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Facilitator Skills:
Applying Lean Psychology
“In the Moment”
January 21, 2010

Company

LOGO
Learning Objectives
Participants will learn how to:










Establish the environment for honest and, yes,
sometimes emotional discussions.
Read body language and behavior to assess
buy-in.
Address both overt and covert resistance.
Gain consensus every step of the way.
Spark innovation in risk-adverse environments.
Help leadership create a worker-initiated
improvement environment.

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

2
Facilitator: Defined

Facilitator – one who facilitates
fa·cil·i·tate (verb)
1. to make easier or less difficult; help forward (an
action, a process, etc.)
2. To assist the progress of (a person or activity).

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

3
Improvement Facilitator
Roles & Responsibilities
Teaching skill sets
Advocating improvements
Facilitating design and implementation activities
Mediating disagreements between functional areas
Encouraging behavioral changes
Coaching teams
Convincing leadership to allocate necessary
resources
Driving execution
Selling the need for improvement
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

4
The Facilitator’s Many Hats

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

5
The Facilitator as Psychologist
Figuring out each person’s “what’s in it for
me”
Figuring out each person’s “currency”
Figuring out the root of each person’s
resistance
Reduce cynicism
Generate momentum for change

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

6
The Facilitator as Salesperson
The need for improvement.
How improvement will benefit your customer.
How improvement will benefit the
organization.
How improvement will benefit the individual.
Why you need what you need.



Time
Resources

Why you need to do things a certain way.
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

7
Improvement Facilitator
Necessary Traits
 Skills / Knowledge






Lean tools
Root cause analysis
Project & time management
Team building / facilitation
People effectiveness – from front line workers to execs

 Authority / Respect




Designated change agent / influence leader
Trustworthy
Comfortable removing obstacles & reaching out to senior leadership

 Personality / Energy




Challenging, yet supportive
Positive, upbeat, energetic
Pushy without irritating

 Objectivity / Fairness


Not directly affected by the improvements being made

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

8
Facilitator Tips – Planning Stage

Planning
4-6 Weeks
Prior

Execution
2-5 Days

Followup
4-8 Weeks
Post

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

9
Scope carefully
Clear goals & objectives
People need to clearly
understand what they’re
allowed to do…
…and what they do NOT
have permission to do
Eases leadership
apprehension
Clarifies direction
Charters provide
“Freedom with Boundaries”
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

10
Psychology at Work:
Improvement Team Selection
No more than 10
Be very strategic




Include a strong influence leader or two
Include a representative of an area that’s
likely to resist (a particular department,
unions, etc.)
 They often become your greatest advocates.
 Don’t avoid “whiners.”

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

11
Psychology at Work
Forming Improvement Teams
No more than 10
Cross-functional composition













Process workers
Upstream suppliers (internal)
Downstream customers (internal)
Subject matter experts
Outside eyes
External suppliers / contractors
External customers
Administrative support (if needed)
Union representatives (if relevant)
Maintenance / facilities representatives
Management (limited representation)

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Embrace Complainers
Complainers can be your most valuable
resource.
• Give them the proper
forum to be heard

• Invite them to play an
active role in
implementing solutions.

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Reducing resistance to
sequestration
Sell the virtues of focus.
Ask about how the department functions if
someone is on jury duty, is ill, or goes on
vacation.
Remind them how long the process has
needed improvement.
Ask if the current improvement approach
is effective.

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

14
Facilitator Tips – Execution Stage

Planning
4-6 Weeks
Prior

Execution
2-5 Days

Follow
Up
4-8 Weeks
Post

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

15
Ground Rules
 The team starts and ends the day together.
 Being on time is critical.
 The team stays 100% committed and 100% focused; no
interruptions.
 All wireless devices on silent mode or off. No vibration.
 Rank has no privilege.
 Finger-pointing has no place.
 No veto power from outside the team.
 No silent objectors. Don’t leave in silent disagreement.
 Seek the wisdom of ten, rather than the knowledge of one.
 What’s said in the room stays in the room.
 It’s okay and encouraged to disagree; it’s not okay to be
disagreeable.
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

16
Team Dynamics

Performing

Adjourning

Norming

Storming

Forming

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

Tuckman Model
Bruce Tuckman, 1965
17
Embrace Conflict
Conflict, if well managed, stimulates
innovation.




Embrace it
Encourage it
Manage it

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
How psychology affects
process performance &
design

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

19
Customer Demand:
15 patients per Day
(Takt Time = 32 minutes)
8 hours per day

Current State Value Stream Map
Outpatient Imaging Services

Pre-register
Patient

5

CT=Cycle Time
LT=Lead Time
%C&A=% Complete & Accurate

Schedule
Appointment

4

3

6

Lead T ime = 990 mins.

Cycle T ime = 30 mins.
Lead T ime = 990 mins.
% C&A = 100 %

Refer Patient
(Physician) 2

Lead T ime = 12 mins.

Cycle T ime = 11 mins.
Lead T ime = 12 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

Patient
2

1

% C&A = 65 %

Auto Fax 50%
Us Mail 25%
MD Mailbox 25%

Symposium

E Pay

Excel

ADS

Internet

Meditech

Waiting Room
Management
System

Fax Order
Solutions

Rework Loop
via Fax 25% of
the time

PACS

Lead T ime = 10 days

Check-in
Patient
(Admitting)

Check-in
Patient
(Imaging)

5 mins.
5

5

5 mins.

Cycle T ime = 2 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

0.0833 hrs.

3

80 mins.

6

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

0.0833 hrs.
2 mins.

7

2

2

9

365 mins.

Cycle T ime = 15 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

4.13 hrs.
28 mins.

8

960 mins.
2

Lead T ime = 5 mins.
% C&A = 75 %

6.08 hrs.
15 mins.

Print
Reports
(Imaging)

Review / Sign
Report
(Radiologist)

T ranscribe Report
(MDI)
248 mins.

Cycle T ime = 28 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

1.33 hrs.
1 mins.

Read/Dictate
Exam
(Radiologist)

Prep Patient, Conduct
Exam, T ransmit
Images (T ech)

10

110 mins.

16 hrs.

1.83 hrs.
1 mins.

11

120 mins.

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 99 %

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

5 mins.

2

Send
Reports
(Imaging)

6

12

Cycle T ime = 3 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

2 hrs.
1 mins.

