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Logistic Support Factor’. 5.2.6. Factor-VI: Relationship Skill Factor-VI explains 5.43% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed sixth cluster. This factor is related to necessity of teachers’ year of experience, necessity of teachers’ to be student friendly, necessity of teachers’ delivery skills. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Relationship Skill Factor’. 5.2.7. Factor-VII: Infrastructure Facilities Factor-VII explains 5.12% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed seventh cluster. This factor is related to necessity of infrastructure facilities, importance of teaching Method: others. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Infrastructure Facilities Factor’. 5.2.8. Factor-VIII: Teacher’s Qualification Factor-VIII explains 4.57% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed eighth cluster. This factor is related to necessity of teachers’ PhD degree, necessity of teachers’ industry job experiences. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Teacher’s Qualification Factor’. 5.2.9. Factor-IX: Interaction Factor-IX explains 4.23% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed ninth cluster. This factor is related to teachers’ encouragements in asking questions and interactions, importance of teaching method: presentation. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Interaction Factor’.
  • 4. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75 71 5.2.10. Factor-X: Teaching Approach Factor-X explains 3.73% of the total variations existing in the variable set. This factor has significant factor loadings on these variables which have formed tenth cluster. This factor is related to the importance of teaching method: assignment, teachers’ qualification and in depth subject knowledge. So, this factor provides a basis for conceptualization of a dimension which may be identified as ‘Teaching Approach Factor’. Finally the rankings obtained on the basis of factor wise average scores are shown in table-1 and also Scree-plot of the factors in figure-1 in appendix. The ranking show that Pedagogy Skill Factor is the most important factor that leads the quality education. This factor includes variables i.e. importance of subject knowledge, necessity of teachers’ academic background, necessity of teachers’ depth in subject knowledge, importance of teaching method: lecture. These implies that the development of quality education in the respective field. The second most important factor is the Relationship Skill Factor. This factor includes variables such as necessity of teachers’ year of experience, necessity of teachers’ friendly relationship with students, necessity of teachers’ delivery skills. The factors which draw attention to policy makers, professionals and market participants for the enhancement of quality education are shown as follows in order of magnitudes: Teacher's Distinctiveness, Human Resources Development, Interpersonal Skill, Pedagogy Skill, Logistics Support, Relationship Skill, Infrastructure Facilities, Qualification of Teachers, Interaction, and Teaching Approach. 6. Recommendation The study reflected the context on the quality enhancement and assurance in higher education level. The issue itself added a greater sense of urgency and purpose to deliberations, as well as hope that systematic obstacles that had blocked higher education reform efforts in the past might give way in the current climate focusing on the need for improvements in the quality assurance and enhancement, delivery and management of higher education. 1. The UGC should play the overseer roles to maintain quality in higher education by intervention and involvement through the hard and fast rules, quality assurance structures, and establishing quality benchmarks. 2. Higher education institute should focus on adopting and internalizing a culture of evaluation and accountability at every level among faculty, administrators and students assessing teaching, program quality and student outcome. 3. University should explore expanded partnership with the private sectors name PPP (Public Private Partnership) and also co-op opportunities along with high-value career counseling. 4. Students learning platform may be more enriched through ‘Collaborative Learning’ means to collaboration with the other group members than on individual learning based on different skill levels among members. 5. Team learning has influenced the learners in different scenario of learning through discussion, sharing and peer influence as well than on individual learning. 6. Another process like ‘Learning Centered Approach’ can be introduced where group of people engaged in intellectual interaction for learning (Cross, 1998). This would be applicable in three different ways, as such, philosophical: new conception of knowledge base, research base: satisfaction of interaction in learning process; & pragmatic reason: learn about group dynamics. (Cross, 1998) To develop quality culture in higher education institute would be an effective ways to ensure quality education, by develop a vision and a mission, establish a sense of necessity, explaining why culture is needed, create a guiding coalition: form an empowered team to lead developments, communicate widely and continually, be prepared to listen, develop a shared commitment-balance, purposeful and cohesive; generate some early successes, consolidate and embed the gains, don't rest on laurel (Yorke, 2000). 7. Conclusion There are various factors inside and outside the educational institute contributing to the higher education quality enhancement. The study only consider the factors that usually focused by UGC and what is supported by the literature. The key aspects of the educators is to educate their students with utmost care and consider the factors what students opined in. usually study progress and way of teaching depend on the logistic facilities available in the campus and the pedagogy they are following. It is very much concerning that though few faculties have been used to follow the North-American standard and so and so, but they cannot ensure changes radically in all others. In this practice, private universities are ahead with ultra-modern infrastructure and facilities, but lack of the provision not have an option enormously in research like public university teachers. The literature stressed that good teaching is necessarily student-centered where attention should given to not simply teachers pedagogical skills but must address the students’ needs. Collaborative learning through intellectual interaction to build knowledge might enhance students’ learning methinks.