LT = 32.5 hrs.
3 mins.

CT = 56 mins.
CT /LT Ratio = 2.87%

Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner
Created July 19, 2005

LT = 16 hrs

Rolled First Pass
yield = 30%
Waste creates avoidance behavior
If it’s too hard to do, we
will delay or avoid doing it.







Builds up work-in-process
Prolongs lead time
May increase process time
May impact quality
Often results in batching
The Power of Real-Time, Visual
Process Monitoring

When we are
monitored, we
perform differently
Cameras
 Posted metrics


 especially leading
indicators

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

22
Future State Value Stream Map
Outpatient Imaging Services
Customer Demand:
15 patients per Day
(Takt Time = 32 minutes)
8 hours per day

CT=Cycle Time
LT=Lead Time
%C&A=% Complete & Accurate

Cross
Training

Standard
Work
Work
Balance

Co-locate
Schedule appt
Pre-register

Patient
Refer Patient
(Physician)

3

6

Cycle T ime = 11 mins.
Lead T ime = 45 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

% C&A = 85 %

Standard
Work

Lead T ime = 5 days

Risk
Reduction
(Joint Commision)

Symposium

E Pay

Remove
Redundant
Check-in

Excel

Meditech

Set-up
Reduction

Standard
Work

Prep Patient,
Conduct Exam,
T ransmit Images
(T ech)

Check-in
Patient
(Imaging)
5 mins.

3

4

60 mins.

0.0833 hrs.

5

2

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

120 mins.

PACS

Continuous
Flow

6

Rework Loop
via Fax 10% of
the time

5S

420 mins.

2

7

Print
Reports
(Imaging)

2 mins.

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

7 hrs.
15 mins.

Standard
Work

Batch
Reductions

Review
/Sign
(Radiologist)

Cycle T ime = 15 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

2 hrs.
28 mins.

Fax Order
Solutions

Waiting Room
Management
System

Visual
Workplace

2

Us Mail 15%

Voice
Recognition

Read/Dictate
Exam
(Radiologist)

Cycle T ime = 28 mins.
% C&A = 90 %
1 hrs.

1 mins.

Internet

Auto Fax 80%
MD Mailbox 5%

Value Stream
Alignment

Pull System
(Supplies
Kanban)

Reduce Data
Entry
Requirements

1

2

Lead T ime = 45 mins.

2

Send
Reports
(Imaging)

8

30 mins.

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 99 %

0.0333 hrs.
1 mins.

6

0.5 hrs.
1 mins.

9

Cycle T ime = 3 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

LT = 11.4 hrs.
3 mins.

CT = 49 mins.
CT /LT Ratio = 7.14%

Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner

LT = 7 hrs

Created July 20, 2005

Rolled First Pass
yield = 59%
Our “sphere of influence” is
typically greater than we
believe.






We absolutely can influence
customer behavior!
Rethink your true sphere of
influence when when scoping
improvement activities and
selecting teams.
Avoid victim thinking (“we can’t
do anything about that”).

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Customer Demand:
15 patients per Day
(Takt Time = 32 minutes)
8 hours per day

Current State Value Stream Map
Outpatient Imaging Services

CT=Cycle Time
LT=Lead Time
%C&A=% Complete & Accurate

%C&A = 65%
Pre-register
Patient

5

Schedule
Appointment

4

3

6

Lead T ime = 990 mins.

Cycle T ime = 30 mins.
Lead T ime = 990 mins.
% C&A = 100 %

Refer Patient
(Physician) 2

Lead T ime = 12 mins.

Cycle T ime = 11 mins.
Lead T ime = 12 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

Patient
2

1

% C&A = 65 %

Auto Fax 50%
Us Mail 25%
MD Mailbox 25%

Symposium

E Pay

Excel

ADS

Internet

Meditech

Waiting Room
Management
System

Fax Order
Solutions

Rework Loop
via Fax 25% of
the time

PACS

Lead T ime = 10 days

Check-in
Patient
(Admitting)

Check-in
Patient
(Imaging)

5 mins.
5

5

5 mins.

Cycle T ime = 2 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

0.0833 hrs.

3

80 mins.

6

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

0.0833 hrs.
2 mins.

7

2

248 mins.

2

9

365 mins.

Cycle T ime = 15 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

4.13 hrs.
28 mins.

8

960 mins.
2

Lead T ime = 5 mins.
% C&A = 75 %

6.08 hrs.
15 mins.

10

110 mins.

2

1.83 hrs.
1 mins.

11

Send
Reports
(Imaging)

120 mins.

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 99 %

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 95 %
16 hrs.

5 mins.

Print
Reports
(Imaging)

Review / Sign
Report
(Radiologist)

T ranscribe Report
(MDI)

Cycle T ime = 28 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

1.33 hrs.
1 mins.

Read/Dictate
Exam
(Radiologist)

Prep Patient, Conduct
Exam, T ransmit
Images (T ech)

6

12

Cycle T ime = 3 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

2 hrs.
1 mins.

LT = 32.5 hrs.
3 mins.

CT = 56 mins.
CT /LT Ratio = 2.87%

Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner
Created July 19, 2005

RFPY = 30%

Rolled First Pass
yield = 30%
You Can Influence Customer
Behavior

Standard work
designed for
and with the
customer

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Future State Value Stream Map
Outpatient Imaging Services
Customer Demand:
15 patients per Day
(Takt Time = 32 minutes)
8 hours per day

%C&A = 85%

Cross
Training

Standard
Work

CT=Cycle Time
LT=Lead Time
%C&A=% Complete & Accurate

Work
Balance

Co-locate
Schedule appt
Pre-register

Patient
Refer Patient
(Physician)

3

6

Cycle T ime = 11 mins.
Lead T ime = 45 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

% C&A = 85 %

Standard
Work

Lead T ime = 5 days

Risk
Reduction
(Joint Commision)

Symposium

E Pay

Remove
Redundant
Check-in

Excel

Meditech

Set-up
Reduction

Standard
Work

Prep Patient,
Conduct Exam,
T ransmit Images
(T ech)

Check-in
Patient
(Imaging)
5 mins.

3

4

60 mins.

0.0833 hrs.

5

2

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 98 %

120 mins.

PACS

Continuous
Flow

6

420 mins.

5S

2

7

Standard
Work

Print
Reports
(Imaging)

2 mins.

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

7 hrs.
15 mins.

Rework Loop
via Fax 10% of
the time

Batch
Reductions

Review
/Sign
(Radiologist)

Cycle T ime = 15 mins.
% C&A = 95 %

2 hrs.
28 mins.

Fax Order
Solutions

Waiting Room
Management
System

Visual
Workplace

2

Us Mail 15%

Voice
Recognition

Read/Dictate
Exam
(Radiologist)

Cycle T ime = 28 mins.
% C&A = 90 %
1 hrs.

1 mins.

Internet

Auto Fax 80%
MD Mailbox 5%

Value Stream
Alignment

Pull System
(Supplies
Kanban)

Reduce Data
Entry
Requirements

1

2

Lead T ime = 45 mins.

2

Send
Reports
(Imaging)

8

30 mins.

Cycle T ime = 1 mins.
% C&A = 99 %

0.0333 hrs.

6

0.5 hrs.

1 mins.

9

Cycle T ime = 3 mins.
% C&A = 90 %

1 mins.

LT = 11.4 hrs.
3 mins.

CT = 49 mins.
CT /LT Ratio = 7.14%

Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner
Created July 20, 2005

RFPY = 59%

Rolled First Pass
yield = 59%
Current State Value Stream Map
Supplies Purchasing - Current State VSM
Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000
Inititate Req.

1

Originator
31
PT = 10 mins.
C&A = 10%
Supplies
Hard Copy

Form File

File Maker

Quicken

Vendor
Website

Excel

ERP

Data Entry

Review
Budget

2

Review Req.

Finance
PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 60%

0.25 days

4 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 95%

0.5 days
5 mins.

20 Reqs

Review 4
Requisition

40 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 90%

8 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 100%

1 days
5 mins.

8 hrs.

7

10 Reqs

1

PT = 10 mins.
C&A = 95%

4 hrs.

PT = 15 mins.
C&A = 98%

0.5 days
10 mins.

Approve in
ERP

24 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 90%

3 days
15 mins.

Submit PO
to Supplier

8
63 Reqs

9

10
External
Supplier

Corp Purchasing
Manager
1

Admin Asst

Financial Mgr
1

1 days
5 mins.

Enter
Requisition

Review 6
Requisition

IS Manager
1

1

5 days
5 mins.

Review 5
Requisition

Sys Engineer

Supervisor
2

6
2 hrs.

3

Corp Purchasing
6
56 hrs.

PT = 15 mins.
C&A = 98%

7 days
5 mins.

80 hrs.

PT = 20 mins.

10 days
15 mins.

LT = 28.4 days
PT = 65 mins.
AR = 0.477%
RFPY = 4.2%

Customer Demand:
615 requisitions per y ear

PT = Process Time
LT = Lead Time
C&A = % Complete & Accurate
AR = Activ ity Ratio (PT/LT x 100)
RFPY = Rolled First Pass Y ield
Countering Resistance to
“Menial” Work
We resist doing work that’s “beneath us”
until we realize we’re already doing it 

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Future State Value Stream Map
Supplies Purchasing - Future State VSM
Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000
Lack of awareness
Lack of confidence
Change fatigue

Additional
IT access
Enter Req.
in ERP
Integrate Form
File with File
Maker

1

Originator
31
PT=30 mins.
C&A = 85%
Supplies
Requisition
Checklist
Vendor
Websites

File Maker

Cross
Training

Approval

Additional
IT access

2

4 hrs.

6 hrs.

0.75 days
5 mins.

Place
Order

3

4

5
External
Supplier

6

PT=20 mins.

80 hrs.

PT=20 mins.
C&A = 98%

1 days
5 mins.

Dedicated
Buyers

Corp Purchasing
8 hrs.

PT=5 mins.
C&A = 90%

PT=5 mins.
C&A = 95%

0.5 days

Approve
in ERP
Dept.
Manager
1

Supervisor
2

Use budget in place
of Quicken

Auto Notify

Standard
Work for
review

Review
Req.

ERP

10 days
20 mins.

LT = 12.3 days
PT = 30 mins.
AR = 0.508%

Customer Demand:
615 requistions per year

PT = Process Time
LT = Lead Time
C&A = % Complete & Accurate
AR = Activity Ratio (PT/LT x 100)
RFPY = Rolled First Pass Yield

RFPY = 71%
Most inspection (reviews, approvals, audits,
etc.) is grounded in lack of trust or fear.




Low faith in process reliability
Low confidence in people performing the work
Fear of losing control
 High “need to know”



Risk aversion
 Fear re: outcome

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

31
Current State Value Stream Map
Supplies Purchasing - Current State VSM
Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000
Inititate Req.

1

Originator
31
PT = 10 mins.
C&A = 10%
Supplies
Hard Copy

Form File

File Maker

Quicken

Vendor
Website

Excel

ERP

Data Entry

Review
Budget

2

Review Req.

Finance
PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 60%

0.25 days

4 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 95%

0.5 days
5 mins.

20 Reqs

Review 4
Requisition

Review 5
Requisition

Sys Engineer

Supervisor
2

6
2 hrs.

3

IS Manager
1

1
40 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 90%

5 days
5 mins.

8 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 100%

1 days
5 mins.

8 hrs.

7

10 Reqs

1

PT = 10 mins.
C&A = 95%

4 hrs.

PT = 15 mins.
C&A = 98%

0.5 days
10 mins.

Approve in
ERP

24 hrs.

PT = 5 mins.
C&A = 90%

3 days
15 mins.

Submit PO
to Supplier

8
63 Reqs

9

10
External
Supplier

Corp Purchasing
Manager
1

Admin Asst

Financial Mgr
1

1 days
5 mins.

Enter
Requisition

Review 6
Requisition

Corp Purchasing
6
56 hrs.

PT = 15 mins.
C&A = 98%

7 days
5 mins.

80 hrs.

PT = 20 mins.

10 days
15 mins.