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  • 6. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75 73 Table-1. Rankings of the influencing factors Factor Average Score Rank I Teacher’s Distinctiveness 2.24 9 II Human Resources Development 2.58 6 III Inter personal skill 2.57 7 IV Teaching Skill 2.97 1 V Logistic Support 2.63 4 VI Relationship Skill 2.92 2 VII Infrastructure Facilities 2.63 5 VIII Teacher’s Qualification 2.71 3 IX Interaction 2.21 10 X Teaching Approach 2.33 8 Note: Data have been compiled by the researcher Table-2. Rotated Component Matrix(a) Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Teachers' Availability for Counseling and Tutoring .849 .071 .085 .019 .020 - .068 .115 .103 .074 .133 Teachers' Regularity in Publishing Results .834 .085 .043 .030 - .108 .166 -.072 - .010 .106 .045 Teachers' Regularity in Taking Exams .831 .030 .043 - .089 - .160 .156 .012 - .126 .148 - .029 Teachers' Regularity in Taking Classes .722 - .086 .208 .130 .081 - .200 .057 - .238 .018 - .069 Notification from Teachers about Office Timings .701 - .097 - .192 - .014 .110 - .035 -.077 .075 - .333 - .059 Course Contents Covered by the Teachers .683 - .034 .268 .267 .054 - .116 .262 - .044 - .017 - .027 Notifications from Teachers About their Leaves .662 .209 - .020 .150 - .266 .130 .104 .037 - .218 - .090 Teachers' Encouragement to Ask Questions in Class .607 .171 .134 .389 - .010 .053 -.016 .073 - .207 .259 Necessity of Career Counselling anf Workshops .014 .759 .187 .027 .178 .067 -.117 - .142 .164 .167 Necessity of Industrial Attachment/Apprenticeship .183 .730 - .036 - .080 - .002 - .088 .111 .066 - .228 .040 Necessity of Job Placement Services .110 .713 - .126 - .060 .184 .044 .149 .043 .025 - .280 Necessity of Internship - .044 .671 .243 .109 .083 .222 .003 .113 .052 .127 Necessity of Internet Facilities - .093 .601 .222 .201 .316 .167 .025 - .153 .065 - .150 Importance of Teaching Method: Role Play .086 .581 .166 - .004 - .141 .044 .353 .159 .066 - .084 Importance of Teaching Method: Case Study - .013 .530 .431 .176 - .114 - .070 .237 .064 .141 .158 Necessity of Computer Lab Facilities - .081 .522 .091 .101 .479 .145 .046 - .282 - .165 .096 Necessity of Teachers' Research Records .178 .389 .188 .225 - .014 .202 .250 .336 .287 .125 Importance of Team and Interpersonal Skill .262 .132 .754 .116 - .007 .037 -.128 .158 - .113 .011
  • 7. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75 74 Importance of Networking and Socialization .130 .048 .682 - .148 .193 .186 .139 .022 .100 .036 Importance of Knowledge Regarding Industries - .037 .223 .672 .095 - .031 - .124 .173 - .122 - .131 .015 Importance of Oral Communication Skill .256 .056 .504 .126 - .126 .221 -.073 - .287 .075 - .413 Importance of IT Skill .055 .399 .474 - .078 .245 .310 -.064 - .315 - .030 .054 Importance of Subject Knowledge .154 .026 - .182 .792 .027 .010 .037 - .032 - .072 .123 Necessity Of Teachers' Academic Background .013 - .019 .129 .734 .239 .087 -.028 .158 - .068 .089 Necessity of Teachers' Depth in Subject Knowledge .082 .194 .187 .698 .019 .115 .067 .081 .054 .083 Importance of Teaching Method: Lecture .208 - .110 - .044 .590 .326 .096 .013 - .093 .072 - .359 Necessity of Printing Facilities - .083 .125 .083 .063 .840 .119 .029 .191 .053 .133 Necessity of Photocopy Facilities - .119 .070 - .010 .146 .760 .085 .183 .226 .065 .018 Importance of Written Communication Skill .001 .356 .049 .278 .581 .218 -9.921E- 05 - .019 .064 .002 Necessity of Teachers' Year of Experience - .007 .111 .040 .158 .027 .742 .096 .197 .070 - .054 Necessity of Teachers' to be Student Friendly .062 - .043 .096 .058 .246 .642 .067 - .108 - .110 .307 Necessity of Teachers' Lecture Delivery Skills .042 .279 .059 .071 .233 .639 .225 .150 .065 - .088 Necessity of Others Facilities .076 .144 .109 .018 .070 .049 .857 - .058 .038 .082 Importance of Teaching Method: Others .092 .124 .008 .037 .140 .245 .821 .097 .014 - .041 Necessity of Teachers' PhD Degree - .028 - .083 - .184 .076 .217 .138 -.045 .736 - .127 .056 Necessity of Teachers' Industry Job Experience - .132 .238 .372 .125 .221 .173 .168 .643 .142 - .137 Teachers Discourragemnets in Asking Questions and Interactions - .063 - .044 - .290 - .104 .019 - .089 -.038 - .050 .764 .068 Importance of Teaching Method: Presentation - .003 .162 .331 .035 .143 .190 .147 .054 .570 - .022 Importance of Teaching Method: Assignment .081 .034 - .026 .265 .306 .086 .071 - .139 .322 .693 Teachers Qualification and Indepth Subject Knowledge .340 .032 .108 .310 - .042 .227 -.034 .177 - .290 .460 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a Rotation converged in 11 iterations. Table-3. KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .713 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 4505.602 df 780 Sig. .000
  • 8. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(5): 68-75 75 Table-4. Total Variance Explained Component Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 7.771 19.429 19.429 4.907 12.268 12.268 2 4.960 12.400 31.829 4.227 10.567 22.835 3 3.111 7.777 39.606 3.063 7.657 30.492 4 2.072 5.181 44.787 2.831 7.076 37.568 5 1.894 4.735 49.522 2.817 7.043 44.611 6 1.767 4.417 53.939 2.173 5.433 50.044 7 1.571 3.929 57.868 2.051 5.127 55.170 8 1.393 3.482 61.350 1.830 4.575 59.745 9 1.301 3.253 64.602 1.692 4.230 63.976 10 1.242 3.106 67.708 1.493 3.733 67.708 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Fig-1. Scree Plot