LT = 28.4 days
PT = 65 mins.
AR = 0.477%
RFPY = 4.2%

Customer Demand:
615 requisitions per y ear

5 “Inspections”

PT = Process Time
LT = Lead Time
C&A = % Complete & Accurate
AR = Activ ity Ratio (PT/LT x 100)
RFPY = Rolled First Pass Y ield
Excessive Approvals &
Authorizations
Is the approval redundant? (same skill set and
perspective as another approver)
Is the approval a “rubber stamp”?
Does the approver have the technical skills and
experience to understand what they are signing?
Does the approver have the authorization to
approve or deny?
Is the approver accessible?
Is the approver on the routing list merely to stay
informed?
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

33
Lean Approvals
Move authorizations to the lowest level possible





Closest to the work
Create standard work re: decision making and train
lower level approvers accordingly
Audit periodically until trust is assured

Remove approvals that serve merely as
notification devices


Design notification to occur “off-line”

Process design goal: maximum of two
signatures for any decision
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

34
Future State Value Stream Map
Supplies Purchasing - Future State VSM
Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000
Additional
IT access
Enter Req.
in ERP
Integrate Form
File with File
Maker

1

Originator
31
PT=30 mins.
C&A = 85%
Supplies
Requisition
Checklist
Vendor
Websites

File Maker

Cross
Training

Approval

Additional
IT access

2

6 hrs.

2

Place
Order

3

0.75 days
5 mins.

4

5
External
Supplier

6

PT=20 mins.

80 hrs.

PT=20 mins.
C&A = 98%

1 days
5 mins.

Dedicated
Buyers

Corp Purchasing
8 hrs.

PT=5 mins.
C&A = 90%

PT=5 mins.
C&A = 95%

0.5 days

Approve
in ERP
Dept.
Manager
1

Supervisor
4 hrs.

Use budget in place
of Quicken

Auto Notify

Standard
Work for
review

Review
Req.

ERP

10 days
20 mins.

LT = 12.3 days
PT = 30 mins.
AR = 0.508%

1 “Inspection”

Customer Demand:
615 requistions per year

PT = Process Time
LT = Lead Time
C&A = % Complete & Accurate
AR = Activity Ratio (PT/LT x 100)
RFPY = Rolled First Pass Yield

RFPY = 71%
Reducing Resistance &
Building “Process Trust”
Demonstrate how the current state process
impacts the customer
Point out that non-value-adding work is typically
not stimulating
Facilitate candid conversations
Pose “what if” scenarios
Develop clear and concise standard work and
provide excellent training and cross-training
around it
Time-limited audits
Improvement pilots
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

36
Facilitator Skills:
Psychology at Work

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

37
Tricky Facilitator Moments

Watch for Covert Resistance

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

38
Pay Close Attention to Body
Language
Body language and
demeanor tell the whole
story







Crossed arms
No eye contact
Sudden change in level
of engagement
Set jaw
Incongruity between
words and actions

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Techniques for Using Body
Language Cues
Draw them out.
If safe, ask them directly.


Establish and get agreement re: “Cards on
the table” rule upfront

Allow them to express their feelings.
Make it safe – protect them from ridicule.
Listen carefully – ask others to listen
carefully too.
Ask the team to comment.
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

40
Tricky Facilitator Moments

Keep your radar well-tuned.

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

41
Tricky Facilitator Moments

What if you’re designing
someone out of his/her job?

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

42
Eliminating Non-Value-Adding Work
Try to anticipate upfront.
Create a game plan for “redeployment.”
Assure the person they won’t lose a paycheck.
Help them find more fulfilling, value-adding work
(doing wasteful work is usually boring and
frustrating.)
Keep tabs on his/her emotions.
Be honest.
Play to their “currency.”
Invite / allow them to emote.
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

43
Tricky Facilitator Moments

What if someone is behaving
outrageously?

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

44
Dealing with Outrageous Behavior
Your job is to have the team’s back.
Have zero tolerance for disrespect.
Engage leadership if need be.
Have side bars outside the room.
Allow the person to emote.
If they won’t settle down, they must leave the
team.

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

45
Tricky Facilitator Moments

What if the team gets stuck
or goes out of scope?

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

46
Helping a Team Get Unstuck or Back
on Track
Return to the goals and objectives for the
improvement activity.
Flip chart “parking lot” ideas.
Use the “ticking clock” technique.
Take a break. Go outside. Talk about
something unrelated. Eat.
Reach out to the executive sponsor.
Turn to brainstorming.
Prioritize ideas.
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

47
PACE Prioritization Matrix
Easy

5

4
13

23

8

22

17
3

10

21

1

16
15
20
19

14

6
7

11
2

18
12

Difficult

Ease of Implementation

9

High

Anticipated Benefit

Low
Tricky Facilitator Moments

What if someone is
resisting?

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

49
Dealing with Resistance
Assess whether it’s valid or “emotional
resistance.”


Ask “why?”

“Would you be willing to try it for 30 days”?
They: “We’ve already tried that.”


You: “Don’t throw the baby out with the bath
water.”

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

50
Use visuals and data to demonstrate the
degree of dysfunction in the process
Tricky Facilitator Moments

What if it’s a risk adverse
environment and
innovation is lacking?

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

52
Dealing with Risk Aversion or
Lack of Innovation
Get alignment re: risk tolerance across the
leadership team.
Facilitate candid conversations.
Pose “what if” scenarios.
Create safety nets.
Audit as needed.
Engage the executive sponsor.
Show them examples, perhaps outside of their
industry, or even non-work related.


Develop a library of photos

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

53
Develop a Photo Library

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

54
Psychology in Use
Issue
Team is designing someone
out of a job

Resolution
Quick intervention with
leadership and affected
parties

Professional level workers
feel a task is “beneath” them
“Difficult person” no one
wants to work with
Organization is filled with
doubt and skepticism

Demonstrate the TRUE
impact and benefits
Involve them – they become
the greatest advocates

Leadership is reluctant to
give up tactical control

Help them see how their role
shifts for the positive

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

Hold REAL Kaizen Events

55
Techniques…
 Use a charter with clear goals and objectives (that you’ve
obtained consensus on upfront).
 Gain consensus on the easy things first.


Makes saying no more difficult

 If more than 20% of the affected parties disagree with the
planned direction, don’t do it! (yet)


Keep working it – understand the issues – get to root cause

 Revisit improvement objectives.
 Use data.
 Ask the resistors if they’d be willing to try it for 30 days.
 Create a contingency plan in case failure occurs.
 Explain WHY!!!!
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

56
Transforming Organizations

Results
Actions
-- From Partners in Leadership

Beliefs
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

Experiences
Learning Objectives
Participants will learn how to:










Establish the environment for honest and, yes,
sometimes emotional discussions.
Read body language and behavior to assess buyin.
Address both overt and covert resistance.
Gain consensus every step of the way.
Spark innovation in risk-adverse environments.
Help leadership create a worker-initiated
improvement environment.

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

58
Facilitator Support
The Kaizen Event Planner, Karen Martin &
Mike Osterling

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

59
Additional Questions

Karen Martin, Principal
7770 Regents Road #635
San Diego, CA 92122
858.677.6799
ksm@ksmartin.com

© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates

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Lean Facilitator Skills: Applying Psychology in the Moment

  • 1. Facilitator Skills: Applying Lean Psychology “In the Moment” January 21, 2010 Company LOGO
  • 2. Learning Objectives Participants will learn how to:       Establish the environment for honest and, yes, sometimes emotional discussions. Read body language and behavior to assess buy-in. Address both overt and covert resistance. Gain consensus every step of the way. Spark innovation in risk-adverse environments. Help leadership create a worker-initiated improvement environment. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 2
  • 3. Facilitator: Defined Facilitator – one who facilitates fa·cil·i·tate (verb) 1. to make easier or less difficult; help forward (an action, a process, etc.) 2. To assist the progress of (a person or activity). © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 3
  • 4. Improvement Facilitator Roles & Responsibilities Teaching skill sets Advocating improvements Facilitating design and implementation activities Mediating disagreements between functional areas Encouraging behavioral changes Coaching teams Convincing leadership to allocate necessary resources Driving execution Selling the need for improvement © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 4
  • 5. The Facilitator’s Many Hats © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 5
  • 6. The Facilitator as Psychologist Figuring out each person’s “what’s in it for me” Figuring out each person’s “currency” Figuring out the root of each person’s resistance Reduce cynicism Generate momentum for change © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 6
  • 7. The Facilitator as Salesperson The need for improvement. How improvement will benefit your customer. How improvement will benefit the organization. How improvement will benefit the individual. Why you need what you need.   Time Resources Why you need to do things a certain way. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 7
  • 8. Improvement Facilitator Necessary Traits  Skills / Knowledge      Lean tools Root cause analysis Project & time management Team building / facilitation People effectiveness – from front line workers to execs  Authority / Respect    Designated change agent / influence leader Trustworthy Comfortable removing obstacles & reaching out to senior leadership  Personality / Energy    Challenging, yet supportive Positive, upbeat, energetic Pushy without irritating  Objectivity / Fairness  Not directly affected by the improvements being made © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 8
  • 9. Facilitator Tips – Planning Stage Planning 4-6 Weeks Prior Execution 2-5 Days Followup 4-8 Weeks Post © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 9
  • 10. Scope carefully Clear goals & objectives People need to clearly understand what they’re allowed to do… …and what they do NOT have permission to do Eases leadership apprehension Clarifies direction Charters provide “Freedom with Boundaries” © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 10
  • 11. Psychology at Work: Improvement Team Selection No more than 10 Be very strategic   Include a strong influence leader or two Include a representative of an area that’s likely to resist (a particular department, unions, etc.)  They often become your greatest advocates.  Don’t avoid “whiners.” © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 11
  • 12. Psychology at Work Forming Improvement Teams No more than 10 Cross-functional composition            Process workers Upstream suppliers (internal) Downstream customers (internal) Subject matter experts Outside eyes External suppliers / contractors External customers Administrative support (if needed) Union representatives (if relevant) Maintenance / facilities representatives Management (limited representation) © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 13. Embrace Complainers Complainers can be your most valuable resource. • Give them the proper forum to be heard • Invite them to play an active role in implementing solutions. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 14. Reducing resistance to sequestration Sell the virtues of focus. Ask about how the department functions if someone is on jury duty, is ill, or goes on vacation. Remind them how long the process has needed improvement. Ask if the current improvement approach is effective. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 14
  • 15. Facilitator Tips – Execution Stage Planning 4-6 Weeks Prior Execution 2-5 Days Follow Up 4-8 Weeks Post © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 15
  • 16. Ground Rules  The team starts and ends the day together.  Being on time is critical.  The team stays 100% committed and 100% focused; no interruptions.  All wireless devices on silent mode or off. No vibration.  Rank has no privilege.  Finger-pointing has no place.  No veto power from outside the team.  No silent objectors. Don’t leave in silent disagreement.  Seek the wisdom of ten, rather than the knowledge of one.  What’s said in the room stays in the room.  It’s okay and encouraged to disagree; it’s not okay to be disagreeable. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 16
  • 17. Team Dynamics Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Tuckman Model Bruce Tuckman, 1965 17
  • 18. Embrace Conflict Conflict, if well managed, stimulates innovation.    Embrace it Encourage it Manage it © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 19. How psychology affects process performance & design © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 19
  • 20. Customer Demand: 15 patients per Day (Takt Time = 32 minutes) 8 hours per day Current State Value Stream Map Outpatient Imaging Services Pre-register Patient 5 CT=Cycle Time LT=Lead Time %C&A=% Complete & Accurate Schedule Appointment 4 3 6 Lead T ime = 990 mins. Cycle T ime = 30 mins. Lead T ime = 990 mins. % C&A = 100 % Refer Patient (Physician) 2 Lead T ime = 12 mins. Cycle T ime = 11 mins. Lead T ime = 12 mins. % C&A = 98 % Patient 2 1 % C&A = 65 % Auto Fax 50% Us Mail 25% MD Mailbox 25% Symposium E Pay Excel ADS Internet Meditech Waiting Room Management System Fax Order Solutions Rework Loop via Fax 25% of the time PACS Lead T ime = 10 days Check-in Patient (Admitting) Check-in Patient (Imaging) 5 mins. 5 5 5 mins. Cycle T ime = 2 mins. % C&A = 90 % 0.0833 hrs. 3 80 mins. 6 Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 98 % 0.0833 hrs. 2 mins. 7 2 2 9 365 mins. Cycle T ime = 15 mins. % C&A = 95 % 4.13 hrs. 28 mins. 8 960 mins. 2 Lead T ime = 5 mins. % C&A = 75 % 6.08 hrs. 15 mins. Print Reports (Imaging) Review / Sign Report (Radiologist) T ranscribe Report (MDI) 248 mins. Cycle T ime = 28 mins. % C&A = 90 % 1.33 hrs. 1 mins. Read/Dictate Exam (Radiologist) Prep Patient, Conduct Exam, T ransmit Images (T ech) 10 110 mins. 16 hrs. 1.83 hrs. 1 mins. 11 120 mins. Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 99 % Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 95 % 5 mins. 2 Send Reports (Imaging) 6 12 Cycle T ime = 3 mins. % C&A = 90 % 2 hrs. 1 mins. LT = 32.5 hrs. 3 mins. CT = 56 mins. CT /LT Ratio = 2.87% Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner Created July 19, 2005 LT = 16 hrs Rolled First Pass yield = 30%
  • 21. Waste creates avoidance behavior If it’s too hard to do, we will delay or avoid doing it.      Builds up work-in-process Prolongs lead time May increase process time May impact quality Often results in batching
  • 22. The Power of Real-Time, Visual Process Monitoring When we are monitored, we perform differently Cameras  Posted metrics   especially leading indicators © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 22
  • 23. Future State Value Stream Map Outpatient Imaging Services Customer Demand: 15 patients per Day (Takt Time = 32 minutes) 8 hours per day CT=Cycle Time LT=Lead Time %C&A=% Complete & Accurate Cross Training Standard Work Work Balance Co-locate Schedule appt Pre-register Patient Refer Patient (Physician) 3 6 Cycle T ime = 11 mins. Lead T ime = 45 mins. % C&A = 98 % % C&A = 85 % Standard Work Lead T ime = 5 days Risk Reduction (Joint Commision) Symposium E Pay Remove Redundant Check-in Excel Meditech Set-up Reduction Standard Work Prep Patient, Conduct Exam, T ransmit Images (T ech) Check-in Patient (Imaging) 5 mins. 3 4 60 mins. 0.0833 hrs. 5 2 Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 98 % 120 mins. PACS Continuous Flow 6 Rework Loop via Fax 10% of the time 5S 420 mins. 2 7 Print Reports (Imaging) 2 mins. Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 95 % 7 hrs. 15 mins. Standard Work Batch Reductions Review /Sign (Radiologist) Cycle T ime = 15 mins. % C&A = 95 % 2 hrs. 28 mins. Fax Order Solutions Waiting Room Management System Visual Workplace 2 Us Mail 15% Voice Recognition Read/Dictate Exam (Radiologist) Cycle T ime = 28 mins. % C&A = 90 % 1 hrs. 1 mins. Internet Auto Fax 80% MD Mailbox 5% Value Stream Alignment Pull System (Supplies Kanban) Reduce Data Entry Requirements 1 2 Lead T ime = 45 mins. 2 Send Reports (Imaging) 8 30 mins. Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 99 % 0.0333 hrs. 1 mins. 6 0.5 hrs. 1 mins. 9 Cycle T ime = 3 mins. % C&A = 90 % LT = 11.4 hrs. 3 mins. CT = 49 mins. CT /LT Ratio = 7.14% Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner LT = 7 hrs Created July 20, 2005 Rolled First Pass yield = 59%
  • 24. Our “sphere of influence” is typically greater than we believe.    We absolutely can influence customer behavior! Rethink your true sphere of influence when when scoping improvement activities and selecting teams. Avoid victim thinking (“we can’t do anything about that”). © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 25. Customer Demand: 15 patients per Day (Takt Time = 32 minutes) 8 hours per day Current State Value Stream Map Outpatient Imaging Services CT=Cycle Time LT=Lead Time %C&A=% Complete & Accurate %C&A = 65% Pre-register Patient 5 Schedule Appointment 4 3 6 Lead T ime = 990 mins. Cycle T ime = 30 mins. Lead T ime = 990 mins. % C&A = 100 % Refer Patient (Physician) 2 Lead T ime = 12 mins. Cycle T ime = 11 mins. Lead T ime = 12 mins. % C&A = 98 % Patient 2 1 % C&A = 65 % Auto Fax 50% Us Mail 25% MD Mailbox 25% Symposium E Pay Excel ADS Internet Meditech Waiting Room Management System Fax Order Solutions Rework Loop via Fax 25% of the time PACS Lead T ime = 10 days Check-in Patient (Admitting) Check-in Patient (Imaging) 5 mins. 5 5 5 mins. Cycle T ime = 2 mins. % C&A = 90 % 0.0833 hrs. 3 80 mins. 6 Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 98 % 0.0833 hrs. 2 mins. 7 2 248 mins. 2 9 365 mins. Cycle T ime = 15 mins. % C&A = 95 % 4.13 hrs. 28 mins. 8 960 mins. 2 Lead T ime = 5 mins. % C&A = 75 % 6.08 hrs. 15 mins. 10 110 mins. 2 1.83 hrs. 1 mins. 11 Send Reports (Imaging) 120 mins. Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 99 % Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 95 % 16 hrs. 5 mins. Print Reports (Imaging) Review / Sign Report (Radiologist) T ranscribe Report (MDI) Cycle T ime = 28 mins. % C&A = 90 % 1.33 hrs. 1 mins. Read/Dictate Exam (Radiologist) Prep Patient, Conduct Exam, T ransmit Images (T ech) 6 12 Cycle T ime = 3 mins. % C&A = 90 % 2 hrs. 1 mins. LT = 32.5 hrs. 3 mins. CT = 56 mins. CT /LT Ratio = 2.87% Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner Created July 19, 2005 RFPY = 30% Rolled First Pass yield = 30%
  • 26. You Can Influence Customer Behavior Standard work designed for and with the customer © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 27. Future State Value Stream Map Outpatient Imaging Services Customer Demand: 15 patients per Day (Takt Time = 32 minutes) 8 hours per day %C&A = 85% Cross Training Standard Work CT=Cycle Time LT=Lead Time %C&A=% Complete & Accurate Work Balance Co-locate Schedule appt Pre-register Patient Refer Patient (Physician) 3 6 Cycle T ime = 11 mins. Lead T ime = 45 mins. % C&A = 98 % % C&A = 85 % Standard Work Lead T ime = 5 days Risk Reduction (Joint Commision) Symposium E Pay Remove Redundant Check-in Excel Meditech Set-up Reduction Standard Work Prep Patient, Conduct Exam, T ransmit Images (T ech) Check-in Patient (Imaging) 5 mins. 3 4 60 mins. 0.0833 hrs. 5 2 Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 98 % 120 mins. PACS Continuous Flow 6 420 mins. 5S 2 7 Standard Work Print Reports (Imaging) 2 mins. Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 95 % 7 hrs. 15 mins. Rework Loop via Fax 10% of the time Batch Reductions Review /Sign (Radiologist) Cycle T ime = 15 mins. % C&A = 95 % 2 hrs. 28 mins. Fax Order Solutions Waiting Room Management System Visual Workplace 2 Us Mail 15% Voice Recognition Read/Dictate Exam (Radiologist) Cycle T ime = 28 mins. % C&A = 90 % 1 hrs. 1 mins. Internet Auto Fax 80% MD Mailbox 5% Value Stream Alignment Pull System (Supplies Kanban) Reduce Data Entry Requirements 1 2 Lead T ime = 45 mins. 2 Send Reports (Imaging) 8 30 mins. Cycle T ime = 1 mins. % C&A = 99 % 0.0333 hrs. 6 0.5 hrs. 1 mins. 9 Cycle T ime = 3 mins. % C&A = 90 % 1 mins. LT = 11.4 hrs. 3 mins. CT = 49 mins. CT /LT Ratio = 7.14% Value Stream Champion: Paul Scanner Created July 20, 2005 RFPY = 59% Rolled First Pass yield = 59%
  • 28. Current State Value Stream Map Supplies Purchasing - Current State VSM Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000 Inititate Req. 1 Originator 31 PT = 10 mins. C&A = 10% Supplies Hard Copy Form File File Maker Quicken Vendor Website Excel ERP Data Entry Review Budget 2 Review Req. Finance PT = 5 mins. C&A = 60% 0.25 days 4 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 95% 0.5 days 5 mins. 20 Reqs Review 4 Requisition 40 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 90% 8 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 100% 1 days 5 mins. 8 hrs. 7 10 Reqs 1 PT = 10 mins. C&A = 95% 4 hrs. PT = 15 mins. C&A = 98% 0.5 days 10 mins. Approve in ERP 24 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 90% 3 days 15 mins. Submit PO to Supplier 8 63 Reqs 9 10 External Supplier Corp Purchasing Manager 1 Admin Asst Financial Mgr 1 1 days 5 mins. Enter Requisition Review 6 Requisition IS Manager 1 1 5 days 5 mins. Review 5 Requisition Sys Engineer Supervisor 2 6 2 hrs. 3 Corp Purchasing 6 56 hrs. PT = 15 mins. C&A = 98% 7 days 5 mins. 80 hrs. PT = 20 mins. 10 days 15 mins. LT = 28.4 days PT = 65 mins. AR = 0.477% RFPY = 4.2% Customer Demand: 615 requisitions per y ear PT = Process Time LT = Lead Time C&A = % Complete & Accurate AR = Activ ity Ratio (PT/LT x 100) RFPY = Rolled First Pass Y ield
  • 29. Countering Resistance to “Menial” Work We resist doing work that’s “beneath us” until we realize we’re already doing it  © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 30. Future State Value Stream Map Supplies Purchasing - Future State VSM Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000 Lack of awareness Lack of confidence Change fatigue Additional IT access Enter Req. in ERP Integrate Form File with File Maker 1 Originator 31 PT=30 mins. C&A = 85% Supplies Requisition Checklist Vendor Websites File Maker Cross Training Approval Additional IT access 2 4 hrs. 6 hrs. 0.75 days 5 mins. Place Order 3 4 5 External Supplier 6 PT=20 mins. 80 hrs. PT=20 mins. C&A = 98% 1 days 5 mins. Dedicated Buyers Corp Purchasing 8 hrs. PT=5 mins. C&A = 90% PT=5 mins. C&A = 95% 0.5 days Approve in ERP Dept. Manager 1 Supervisor 2 Use budget in place of Quicken Auto Notify Standard Work for review Review Req. ERP 10 days 20 mins. LT = 12.3 days PT = 30 mins. AR = 0.508% Customer Demand: 615 requistions per year PT = Process Time LT = Lead Time C&A = % Complete & Accurate AR = Activity Ratio (PT/LT x 100) RFPY = Rolled First Pass Yield RFPY = 71%
  • 31. Most inspection (reviews, approvals, audits, etc.) is grounded in lack of trust or fear.    Low faith in process reliability Low confidence in people performing the work Fear of losing control  High “need to know”  Risk aversion  Fear re: outcome © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 31
  • 32. Current State Value Stream Map Supplies Purchasing - Current State VSM Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000 Inititate Req. 1 Originator 31 PT = 10 mins. C&A = 10% Supplies Hard Copy Form File File Maker Quicken Vendor Website Excel ERP Data Entry Review Budget 2 Review Req. Finance PT = 5 mins. C&A = 60% 0.25 days 4 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 95% 0.5 days 5 mins. 20 Reqs Review 4 Requisition Review 5 Requisition Sys Engineer Supervisor 2 6 2 hrs. 3 IS Manager 1 1 40 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 90% 5 days 5 mins. 8 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 100% 1 days 5 mins. 8 hrs. 7 10 Reqs 1 PT = 10 mins. C&A = 95% 4 hrs. PT = 15 mins. C&A = 98% 0.5 days 10 mins. Approve in ERP 24 hrs. PT = 5 mins. C&A = 90% 3 days 15 mins. Submit PO to Supplier 8 63 Reqs 9 10 External Supplier Corp Purchasing Manager 1 Admin Asst Financial Mgr 1 1 days 5 mins. Enter Requisition Review 6 Requisition Corp Purchasing 6 56 hrs. PT = 15 mins. C&A = 98% 7 days 5 mins. 80 hrs. PT = 20 mins. 10 days 15 mins. LT = 28.4 days PT = 65 mins. AR = 0.477% RFPY = 4.2% Customer Demand: 615 requisitions per y ear 5 “Inspections” PT = Process Time LT = Lead Time C&A = % Complete & Accurate AR = Activ ity Ratio (PT/LT x 100) RFPY = Rolled First Pass Y ield
  • 33. Excessive Approvals & Authorizations Is the approval redundant? (same skill set and perspective as another approver) Is the approval a “rubber stamp”? Does the approver have the technical skills and experience to understand what they are signing? Does the approver have the authorization to approve or deny? Is the approver accessible? Is the approver on the routing list merely to stay informed? © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 33
  • 34. Lean Approvals Move authorizations to the lowest level possible    Closest to the work Create standard work re: decision making and train lower level approvers accordingly Audit periodically until trust is assured Remove approvals that serve merely as notification devices  Design notification to occur “off-line” Process design goal: maximum of two signatures for any decision © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 34
  • 35. Future State Value Stream Map Supplies Purchasing - Future State VSM Purchasing — Non-repetitive purchases less than $5,000 Additional IT access Enter Req. in ERP Integrate Form File with File Maker 1 Originator 31 PT=30 mins. C&A = 85% Supplies Requisition Checklist Vendor Websites File Maker Cross Training Approval Additional IT access 2 6 hrs. 2 Place Order 3 0.75 days 5 mins. 4 5 External Supplier 6 PT=20 mins. 80 hrs. PT=20 mins. C&A = 98% 1 days 5 mins. Dedicated Buyers Corp Purchasing 8 hrs. PT=5 mins. C&A = 90% PT=5 mins. C&A = 95% 0.5 days Approve in ERP Dept. Manager 1 Supervisor 4 hrs. Use budget in place of Quicken Auto Notify Standard Work for review Review Req. ERP 10 days 20 mins. LT = 12.3 days PT = 30 mins. AR = 0.508% 1 “Inspection” Customer Demand: 615 requistions per year PT = Process Time LT = Lead Time C&A = % Complete & Accurate AR = Activity Ratio (PT/LT x 100) RFPY = Rolled First Pass Yield RFPY = 71%
  • 36. Reducing Resistance & Building “Process Trust” Demonstrate how the current state process impacts the customer Point out that non-value-adding work is typically not stimulating Facilitate candid conversations Pose “what if” scenarios Develop clear and concise standard work and provide excellent training and cross-training around it Time-limited audits Improvement pilots © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 36
  • 37. Facilitator Skills: Psychology at Work © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 37
  • 38. Tricky Facilitator Moments Watch for Covert Resistance © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 38
  • 39. Pay Close Attention to Body Language Body language and demeanor tell the whole story      Crossed arms No eye contact Sudden change in level of engagement Set jaw Incongruity between words and actions © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
  • 40. Techniques for Using Body Language Cues Draw them out. If safe, ask them directly.  Establish and get agreement re: “Cards on the table” rule upfront Allow them to express their feelings. Make it safe – protect them from ridicule. Listen carefully – ask others to listen carefully too. Ask the team to comment. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 40
  • 41. Tricky Facilitator Moments Keep your radar well-tuned. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 41
  • 42. Tricky Facilitator Moments What if you’re designing someone out of his/her job? © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 42
  • 43. Eliminating Non-Value-Adding Work Try to anticipate upfront. Create a game plan for “redeployment.” Assure the person they won’t lose a paycheck. Help them find more fulfilling, value-adding work (doing wasteful work is usually boring and frustrating.) Keep tabs on his/her emotions. Be honest. Play to their “currency.” Invite / allow them to emote. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 43
  • 44. Tricky Facilitator Moments What if someone is behaving outrageously? © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 44
  • 45. Dealing with Outrageous Behavior Your job is to have the team’s back. Have zero tolerance for disrespect. Engage leadership if need be. Have side bars outside the room. Allow the person to emote. If they won’t settle down, they must leave the team. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 45
  • 46. Tricky Facilitator Moments What if the team gets stuck or goes out of scope? © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 46
  • 47. Helping a Team Get Unstuck or Back on Track Return to the goals and objectives for the improvement activity. Flip chart “parking lot” ideas. Use the “ticking clock” technique. Take a break. Go outside. Talk about something unrelated. Eat. Reach out to the executive sponsor. Turn to brainstorming. Prioritize ideas. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 47
  • 49. Tricky Facilitator Moments What if someone is resisting? © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 49
  • 50. Dealing with Resistance Assess whether it’s valid or “emotional resistance.”  Ask “why?” “Would you be willing to try it for 30 days”? They: “We’ve already tried that.”  You: “Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water.” © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 50
  • 51. Use visuals and data to demonstrate the degree of dysfunction in the process
  • 52. Tricky Facilitator Moments What if it’s a risk adverse environment and innovation is lacking? © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 52
  • 53. Dealing with Risk Aversion or Lack of Innovation Get alignment re: risk tolerance across the leadership team. Facilitate candid conversations. Pose “what if” scenarios. Create safety nets. Audit as needed. Engage the executive sponsor. Show them examples, perhaps outside of their industry, or even non-work related.  Develop a library of photos © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 53
  • 54. Develop a Photo Library © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 54
  • 55. Psychology in Use Issue Team is designing someone out of a job Resolution Quick intervention with leadership and affected parties Professional level workers feel a task is “beneath” them “Difficult person” no one wants to work with Organization is filled with doubt and skepticism Demonstrate the TRUE impact and benefits Involve them – they become the greatest advocates Leadership is reluctant to give up tactical control Help them see how their role shifts for the positive © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Hold REAL Kaizen Events 55
  • 56. Techniques…  Use a charter with clear goals and objectives (that you’ve obtained consensus on upfront).  Gain consensus on the easy things first.  Makes saying no more difficult  If more than 20% of the affected parties disagree with the planned direction, don’t do it! (yet)  Keep working it – understand the issues – get to root cause  Revisit improvement objectives.  Use data.  Ask the resistors if they’d be willing to try it for 30 days.  Create a contingency plan in case failure occurs.  Explain WHY!!!! © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 56
  • 57. Transforming Organizations Results Actions -- From Partners in Leadership Beliefs © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Experiences
  • 58. Learning Objectives Participants will learn how to:       Establish the environment for honest and, yes, sometimes emotional discussions. Read body language and behavior to assess buyin. Address both overt and covert resistance. Gain consensus every step of the way. Spark innovation in risk-adverse environments. Help leadership create a worker-initiated improvement environment. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 58
  • 59. Facilitator Support The Kaizen Event Planner, Karen Martin & Mike Osterling © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 59
  • 60. Additional Questions Karen Martin, Principal 7770 Regents Road #635 San Diego, CA 92122 858.677.6799 ksm@ksmartin.com © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates