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Extract on Kleshas from Dr Ananda's exploration of Yogasutras
UNDERSTANDING THE YOGA DARSHAN
AN EXPLORATION OF THE YOGA SUTRA OF MAHARISHI PATAÑJALI
By
Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
MBBS, ADY, DSM, DPC, PGDFH, PGDY, FIAY
Chairman,
International Centre for Yoga Education and Research (ICYER)
at Ananda Ashram, Puducherry, India.
www.icyer.com
II:1
iÉ{É:º´ÉÉvªÉɪÉä·É®ú|ÉÊhÉvÉÉxÉÉÊxÉ ÊGòªÉɪÉÉäMÉ: *
tapaÇsv¤dhy¤ye½varapraºidh¤n¤ni kriy¤yogaÇ
Kriya yoga consists of
intensive self-discipline, introspective self-analysis and
surrender to the Universal Will after doing one's best.
Maharishi Patañjali begins the next pada with kriya yoga, the yoga
of action, the yoga of purification, the yoga of cleansing one's own
self through the fire of right action. What are these right actions?
There are three actions within the ambit of kriya yoga: tapa,
swadhyaya and ishwara pranidhana. Tapa is the discipline of one's
own self, developing the capability to do the most difficult things,
to push beyond one's limits. We must set and reset the limits on a
continuous basis. This is tapa manifested as an external discipline.
On the other hand swadhyaya is internal discipline, the process of
going inward and analyzing our nature. This analysis must be without
commiseration. "Analytical self-introspection must be", as Ammaji says
"Without justification, identification or condemnation". We must learn
to look at ourself with objectivity, vairagya or dispassionate
detachment towards our own personality. Ishwara pranidhana is
surrender to the higher, universal Divine Will. We must do our best
and this must be coupled with a dispassionate attitude of being able
to leave the rest. This results in pure and responsible actions. The
self-serving ego is sublimated when we offer our actions and
aspirations to the Divine Will. But we must never forget that before
giving up to the Divine, we must do whatever is possible within the
circumstances and our own limitations. This should not be confused
110 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
with escapism. Escapism is tamasica, inert and devolutionary. Ishwara
pranidhana is, on the contrary, of the highest, sattwica, evolutionary
surrender. It is, to be concise, surrender after utmost effort and release
of expectations for any desired results.
The Divine is not a sadist. He/She/It will never give us a challenge
that is beyond our capacities. The bigger the challenge, the greater
will be our capacity to overcome it. Great challenges are actually
compliments to our capacities, for life only tests us to the limits of
our abilities and not beyond that.
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 111
II:2
ºÉ¨ÉÉÊvɦÉÉ´ÉxÉÉlÉÇ: C±Éä¶ÉiÉxÉÚEò®úhÉÉlÉǶSÉ *
sam¤dhibh¤van¤rthaÇ kle½atan¶karaº¤rtha½ca
[Kriya yoga enables one]
to attenuate the afflictions and
attain higher states of absorption.
What is the purpose of kriya yoga? To reach the deep state of
samadhi and to reduce the effects of the klesha, the psychological
afflictions, the coloured filters through which we perceive reality. If
we saw life through perfect filters, we would perceive reality as it
is. These impurities or klesha distort our perceptions. The klesha need
to be attenuated, minimized and reduced (tanukarana). Kriya yoga
can be compared to walking on a path in the deep forest. We must
constantly move forward but must first clear away the underbrush
and stones hindering the journey.
112 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
II:3
+Ê´ÉtÉκ¨ÉiÉÉ®úÉMÉuäù¹ÉÉʦÉÊxÉ´Éä¶ÉÉ: C±Éä¶ÉÉ: *
avidy¤smit¤r¤gadve¿¤bhinive½¤Ç kle½¤Ç
These afflictions are
ignorance, false identity, attraction, repulsion
and survival instinct.
These klesha are within us right from our birth and keep us from
knowing who we are, from realizing our true Self. The klesha are of
five types. Although the five types are listed separately, they are all
interdependent. They are: avidya, asmita, raga, dwesha and
abhinivesha.
The first klesha is avidya, ignorance of the true reality. Avidya is the
refusal to see, not wanting to know the reality. The first part of the
word ignorance is "ignore", the refusal to acknowledge the existence
of something. Ignorance is not only an inability but also a refusal to
see which rises out of escape mechanisms. If we don't know
something, we don't have to do anything about it. This mechanism
allows one to be "blissfully ignorant" of the reality, of Sat!
Asmita is the ego, the false sense of "Me", "Mine" and "I". I have
pondered long on the question as to which is worse, ignorance or
the ego. Because of ignorance of true reality ego exists. Once ego
arises, it further distorts reality because the I-maker wishes to create
reality according to its whims and fancies. As an example: two people
have an accident. Both think they are right and that the other person
is wrong. This is because they perceive the whole situation in their
own way, the perspective which will make them correct and the other
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 113
person wrong. This is the sense of "I" and "mine-ness" which always
looks out for "No.1". The ego is clever and cunning. Lord Shiva,
the universal power of eternal goodness, is shown with the ego
(Muyalagan) under his feet. Sometimes even Lord Shiva gets distracted
during his cosmic dance (ananda tandavam). Then the ego, taking
advantage of the relaxation of control, sits up, even virtually stands
up. The great Lord then must squash it back down to the ground
where it belongs! The lesson is that true goodness, evolutionary
change and auspiciousness (all qualities associated with Shiva) can
only manifest when the ego is subdued.
Raga and dwesha are twin faces of the same coin, the likes and
dislikes we have collected. Raga and dwesha are attraction and
repulsion. Raga and dwesha are equally dangerous as they drag one
from the balanced plane of physical, emotional, mental and spiritual
health. Some may think that they are balanced, as they like a few
things and dislike a few things. However, the likes and dislikes pull
and push us off balance, creating total disharmony. Raga and dwesha
coexist. When raga is in full flow, dwesha is attenuated and when
dwesha is in full flow, raga is attenuated. More often than not,
detachment from what we dislike is more important than that from
what we like.
Vairagya is dispassion towards what one likes but also from what
one does not like. This includes dispassion towards oneself, too. Being
able to look at one's own personality at all levels with objectivity is
difficult, especially when it comes to likes and dislikes. Dispassion
must exist internally as well as externally. It is equally dangerous to
think or proclaim either "I am the best" or "I am the worst"! Some
consider it spiritual to hate or dislike themselves, and call such an
114 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
attitude humility. Self-pity and self-hatred is a big trap, a bottomless
pit, into which many an aspirant has fallen.
Abhinivesha is the deep instinct to survive at any cost. Clinging to
life is glorified in the contemporary world. Abhinivesha rises from a
deep rooted fear of death, the fear of a void, the fear of nothingness.
This self-preservation instinct is so integral to all beings that even
the wisest of people cannot escape its hold. It is engrained over
millions of years in genetic material and stored in the most ancient
parts of the brain. It is amazing to see what people will do in
life-threatening situations. Only the very rare person can transcend
this inbuilt survival mechanism. That rare person is the real yogi.
Dull tamasica people don't know what to do and hence, are stupefied
in the face of death. These are not sattwica people, who are fully
aware, and consciously face death with yogic equanimity. Such people
have uprooted this ancient instinct and live in fearlessness and bliss.
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 115
II:4
+Ê´ÉtÉ IÉäjɨÉÖkÉ®úä¹ÉÉÆ |ɺÉÖ{iÉiÉxÉÖÊ´ÉÎSUôzÉÉänùÉ®úÉhÉɨÉ *
avidy¤ k¿etramuttare¿¤Æ prasuptatanuvicchinnod¤r¤º¤m
The afflictions exist in
dormant, attenuated, manifest or overpowering states
depending on the basic field of ignorance.
Avidya is the foundation stone of the other klesha, the power that
propels all the other four. The strongest, most deeply rooted affliction,
it is called the Mother klesha as the others cannot exist without it.
With avidya as the fertile field (kshetra), the klesha appear in four
states. The first is prasupta, or the dormant state in which they have
not manifested yet. The second is an attenuated/mild state of
manifestation known as tanu. The third one is the fully manifest form
known as vicchinna. The fourth is the overpowering state of
udaranam. In the fourth state the klesha are so powerful that
everything else crumbles beneath their power. All four states of the
five klesha depend on avidya. Hence to overcome them, we must
deal with the source of the problem itself.
All five klesha manifest in these four states. An important part of
the evolutionary journey is to first become aware of them and
recognize their symptoms. The kriya yoga of Maharishi Patañjali offers
the external and internal tool of kriya yoga (tapa, swadhyaya and
ishwara pranidhana). This kriya yoga creates awareness of the klesha
and a consciousness which can control these afflictions.
When we are able to reduce avidya, we find that all the other klesha
can be attenuated or placed into dormancy automatically. Dormancy
116 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
is a state in which the seed of the klesha is still there. If you don't
water it, it doesn't grow. Yet, many people are busy watering the
weeds of their klesha. Then, they are astonished when they grow so
luxuriantly!
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 117
II:5
+ÊxÉiªÉɶÉÖÊSÉnùÖ:JÉÉxÉÉi¨ÉºÉÖ ÊxÉiªÉ¶ÉÖÊSɺÉÖJÉÉi¨ÉJªÉÉÊiÉ®úÊ´ÉtÉ*
anity¤½uciduÇkh¤n¤tmasu nitya½ucisukh¤tmakhy¤tiravidy¤
Ignorance is confusing
the impermanent to be permanent, the unclean to be clean,
the painful to be pleasurable and the non-self to be the true Self.
What is avidya? Maharishi Patañjali gives a classic definition of this
"state of ignorance". He describes avidya as confusing the
impermanent (anitya) with the permanent (nitya), the unclean (ashuchi)
with that which is clean and pure (shuchi), the painful (duhkha) with
the pleasurable (sukha), and the non-self (anatmasu) with the true
Self (atma). Personally I have not come across a better definition of
avidya.
For example, the sense (or is it non-sense?) of wanting to survive at
any cost (abhinivesha) creates much distorted aspiration. Many modern
crazes have risen from this affliction, such as cloning, or even having
one's cadaver frozen till medical science finds a cure for the disease
that killed you! You are going to come back no matter what, so
why pay for it? These attitudes are absolute avidya. Confusing the
non-self for the Self, the messy for the pure, pain with pleasure!
What can describe contemporary man better than this? This is a false
sense of identification with our bodies, our talents, our names, position
in life, credit cards, addresses, license plates and so on. Avidya is all
these wrong conceptions about "who we really are", the core
distractions that prevent us from truly knowing ourselves.
118 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
II:6
oMn¶ÉÇxɶÉCiªÉÉä®äEòÉi¨ÉiÉä´ÉÉκ¨ÉiÉÉ *
dÁgdar½ana½aktyorek¤tmatev¤smit¤
The ego arises from
a misidentification with the tool of perception.
The false sense of identity, the ego, occurs because of identification
with the tools of perception, mistaking them to be real. Drg means
the perceiver and in the case of asmita, we falsely identify with the
perceiver rather than absolute reality. Wrong identification with the
experiencing agent gives rise to the false sense of ego. It is like
watching images on a screen and mistaking the projected image as
reality. Consciously we know that the projector is only a tool and
that the projected image is not real. But we experience them as real.
This is the essence of ego, a tool that projects images. Lacking
awareness and consciousness, we mistake all projected illusions to be
real, like watching a 3-D film! We say: "I see", "I hear", "I taste"
but we really mean: "The senses perceive". We should not identify
with the tool.
While climbing a ladder, a point comes where the ladder must be
discarded as one achieves the goal. The ego, the sense of individuality,
is like a ladder. It is useful in its place and for its purpose. The ego
plays its role in evolution, but once the higher stage is reached, ego
must be left behind. One can't stand on the ladder forever and say:
"This is where I am, this is what I am and I have reached my goal".
This immature behaviour creates stagnancy.
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 119
II:7
ºÉÖJÉÉxÉֶɪÉÒ ®úÉMÉ: *
sukh¤nu½¤y¯ r¤gaÇ
Attraction is caused by the craving for pleasure.
What is raga? It is the inborn affliction that creates in us (anusay)
a sense of attraction. What is "that" towards which we are attracted?
All living beings are attracted to the pleasurable. The pleasure-pain
principle is the primal motivation of nature. Very few beings are
conscious enough to know the difference between "that" which is
pleasurable and "that" which is good. In fact Lord Yama (Dharmaraja,
the lord of justice) advises Nachiketha in the Kathopanishad that very
few choose the path of shreya (the evolutionary path of true
goodness). The path of shreya may be understood only by a refined
intellect endowed with viveka (discerning ability). On the contrary the
path of pleasure (preya) is followed by the majority, who are ignorant
and perverted. He explains that true knowledge (jnana vidya) reveals
the difference between the good and the pleasant to the wise.
Ignorance or avidya causes one to slide down the path of preya. Lord
Yama concludes by saying "Naturally, those who seek shreya are very
rare". This most important message is often given by our beloved
Ammaji, Yogacharini Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani in satsangha: "Don't
mistake the pleasant for the good!".
120 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
II:8
nùÖ:JÉÉxÉֶɪÉÒ uä¹É: *
duÇkh¤nu½¤y¯ dve¿aÇ
Repulsion occurs due to the fear of painful suffering.
Conversely, dwesha is that klesha which induces a sense of repulsion
or revulsion. It is the inherent, in-born tendency that pushes us away
from what we perceive to be a potential cause of painful suffering
(duhkha). This repulsion to pain is useful. It is a protective mechanism
that has enabled survival of the species through millions of years of
evolution. Dwesha is deeply rooted in the genetic makeup. Dwesha
ensures survival. Dwesha is necessary at the lower level, but must
be transcended by the evolving being. As Ammaji so beautifully puts
it, "What was previously virtue for the animal becomes a vice for
the human as we consciously evolve".
A great irony in human existence is the confusion between pleasure
and pain. We are unsure of what we truly like and what we truly
dislike. Many times we think something is pleasurable or painful, and
then we find out we were sadly mistaken. What was once upon a
time the "best day in our life" may very easily become the worst in
retrospect! Swamiji used the example of a young couple very much
in love declaring their marriage day as "the best day of their life".
Later, after years of conflict in an unhappy marriage, they may term
that very same marriage day as the worst day of their lives! The
opposite is also true. Many a time the "worst thing to ever happen
to us" becomes the best thing in retrospect for it sends us upward
on the evolutionary path.
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 121
II:9
º´É®úºÉ´ÉɽþÒ Ê´ÉnùÖ¹ÉÉä%Ê{É ºÉ¨ÉÉ°üføÉä%ʦÉÊxÉ´Éä¶É: *
svarasav¤h¯ vidu¿o'pi sam¤r¶¹ho'bhinive½aÇ
The universal desire to survive
is found even in the most learned of humans.
Abhinivesha is the deeply rooted survival instinct, clinging to life,
fear of death. All want to be immortal. This impulse has been
evidenced in much crazed behaviour throughout human history. This
klesha has a powerful momentum and affects even the wisest and
most knowledgeable (vidushoapi). This billion-year-old instinct is not
in our hands, having its own powerful energy.
Many spiritual seekers glibly remark, "I don't mind dying today – I
have no attachment to this body". These things are easy to say when
in a placid, non-stressful, safe environment. One may even feel this
to be perfectly true. But the test comes only in a "life and death"
situation. Only then does abhinivesha show its true colours. One can
shut down sensory apparatus, because the senses depend on the mind
(mana) for energy. The mind is the master energy source for all
senses, and so removal of the energy source by withdrawal of the
mind (pratyahara) results in control over the senses. Sensory control
thus is largely possible for a cultivated mind.
On the other hand, abhinivesha does not depend on the mind for its
energy thrust. Abhinivesha has its own independent energy source
(swarasavahi). Thus it is much more difficult to overcome.
Self-preservation is the basic instinct in nature, and in the animal
world it is the highest good. This is why abhinivesha is built into
122 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
the genetic structure, firmly established (tatharudho), to ensure the
survival of the species at all cost.
Once we chose the yogic path towards liberation, we realize the
physical body is a mere vehicle. We realize that the body must be
perfected as much as possible. But then the body must be sacrificed
at the altar of kaivalya. The virtue of abhinivesha in the animal,
becomes a vice in the human incarnation.
Many people chant the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra because they think
it will help them prevent death of this physical incarnation! They do
not realize that the mantra instead helps overcome fear of death, not
the actual physical death itself. People die in the fear of death long
before their actual death! The old proverb says wisely: "Cowards die
a thousand times before their death, but the heroic man dies but
once!" Fear of death is a wide spread affliction, making living a hell
of trepidation.
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 123
II:10
iÉä |ÉÊiÉ|ɺɴɽþäªÉÉ: ºÉÚI¨ÉÉ: *
te pratiprasavahey¤Ç s¶k¿m¤Ç
One must go against the very subtle source of these afflictions
[if they are to be eradicated].
These klesha are the afflictions, the coloured prisms through which
we view worldly life. Good sadhana draws the afflictions (klesha)
back into (pratiprasava) the subtle source from which they have
emanated. They must be destroyed (heyah) for further progress.
Self-awareness and self-witnessing through swadhyaya is the key skill
in uprooting the klesha. The klesha can hide themselves very well,
from common view, especially in the dormant state. One must be
careful and remain ever vigilant. As Winston Churchill, the British
Prime Minister who led embattled and beleaguard England through
World War II, cautioned his countrymen, "The price of freedom is
eternal vigilance." Aspiration for the highest freedom carries an
expensive price tag. That price is constant self-analysis.
124 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
II:11
vªÉÉxɽþäªÉɺiÉnÂù´ÉÞkɪÉ: *
dhy¤nahey¤stadvÁttayaÇ
Fluctuations of the klesha can be silenced
through meditative awareness.
Through deep meditation, the multifold activities and fluctuations of
the klesha can be silenced. This is an internal process which must
be followed in conjunction with swadhyaya. In the intense meditative
state, the root cause of the klesha, avidya, ceases to exist. The fuel
which empowers the klesha becomes exhausted and the afflictions have
no place to play their illusionary games. Dhyana is not just sitting
quietly with the eyes closed, nor is it the monotonously performed
japa (repeated chanting) of some mantra. What is implied here is
the actual meditative state of "All Awareness" that occurs in dhyana.
Ego and ignorance cease to exist in such an exalted state. Mystic
absorption occurs, and in that state of being, all afflictions are
dissolved as salt in ocean water.
S¤dhanap¤daÇ 125
II:12
C±Éä¶É¨ÉÚ±Éô: Eò¨ÉÉǶɪÉÉä où¹]õÉoù¹]VÉx¨É´ÉänùxÉÒªÉ: *
kle½am¶laÇ karm¤½ayo dÁ¿·¤dÁ¿·ajanmavedan¯yaÇ
With these afflictions as the root,
karmic bondage manifests through
perceived and un-perceived experiences of the
present and future incarnations.
Karma and its inevitable fructification surface in a clear manner in
this sutra. Maharishi Patañjali describes karmic bondages resulting
from the action-reaction spiral. This karmic trap is a vicious, deadly
spiral, not just a simple merry-go-round. The science of yantra
explains this karmic spiral as always moving forward and never
backwards. The difference in layers and intensity of consciousness
makes the process faster or slower, but each evolutionary cycle will
always be a step higher than the preceding one.
The injunction "be careful" implies that one must be full of care!
Inaction also produces a reaction and the result of inaction is worse
than that of action. Better to go on the wrong path than to stand on
the corner, indecisively. Lord Krishna motivates Arjuna into action in
the Bhagavad Gita for this very reason as the great warrior sits in
dejection on the ground. Arjuna was in a state of tamasica inaction.
Lord Krishna gently pushes him into a state of rajasica action, and
from there, into the sattwica state.
Kleshamulah refers both to the point of origin from which the klesha
arise and also to that karmashaya, the accumulation of karma for
which they are the root cause. The accumulated karma may manifest
126 Understanding the Yoga Darshan
in our present experiences or may occur at some other time in the
future. Both the manifest (drishta) and un-manifest (adrishta) "fruits
of past actions" are due to the klesha. Sabija karma manifests through
genetics, through the parents we choose, the family we choose, the
place and time of birth we choose. We are drawn, as if by a magnetic
pull towards the context (family, country or region) that gives the
best opportunity to manifest our karma and thus burn it up. We are
drawn to the life experiences that are most conducive for us to
experience our karma. Having a human birth is an occasion to burn
up karma and this is why the earth is called karma bhumi. We can
burn up our karma only by incarnating on this plane of existence.
Even the gods and demigods had to incarnate on this human plane
in order to work out their karma. This is vividly narrated in so many
stories of the mythological-history and historical-mythology of
Hinduism. There is no other place where you can work your karma
out except here on earth and there is no other time but the now!
Generally, people avoid the burning of karma feeling it to be too
hot, and thus accumulate more and more karma. Why does this
happen? This is because of avidya, the state of ignorance of who we
really are and what we are really here for. The mistaken idea is that
one is here only to enjoy, to seek pleasure and avoid pain is the
trap most get caught in.
Pujya Swamiji said, "If you do not learn your lessons in this lifetime
you will have to learn them again by coming back once more". He
gave a glimmer of hope by saying, "One day, we are all going to
get out of this cycle; we will all achieve kaivalya someday". The
speed with which we escape this vicious cycle is dependent upon
consciousness, and how we live our lives. From another viewpoint
we can say that every second is like a lifetime and that through
consciousness we can burn up the karma of a lifetime every second!
A
Abhinivesha(-h) 13, 112,
114, 117, 121, 122,
131, 167, 206, 273,
322, 326
Abhyasa 6, 9, 11, 28, 31,
32, 48, 50, 82, 135,
187, 205, 317, 333,
356, 357, 365
Acharam 156, 174
Acharya 157, 291
Adhibauthika 72, 128, 319
Adhidaivika 72, 128, 319
Adhikarin 181, 182, 208,
349
Adhimatra 65
Adhishthatritvam 294
Adhyatma 102
Adi 50, 276, 350, 370
Adi Shankara 276, 350,
370
Adimatra 7
Adrishta 126
Adyatmika 72, 319
Agama 41
Agasthya, sage 33, 284
Ahamkara 38, 79, 88, 350
Ahara 210
Ahimsa 15, 16, 154, 155,
168, 193
Ajapa gayatri 199
Ajapa japa 88, 199
Ajna bindu 266, 267
Ajna chakra 91, 266, 267
Ajnana 146, 367
Akasha 280, 281, 283, 284
Akashagamanam 281
Aklishta 38
Alabdhabhumikatwa 78
Alambana 328
Alasya 9, 76
Alinga(-ni) 100, 138, 188
Ammaji (Yogacharini
Smt. Meenakshi Devi
Bhavanani) 48, 51,
109, 119, 120, 156,
173, 194, 207, 313,
318, 320, 332, 338
Ananda tandavam 113
Anandam 13, 28, 139, 364,
374
Anandamaya kosha 56,
185, 263
Ananta 18, 151, 195, 259
Anantasamapattibhyam
358
Anatmasu 117
Anavasthitatwani 78
Anda chakra 285
Andaja 311
Angamejayatwa 9, 81
Anima 22, 286
Anitya 117
Annamaya kosha 262, 263
Antah karana 138, 139
Antara 18, 202, 266
Antara hrudaya 266
Antaranga(-m) 5, 19, 20,
21, 226
Antaraya 5, 9, 73, 74, 75,
78, 80, 82
Anumana 41
Anumodita 16, 165
Anushasanam 31, 32, 173
Anushthana 32, 152
Anvaya 283, 290
Apa 283
Apana 202
Apara 52, 354, 356
Apara vairagya 52, 354
Aparigraha 15, 17, 154,
157, 176
Apavarga 27, 137, 290,
353, 371
Apunya 85, 129, 250
Arjuna 61, 77, 80, 125,
128, 133, 161, 166,
186, 196, 274, 284,
297, 303, 320, 325,
327, 367
Artha 97, 137, 239, 353,
373
Arthavattva 283, 290
Arunagiri 61, 277
Arupa 188
Asamprayoge 245
Asana 14, 18, 50, 75, 81,
152, 153, 158, 192,
193, 194, 195, 196,
197, 198, 201, 212,
226, 258, 312, 358
Asanga 278
Asat 53, 332
Ashrama 276, 354
Ashraya 328
Ashta siddhi 286, 287
Ashtanga yoga 5, 11, 12,
14, 17, 18, 20, 66, 211,
328
Ashuddhikshaye 152
Asmita 7, 13, 24, 56, 112,
118, 228, 290, 313,
314
Asteya 15, 16, 154, 156,
173
Ashuchi 117
Asura 33, 43, 168, 261, 311
Asvada 273
Atha 29, 31, 32, 107, 215,
305
Atharva Shirsha, Ganesha
204
Atharva Veda 204
Atma 13, 75, 102, 117, 141,
181, 324, 356
Atma bhava 356
Atma jnana 13, 75, 324,
325
ccclxxxiv Understanding the Yoga Darshan
Atmadarshana 181, 182
Atmamaya kosha 56
Atman prasadanam 15,
102, 162
Aum 8, 27, 71, 72, 73, 238,
362
Aum japa 27, 73, 362
Aushadi 24, 307
Avasta 204
Avidya 12, 13, 14, 31, 37,
47, 112, 115, 117, 119,
124, 126, 147, 233,
313, 314, 328, 366
Avirati 9, 76, 77
Ayu 127, 328
B
Bahiranga(-m) 5, 11, 20,
226, 227
Bahya 18, 88, 202
Bala 288
Bandha(-h) 13, 20, 217,
276, 302, 324, 366
Bhagavad 15, 18, 61, 80,
90, 125, 128, 134, 135,
143, 161, 166, 185,
186, 194, 196, 202,
265, 275, 276, 303,
320, 321, 327, 331,
333, 342, 349, 356,
358, 369
Bhagavad Gita 15, 18, 61,
80, 90, 125, 128, 134,
135, 143, 161, 166,
185, 186, 194, 196,
202, 265, 275, 303,
320, 321, 327, 331,
333, 342, 349, 356,
358, 369
Bhakti 15, 17, 162, 190,
191, 287, 311
Bhakti yoga 15, 17, 162,
190, 191, 287, 311
Bhavana(-m) 16, 163, 338
Bhavapratyayo 60, 61
Bhaya(-m) 53, 287, 350
Bhoga 27, 127, 137, 271,
290, 328, 353, 371
Bhrantidarshana 9, 77
Bhuloka 291
Bhutajaya 239, 283, 284,
285, 286
Bija(-m) 8, 23, 56, 101,
227, 370
Bija jagrat 370
Bindu 100, 266, 267, 288
Brahmacharya 15, 16, 154,
156, 157, 174, 175,
193, 276, 354
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
234
Brumadhya 266
Buddha 102, 155
Buddhi 11, 13, 23, 44, 56,
166, 302, 349, 350
Buddhi yoga 349
Buddhibuddhe 347
C
Chakra 28, 77, 91, 259,
260, 263, 266, 267,
270, 279, 284, 285,
291
Chandra(-ma) 257, 345
Chanuraaga 166
Chatur ashrama 354
Chaturvidha 353, 373
Chela 41, 75, 199, 268
Chit(-ta(-m)) 3, 20, 24, 25,
26, 28, 78, 92, 139,
347, 364, 374
Chitta vikshepa 9, 74, 78
Chittabhumi 218, 230
Chittaprasadanam (Chitta
prasadanam) 84, 250
Chittavritti 6, 33, 34, 37,
47, 205
D
Daivika 320
Darshana 141, 355
Dasa Shloki 350, 370
Dasendriya 89
Daurmanasya 80
Deha vasana 322
Desha 18, 20, 25, 203, 217,
300
Deva 33, 43, 261
Dharana 11, 14, 19, 20, 27,
87, 152, 153, 208, 217,
218, 219, 220, 222,
223, 243, 293, 357,
362
Dharma 27, 79, 133, 137,
138, 140, 141, 147,
156, 232, 233, 235,
241, 244, 250, 251,
284, 287, 334, 353,
354, 364, 366, 368
Dharma marga 241
Dharma megha 27, 57, 364,
366, 368
Dharmaraja 119
Dhyana 11, 14, 20, 124,
152, 153, 219, 220,
221, 222, 223, 293,
316, 317, 357
Dirgakala 51
Doshabhija kshaye 296
Drashta 139
Draupadi 358
Dravidian 60, 61, 67, 184,
221, 277, 309, 311
Drishta 126
Drishyam 290
Duhkha(-m) 9, 13, 80, 85,
117, 120, 135, 250,
291
Dwaitam 96
Dwandwa 18, 81, 196, 198,
350
Index ccclxxxv
Dwandwateetha 197, 198,
350
Dwesha 13, 112, 113, 120
E
Ekagrah 181
Ekagrata 44, 218, 230, 231
Ekagrata parinama 231
Ekasamaye 346
Ekendriya 19, 210, 293
G
Gana 43
Ganesha, Lord 43, 76, 204,
232, 235
Garima 286
Garuda Purana 311
Gati 200
Gita 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125,
128, 134, 135, 143,
161, 166, 185, 186,
194, 196, 202, 265,
275, 303, 320, 321,
327, 331, 333, 342,
349, 356, 358, 367,
369
Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj,
Dr. Swami 4, 15, 31,
33, 89, 178, 213, 349
Grahana 96, 290
Grahasta 276, 354
Grahyeshu 96
Guna 5, 14, 25, 27, 54, 55,
136, 138, 331, 332,
333, 334, 335, 350,
369, 370, 371, 373,
374
Gunateetha 54, 204, 333,
350, 369
Guna vritti 131, 136
Guru 6, 12, 31, 33, 41, 61,
64, 70, 75, 89, 137,
143, 144, 146, 150,
156, 178, 199, 213,
221, 268, 274, 308,
324, 325, 338, 342,
351, 367
Guru Stotra 150, 324, 325,
367
H
Hamsa-soham 88, 199, 200
Hanuman, Lord 253, 254,
284, 286, 287
Hatha yoga 18, 50, 75, 81,
175, 192, 196, 200,
264, 288
Hatha Yoga Pradipika 288
Hetu 328
Heyah 123
Himsa 155, 165
I
Ida 260, 263, 264
Indriya 138, 291, 292, 293
Indriya jaya 181, 290, 292,
293
Ishitwa 286
Ishtadevata 188, 189
Ishwara 8, 12, 15, 17, 66,
68, 69, 70, 71, 109,
110, 115, 160, 161,
162, 190, 191, 205,
220, 227, 287, 294,
366
Ishwara pranidhana 12, 15,
17, 66, 109, 110, 115,
160, 161, 162, 190,
191, 205, 220, 287
J
Jagrat(-i) 204, 274, 370
Janaka 137
Janma 24, 125, 176, 307,
324
Japa 8, 27, 73, 88, 124,
199, 362
Jarayuja 311
Jati 25, 127, 300, 328
Jnana(-m) 13, 14, 21, 42,
75, 81, 91, 97, 119,
146, 239, 260, 271,
299, 300, 301, 322,
324, 327, 351, 367
Jnana vasana 322
Jnanabhumi 355
Jnanendriya 89, 136, 210,
212, 232, 284, 292
Jyothi 91, 266, 267
K
Kaivalya 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13,
19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
28, 52, 61, 62, 64, 122,
126, 147, 191, 211,
222, 234, 251, 294,
295, 301, 302, 308,
321, 330, 333, 340,
342, 357, 358, 360,
365, 373, 374
Kaivalya Pada 5, 6, 23, 25,
27, 294, 373
Kala 18, 25, 100, 203
Kama 19, 137, 166, 353,
373
Kambaliswamigal, Sri 308
Kambaliswami Madam 12,
178, 332
Karana 71, 138, 139, 276,
341
Karita 16, 165
Karma 5, 8, 13, 24, 27, 52,
65, 68, 72, 84, 125,
126, 127, 128, 129,
165, 227, 235, 241,
247, 248, 251, 284,
302, 307, 316, 318,
319, 320, 321, 322,
ccclxxxvi Understanding the Yoga Darshan
Karma (contd.) 324, 327,
338, 364, 366, 369,
373
Karma bandha 13, 302,
324, 366
Karma bhumi 126
Karmashaya 125
Karmavipaka 68
Karmendriya 89, 136, 210,
212, 232, 284, 292
Karuna 10, 84, 85, 250, 350
Kathopanishad 119
Kaya 186, 281, 286, 288
Kaya sampat 286, 288
Kayarupa 245
Kayavyuha jnanam 260
Kevala kumbhaka 18, 200,
205
Khyati 149, 150, 152, 365,
370
Klesha 5, 8, 12, 13, 27, 47,
68, 87, 111, 112, 115,
116, 120, 121, 123,
124, 125, 126, 130,
131, 147, 148, 186,
206, 227, 302, 314,
320, 328, 362, 364,
366, 373
Kleshamulah 125
Klishta 38
Koham 37, 358
Kosha 56, 185, 262, 263,
279, 284, 361
Krama(-m) 247, 299, 301,
369, 371
Krishna 15, 25, 61, 77, 125,
128, 133, 134, 135,
143, 161, 166, 172,
185, 186, 194, 196,
265, 274, 303, 319,
320, 321, 325, 327,
329, 331, 333, 356,
357, 358, 359, 367,
369
Krita 16, 165
Kriya yoga 11, 12, 17, 66,
109, 111, 115, 149,
161, 186, 191, 328,
362
Kriyamana 72, 319
Kriyamana karma 72, 319
Krodha(-h) 16, 165, 166,
167, 350
Krtartham 142
Kshana 299
Kshetra 115, 134
Kshetrajna 134
Kshipta 44, 218, 230
Kuladevata 188
Kumbhaka 18, 88, 200,
202, 205
Kundalini 77
Kurma nadi 263, 264
L
Laghima 286
Lakshana(-m) 232, 288,
300
Lavanya 288
Laya kriya 259
Leela 100, 311
Linga 100, 138
Lingamatra 138, 188
Lobha 16, 165, 166, 167
Loka 255, 256, 284, 285,
322
Loka vasana 322
Lokeshana 323
M
Mada 166
Madathipathi 178
Madhya 7, 65, 266
Maha jagrat 370
Mahabharata 77, 286, 297,
320, 358
Mahabhuta 89, 136, 232,
281, 283, 284, 286
Mahatma Gandhi 79, 157
Mahavratam 14, 158
Mahima 286
Maitri 10, 84, 85, 250
Mala 368
Mana 44, 56, 121, 292,
293, 309
Manana 63
Mandala 284
Manipura chakra 259, 260,
279
Manolaya 293
Mantra 8, 24, 72, 122, 124,
157, 199, 200, 239,
252, 301, 307, 309
Matsarya 166
Maya 100, 314, 330, 332,
335, 370
Mithyajnanam 42
Moha 16, 166, 167, 370
Mohamaya 316
Moksha 137, 144, 252,
290, 295, 325, 353,
358, 362, 373
Mridu 7, 65
Mridungam 180
Mudha 44, 75, 218, 350
Mudita 10, 84, 85, 250
Mudra 212, 225, 359
Mukti 310
Muladhara (chakra) 291
Mumukshu 365
Mumukshutva 64, 295, 323
Muni 143, 311
Murdha jyothi 266
Murdini jyothi 91
Muyalagan 113, 228
N
Nachiketha 119
Nada 8, 71, 100, 238, 240,
284
Index ccclxxxvii
Nadi 260, 263, 264, 265
Nairantarya 51
Narayana arpana bhava
190
Narayana bhava 190
Natha 61, 277, 308
Navaratna 239
Nidi 35
Nididhyasana 63
Nidra 6, 40, 46, 93
Nilakantha 261
Nimita bhava 190
Nirbija 10, 57, 106, 227,
364
Nirbija samadhi 10, 57,
106, 227, 364
Nirguna 55, 204, 332, 333
Nirodha parinama 228
Niruddha 44, 218
Nirvichara 10, 57, 99, 101,
102
Nirvitarka 10, 56, 98, 101
Nishkama 185
Nishpanda 194, 358
Nitya 25, 117, 326
Nivritti 27, 356
Niyama 14, 15, 16, 17, 152,
153, 158, 159, 160,
162, 163, 165, 168,
180, 188, 226, 332
P
Pancha 12, 14, 15, 89, 136,
186, 200, 212, 232,
264, 278, 279, 281,
283, 284, 291, 314,
361
Para 6, 23, 52, 55, 295,
296, 332, 354, 356,
364, 365
Para brahman 55, 332
Para vairagya 7, 23, 52,
295, 296, 354, 356,
364, 365
Paramamahattwanta 95
Paramanu 95
Parampara 70
Parinama 31, 228, 230,
231, 232, 343
Pathigam 309
Phala 170, 328
Pinda chakra 285
Pingala 260, 263, 264
Pracchardana 87, 88
Prajna 7, 62, 63, 103, 151,
175, 196, 224, 265,
330, 349
Prajnaloka 224
Prakamya 286
Prakasha 14, 19, 136, 206,
245
Prakriti 55, 60, 138, 142,
144, 147, 271, 283,
285, 293, 295, 310,
343, 355, 369
Prakriti laya 61, 62, 295
Pramada 9, 76
Pramana 6, 39, 41, 43
Prana 10, 27, 43, 44, 87, 88,
199, 201, 202, 205,
213, 259, 264, 278,
279, 284, 291, 360,
362
Prana vayu 264, 278, 279,
284
Pranamaya kosha 262, 263,
279
Pranava 8, 71, 72, 73, 238
Pranavritti 205
Pranayama 14, 18, 19, 20,
81, 87, 152, 153, 199,
200, 202, 203, 204,
206, 207, 208, 211,
218, 219, 226, 282,
312, 317
Prapti 286
Prarabdha karma 72, 319
Prasupta 13, 115
Pratibha 273
Pratibhadva 351
Pratipaksha bhavanam 16,
163
Pratiprasava 123, 373
Pratishtha 168, 173
Pratyahara 14, 19, 20, 77,
90, 121, 152, 153, 210,
211, 212, 213, 226,
292, 293
Pratyaksha 41
Prayatna shaithilya 18, 194,
358
Preya 119
Prithvi 283
Puja 12, 138, 168, 180, 191
Punya 85, 129, 250, 284,
319
Puraka 202
Purusha 8, 19, 23, 27, 70,
138, 139, 142, 144,
147, 151, 233, 257,
271, 273, 285, 294,
302, 311, 320, 333,
343, 344, 345, 346,
349, 351, 352, 355,
366, 373
Purusha Suktam 257, 345
Purushartha 27, 137, 173,
353, 373
Putreshana 323
R
Raga 13, 112, 113, 119,
239, 350
Rajasica 14, 55, 125, 136,
183, 204, 331, 332
Rama, Lord 52, 77, 80,
161, 253, 284, 287,
301, 363
Ramayana 77, 284, 286,
287
Rechaka 202
ccclxxxviii Understanding the Yoga Darshan
Riddhi 173
Rishi 61, 141, 156, 168,
169, 170, 189, 193,
198, 239, 258, 277,
284, 289, 294, 297,
298, 308, 311, 323,
330, 334, 363
Rishipatni 156
Rupa 288, 331
S
Sabija 56, 72, 101, 126,
227, 241, 319, 324
Sabija karma 72, 126, 241,
324
Sabija samadhi 56
Sadhaka 4, 5, 9, 11, 14, 16,
19, 22, 60, 61, 62, 64,
65, 66, 73, 74, 78, 80,
93, 132, 175, 180, 183,
274, 297, 317, 318,
355, 365
Sadhana 5, 9, 11, 12, 14,
15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23,
48, 53, 60, 73, 76, 78,
81, 123, 132, 135, 149,
152, 168, 173, 175,
176, 187, 194, 200,
203, 209, 211, 212,
213, 218, 220, 225,
228, 236, 275, 282,
291, 294, 295, 297,
314, 317, 318, 332,
333, 339, 343, 353,
362, 365, 372
Sadhana chatushtaya 295
Sadhana Pada 5, 11, 12, 16,
17, 19, 20, 211, 282,
314, 353, 362
Sadharanatvat 142
Sadhu 11, 362
Sadhu sangamah 362
Sakshi 35
Sama bhava 349
Samadhi 5, 7, 10, 11, 12,
14, 17, 20, 23, 24, 27,
31, 54, 56, 57, 60, 61,
62, 66, 96, 97, 106,
111, 152, 153, 175,
186, 190, 191, 222,
223, 227, 230, 238,
274, 287, 293, 295,
307, 309, 357, 358,
364, 365, 366
Samadhi Pada 5, 10, 11, 23,
31, 175, 190, 238, 295,
366
Samana 259, 279
Samapatti(-h) 10, 96, 97,
358
Samatvam 18, 194, 198,
265, 358
Sambandar 309
Samhananatvani 288
Samkirna 97, 271
Samkya 18, 203
Samprajnata samadhi 7, 56
Samsakttinamika 355
Samshaya 9, 76
Samskara 7, 21, 25, 26, 58,
65, 79, 105, 106, 131,
143, 166, 228, 229,
241, 242, 273, 275,
301, 316, 321, 324,
326, 328, 341, 361,
362, 363
Samvedanam 349
Samyami 143, 274
Samyogah 134, 145
Sananda 57
Sanatana dharma 138, 141
Sanchita 72, 319, 324
Sanchita karma 319
Sanga 166, 278, 362
Sankalpa 342
Sannyasa 276, 354
Santosha(-m) 15, 17, 53,
160, 183, 184, 185,
350, 362
Sapta 151, 355
Saptadha bhumi 151
Sara adija vyadhi 75
Saranagathi 190
Sarvabhava 294
Sarvabhuta rutajnanam 21,
239
Sarvajnatrtvam 294
Sarvam 13, 268, 351
Sarvatha vishayam 301,
352
Sarvartham 351
Sarva vishayam 301, 352
Sasmita 57
Sat 11, 28, 112, 139, 269,
332, 364, 374
Sat-chit-anandam 28, 139,
364, 374
Satguru 150, 218, 324
Satkara 51
Satsangha 119, 362
Sattwa (Sattva ) 19, 23, 55,
181, 271, 294, 302,
332, 351, 355
Sattwica 14, 55, 110, 114,
125, 136, 160, 170,
181, 183, 194, 204,
206, 207, 331, 332
Satya 15, 16, 154, 155, 156,
170, 255
Saumanasya 181
Savichara 10, 56, 99, 101
Savitarka 10, 56, 97, 101
Shabda 71, 97, 213, 238,
239, 240, 291
Shaiva Siddhantha 248,
277, 309
Shaivite 273
Shakti(-h) 27, 291
Shama 362
Shankara Giri 178
Index ccclxxxix
Sharira 341, 361
Shat ripu 166, 234
Shatsampat 295
Shaucha 17, 160, 178, 179,
180
Shiva, Lord 19, 57, 100,
113, 228, 261, 262,
273, 350
Shiva Puranam 43, 67, 221,
311
Shodasha samskara 58
Shotra 280
Shraddha 7, 53, 62, 175
Shravana 63, 273
Shreya 119
Shukla 25, 319
Shunyaka 88
Shunyanam 374
Shvetaasvatara Upanishad
288
Siddha 22, 266, 267, 274,
287, 307, 308
Siddhi 5, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23,
24, 28, 33, 61, 89, 168,
170, 171, 173, 179,
186, 187, 190, 223,
224, 253, 268, 274,
275, 276, 277, 282,
286, 287, 288, 291,
292, 307, 308, 309,
351
Siddhya 186
Smriti 6, 7, 40, 62, 166,
175, 324
So-ham 358
Spanda 194, 358
Stambhavritti 48, 202
Sthirasukhamasanam 192
Sthula 71, 227, 283, 341
Stitha prajna 196, 349
Styana 9, 75
Subheechakhya 355
Shuchi 117
Sukha(-m) 18, 84, 85, 117,
183, 192, 193, 195,
196, 250, 291, 346,
350
Sukha stanam 196
Sukshma 18, 25, 71, 100,
227, 283, 341
Sukshmavishayatvam 100
Sura 33
Surya namaskar 339
Sushumna 260, 263, 264
Sushupti 204, 370
Swabuddhi 349
Swadharma 149, 182, 373
Swadhyaya 12, 15, 17, 66,
79, 93, 109, 115, 123,
124, 160, 161, 188,
189, 190, 191, 193,
242, 332, 333
Swamiji (Yogamaharishi
Dr. Swami Gitananda
Giri) 12, 15, 31, 33,
34, 35, 43, 44, 50, 52,
57, 66, 77, 89, 91, 98,
102, 120, 126, 133,
137, 158, 162, 173,
178, 180, 184, 191,
194, 197, 198, 210,
221, 237, 238, 243,
247, 253, 259, 263,
268, 278, 291, 308,
313, 318, 320, 322,
332, 342, 344, 352
Swanga 180
Swapna 93, 204, 370
Swapna nidra 93
Swarupa 20, 27, 283, 290,
331
Swarupashunyeva 98
Swarupe avasthanam 35
Swasa-praswasa 9, 81
Swaswami 144
Swatmarama 288
Swedaja 311
T
Tada 26, 342
Tadgati 258
Tamasica 14, 40, 55, 110,
114, 125, 136, 160,
183, 204, 207, 317,
330, 331, 332
Tamizh Moovayiram 60
Tamovritti 46
Tandava(-m) 113, 228
Tanmatra 89, 138, 232, 284
Tansen 239, 240, 284
Tantra(-m) 25, 175, 324,
339
Tanu 13, 115
Tanukarana 111
Tanumanasa 355
Tapa(-h) 12, 15, 17, 24, 66,
109, 115, 131, 132,
160, 161, 168, 170,
186, 191, 251, 258,
297, 307, 309, 327
Tapatraya 72, 129, 319
Taraka 301
Tasmad yogi bhavarjuna
303
Tattva(-m) 284, 285, 291,
334
Teja 102, 175, 279, 283
Thuriya 204
Thuriyateetha 204
Tirukkural 325
Tirumandiram 60, 277
Tirumoolar 60, 75, 277
Tiruppugazh 277
Tiruvalluvar 325
Tivra samvegin 64
Tri sharira 361
Triguna 54, 130, 131, 136,
204, 331, 332, 334,
343, 349, 369, 370,
373
cccxc Understanding the Yoga Darshan
Trikala jnani 25, 177, 299,
330
Trishanku 61
Trivasana 322
Turyaga 355
U
Udana 278
Udaranam 13, 115
Udbija 311
Uktam 362
Upaprana 264
Upekshanam 10, 84, 85,
250
V
Vachaka(-h) 8, 71, 238
Vairagya 6, 7, 23, 28, 48,
52, 53, 54, 92, 109,
113, 135, 205, 276,
295, 296, 322, 332,
333, 354, 356, 357,
358, 364, 365
Vaishnavite 273
Vajra 288
Vanaprasta 354
Varta 273
Vasana 24, 79, 145, 166,
322, 323, 326, 328,
341, 353
Vashishta (sage) 13, 52, 61,
161, 284, 363
Vashitwa 286
Vasishtha (Yoga) 13, 52,
75, 80, 161, 337, 341,
350, 353, 354, 355,
362, 368, 369, 370,
372
Vastu 43, 53, 334, 336,
339, 341
Vasudaiva kudumbhakam
234
Vayu 259, 264, 278, 279,
281, 283, 284
Veda 3, 204, 268, 345
Vedana 273, 349
Veerya 7, 62, 175
Vibhuti 5, 19, 20, 23, 178,
302, 303
Vibhuti Pada 5, 19, 20, 23,
302
Vicchinna 13, 115
Vichara 7, 56, 99, 362
Vicharana 355
Videha 60, 61, 62, 282, 295
Vikalpa 6, 39, 43, 54, 97
Vikshepa sahabhuvah 80
Vikshipta 44, 218, 230
Viniyoga 225
Viparyaya 6, 39, 42
Vishaya(-m) 47, 92, 100,
301, 352
Vishayati 89
Vishesha 8, 138, 188, 355
Vishnu, Lord 151, 259, 273
Vishoka 91
Vishuddha (chakra) 291
Vishwamitra 61, 284, 297
Vitaraga 92
Vitarka(-h) 7, 56, 99, 163,
165
Viteshana 323
Viveka 13, 14, 119, 149,
150, 152, 276, 295,
332, 349, 364, 365,
370
Viveka khyati 14, 149, 150,
152, 364, 365, 370
Vivekajam 299, 300, 301,
351
Vivekajam jnanam 299,
300, 301, 351
Vivekanimnam 26, 357,
359
Viyoga(-m) 135, 272, 355
Vritti 6, 38, 40, 43, 44, 46,
47, 48, 54, 96, 106,
136
Vyadhi 9, 50, 75
Y
Yama 14, 15, 16, 17, 119,
152, 153, 154, 155,
157, 158, 159, 163,
165, 168, 176, 226
Yantra 74, 84, 125, 186,
234, 241, 319, 329
Yoga marga 267, 365
Yoga sadhana 5, 14, 15, 17,
23, 73, 187, 200, 275,
295, 339, 343
Yoga yukta 320
Yogabhyasa 365
Yoganga 14, 20, 149, 152,
213, 218
Yoganushasanam 31
Yogarudda 342
Yogi(-c) 8, 9, 25, 54, 60,
61, 81, 88, 106, 114,
122, 130, 133, 135,
136, 143, 152, 158,
181, 186, 187, 193,
194, 201, 203, 213,
234, 240, 246, 248,
262, 264, 265, 274,
277, 280, 287, 288,
289, 292, 294, 303,
312, 318, 319, 320,
327, 356, 358, 365,
374
Yogini 61
Yogyata 19, 87, 181
Yudhisthira 358
Extract on Kleshas from Dr Ananda's exploration of Yogasutras

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Extract on Kleshas from Dr Ananda's exploration of Yogasutras

  • 2. UNDERSTANDING THE YOGA DARSHAN AN EXPLORATION OF THE YOGA SUTRA OF MAHARISHI PATAÑJALI By Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani MBBS, ADY, DSM, DPC, PGDFH, PGDY, FIAY Chairman, International Centre for Yoga Education and Research (ICYER) at Ananda Ashram, Puducherry, India. www.icyer.com
  • 3. II:1 iÉ{É:º´ÉÉvªÉɪÉä·É®ú|ÉÊhÉvÉÉxÉÉÊxÉ ÊGòªÉɪÉÉäMÉ: * tapaÇsv¤dhy¤ye½varapraºidh¤n¤ni kriy¤yogaÇ Kriya yoga consists of intensive self-discipline, introspective self-analysis and surrender to the Universal Will after doing one's best. Maharishi Patañjali begins the next pada with kriya yoga, the yoga of action, the yoga of purification, the yoga of cleansing one's own self through the fire of right action. What are these right actions? There are three actions within the ambit of kriya yoga: tapa, swadhyaya and ishwara pranidhana. Tapa is the discipline of one's own self, developing the capability to do the most difficult things, to push beyond one's limits. We must set and reset the limits on a continuous basis. This is tapa manifested as an external discipline. On the other hand swadhyaya is internal discipline, the process of going inward and analyzing our nature. This analysis must be without commiseration. "Analytical self-introspection must be", as Ammaji says "Without justification, identification or condemnation". We must learn to look at ourself with objectivity, vairagya or dispassionate detachment towards our own personality. Ishwara pranidhana is surrender to the higher, universal Divine Will. We must do our best and this must be coupled with a dispassionate attitude of being able to leave the rest. This results in pure and responsible actions. The self-serving ego is sublimated when we offer our actions and aspirations to the Divine Will. But we must never forget that before giving up to the Divine, we must do whatever is possible within the circumstances and our own limitations. This should not be confused
  • 4. 110 Understanding the Yoga Darshan with escapism. Escapism is tamasica, inert and devolutionary. Ishwara pranidhana is, on the contrary, of the highest, sattwica, evolutionary surrender. It is, to be concise, surrender after utmost effort and release of expectations for any desired results. The Divine is not a sadist. He/She/It will never give us a challenge that is beyond our capacities. The bigger the challenge, the greater will be our capacity to overcome it. Great challenges are actually compliments to our capacities, for life only tests us to the limits of our abilities and not beyond that.
  • 5. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 111 II:2 ºÉ¨ÉÉÊvɦÉÉ´ÉxÉÉlÉÇ: C±Éä¶ÉiÉxÉÚEò®úhÉÉlÉǶSÉ * sam¤dhibh¤van¤rthaÇ kle½atan¶karaº¤rtha½ca [Kriya yoga enables one] to attenuate the afflictions and attain higher states of absorption. What is the purpose of kriya yoga? To reach the deep state of samadhi and to reduce the effects of the klesha, the psychological afflictions, the coloured filters through which we perceive reality. If we saw life through perfect filters, we would perceive reality as it is. These impurities or klesha distort our perceptions. The klesha need to be attenuated, minimized and reduced (tanukarana). Kriya yoga can be compared to walking on a path in the deep forest. We must constantly move forward but must first clear away the underbrush and stones hindering the journey.
  • 6. 112 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:3 +Ê´ÉtÉκ¨ÉiÉÉ®úÉMÉuäù¹ÉÉʦÉÊxÉ´Éä¶ÉÉ: C±Éä¶ÉÉ: * avidy¤smit¤r¤gadve¿¤bhinive½¤Ç kle½¤Ç These afflictions are ignorance, false identity, attraction, repulsion and survival instinct. These klesha are within us right from our birth and keep us from knowing who we are, from realizing our true Self. The klesha are of five types. Although the five types are listed separately, they are all interdependent. They are: avidya, asmita, raga, dwesha and abhinivesha. The first klesha is avidya, ignorance of the true reality. Avidya is the refusal to see, not wanting to know the reality. The first part of the word ignorance is "ignore", the refusal to acknowledge the existence of something. Ignorance is not only an inability but also a refusal to see which rises out of escape mechanisms. If we don't know something, we don't have to do anything about it. This mechanism allows one to be "blissfully ignorant" of the reality, of Sat! Asmita is the ego, the false sense of "Me", "Mine" and "I". I have pondered long on the question as to which is worse, ignorance or the ego. Because of ignorance of true reality ego exists. Once ego arises, it further distorts reality because the I-maker wishes to create reality according to its whims and fancies. As an example: two people have an accident. Both think they are right and that the other person is wrong. This is because they perceive the whole situation in their own way, the perspective which will make them correct and the other
  • 7. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 113 person wrong. This is the sense of "I" and "mine-ness" which always looks out for "No.1". The ego is clever and cunning. Lord Shiva, the universal power of eternal goodness, is shown with the ego (Muyalagan) under his feet. Sometimes even Lord Shiva gets distracted during his cosmic dance (ananda tandavam). Then the ego, taking advantage of the relaxation of control, sits up, even virtually stands up. The great Lord then must squash it back down to the ground where it belongs! The lesson is that true goodness, evolutionary change and auspiciousness (all qualities associated with Shiva) can only manifest when the ego is subdued. Raga and dwesha are twin faces of the same coin, the likes and dislikes we have collected. Raga and dwesha are attraction and repulsion. Raga and dwesha are equally dangerous as they drag one from the balanced plane of physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health. Some may think that they are balanced, as they like a few things and dislike a few things. However, the likes and dislikes pull and push us off balance, creating total disharmony. Raga and dwesha coexist. When raga is in full flow, dwesha is attenuated and when dwesha is in full flow, raga is attenuated. More often than not, detachment from what we dislike is more important than that from what we like. Vairagya is dispassion towards what one likes but also from what one does not like. This includes dispassion towards oneself, too. Being able to look at one's own personality at all levels with objectivity is difficult, especially when it comes to likes and dislikes. Dispassion must exist internally as well as externally. It is equally dangerous to think or proclaim either "I am the best" or "I am the worst"! Some consider it spiritual to hate or dislike themselves, and call such an
  • 8. 114 Understanding the Yoga Darshan attitude humility. Self-pity and self-hatred is a big trap, a bottomless pit, into which many an aspirant has fallen. Abhinivesha is the deep instinct to survive at any cost. Clinging to life is glorified in the contemporary world. Abhinivesha rises from a deep rooted fear of death, the fear of a void, the fear of nothingness. This self-preservation instinct is so integral to all beings that even the wisest of people cannot escape its hold. It is engrained over millions of years in genetic material and stored in the most ancient parts of the brain. It is amazing to see what people will do in life-threatening situations. Only the very rare person can transcend this inbuilt survival mechanism. That rare person is the real yogi. Dull tamasica people don't know what to do and hence, are stupefied in the face of death. These are not sattwica people, who are fully aware, and consciously face death with yogic equanimity. Such people have uprooted this ancient instinct and live in fearlessness and bliss.
  • 9. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 115 II:4 +Ê´ÉtÉ IÉäjɨÉÖkÉ®úä¹ÉÉÆ |ɺÉÖ{iÉiÉxÉÖÊ´ÉÎSUôzÉÉänùÉ®úÉhÉɨÉ * avidy¤ k¿etramuttare¿¤Æ prasuptatanuvicchinnod¤r¤º¤m The afflictions exist in dormant, attenuated, manifest or overpowering states depending on the basic field of ignorance. Avidya is the foundation stone of the other klesha, the power that propels all the other four. The strongest, most deeply rooted affliction, it is called the Mother klesha as the others cannot exist without it. With avidya as the fertile field (kshetra), the klesha appear in four states. The first is prasupta, or the dormant state in which they have not manifested yet. The second is an attenuated/mild state of manifestation known as tanu. The third one is the fully manifest form known as vicchinna. The fourth is the overpowering state of udaranam. In the fourth state the klesha are so powerful that everything else crumbles beneath their power. All four states of the five klesha depend on avidya. Hence to overcome them, we must deal with the source of the problem itself. All five klesha manifest in these four states. An important part of the evolutionary journey is to first become aware of them and recognize their symptoms. The kriya yoga of Maharishi Patañjali offers the external and internal tool of kriya yoga (tapa, swadhyaya and ishwara pranidhana). This kriya yoga creates awareness of the klesha and a consciousness which can control these afflictions. When we are able to reduce avidya, we find that all the other klesha can be attenuated or placed into dormancy automatically. Dormancy
  • 10. 116 Understanding the Yoga Darshan is a state in which the seed of the klesha is still there. If you don't water it, it doesn't grow. Yet, many people are busy watering the weeds of their klesha. Then, they are astonished when they grow so luxuriantly!
  • 11. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 117 II:5 +ÊxÉiªÉɶÉÖÊSÉnùÖ:JÉÉxÉÉi¨ÉºÉÖ ÊxÉiªÉ¶ÉÖÊSɺÉÖJÉÉi¨ÉJªÉÉÊiÉ®úÊ´ÉtÉ* anity¤½uciduÇkh¤n¤tmasu nitya½ucisukh¤tmakhy¤tiravidy¤ Ignorance is confusing the impermanent to be permanent, the unclean to be clean, the painful to be pleasurable and the non-self to be the true Self. What is avidya? Maharishi Patañjali gives a classic definition of this "state of ignorance". He describes avidya as confusing the impermanent (anitya) with the permanent (nitya), the unclean (ashuchi) with that which is clean and pure (shuchi), the painful (duhkha) with the pleasurable (sukha), and the non-self (anatmasu) with the true Self (atma). Personally I have not come across a better definition of avidya. For example, the sense (or is it non-sense?) of wanting to survive at any cost (abhinivesha) creates much distorted aspiration. Many modern crazes have risen from this affliction, such as cloning, or even having one's cadaver frozen till medical science finds a cure for the disease that killed you! You are going to come back no matter what, so why pay for it? These attitudes are absolute avidya. Confusing the non-self for the Self, the messy for the pure, pain with pleasure! What can describe contemporary man better than this? This is a false sense of identification with our bodies, our talents, our names, position in life, credit cards, addresses, license plates and so on. Avidya is all these wrong conceptions about "who we really are", the core distractions that prevent us from truly knowing ourselves.
  • 12. 118 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:6 oMn¶ÉÇxɶÉCiªÉÉä®äEòÉi¨ÉiÉä´ÉÉκ¨ÉiÉÉ * dÁgdar½ana½aktyorek¤tmatev¤smit¤ The ego arises from a misidentification with the tool of perception. The false sense of identity, the ego, occurs because of identification with the tools of perception, mistaking them to be real. Drg means the perceiver and in the case of asmita, we falsely identify with the perceiver rather than absolute reality. Wrong identification with the experiencing agent gives rise to the false sense of ego. It is like watching images on a screen and mistaking the projected image as reality. Consciously we know that the projector is only a tool and that the projected image is not real. But we experience them as real. This is the essence of ego, a tool that projects images. Lacking awareness and consciousness, we mistake all projected illusions to be real, like watching a 3-D film! We say: "I see", "I hear", "I taste" but we really mean: "The senses perceive". We should not identify with the tool. While climbing a ladder, a point comes where the ladder must be discarded as one achieves the goal. The ego, the sense of individuality, is like a ladder. It is useful in its place and for its purpose. The ego plays its role in evolution, but once the higher stage is reached, ego must be left behind. One can't stand on the ladder forever and say: "This is where I am, this is what I am and I have reached my goal". This immature behaviour creates stagnancy.
  • 13. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 119 II:7 ºÉÖJÉÉxÉֶɪÉÒ ®úÉMÉ: * sukh¤nu½¤y¯ r¤gaÇ Attraction is caused by the craving for pleasure. What is raga? It is the inborn affliction that creates in us (anusay) a sense of attraction. What is "that" towards which we are attracted? All living beings are attracted to the pleasurable. The pleasure-pain principle is the primal motivation of nature. Very few beings are conscious enough to know the difference between "that" which is pleasurable and "that" which is good. In fact Lord Yama (Dharmaraja, the lord of justice) advises Nachiketha in the Kathopanishad that very few choose the path of shreya (the evolutionary path of true goodness). The path of shreya may be understood only by a refined intellect endowed with viveka (discerning ability). On the contrary the path of pleasure (preya) is followed by the majority, who are ignorant and perverted. He explains that true knowledge (jnana vidya) reveals the difference between the good and the pleasant to the wise. Ignorance or avidya causes one to slide down the path of preya. Lord Yama concludes by saying "Naturally, those who seek shreya are very rare". This most important message is often given by our beloved Ammaji, Yogacharini Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani in satsangha: "Don't mistake the pleasant for the good!".
  • 14. 120 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:8 nùÖ:JÉÉxÉֶɪÉÒ uä¹É: * duÇkh¤nu½¤y¯ dve¿aÇ Repulsion occurs due to the fear of painful suffering. Conversely, dwesha is that klesha which induces a sense of repulsion or revulsion. It is the inherent, in-born tendency that pushes us away from what we perceive to be a potential cause of painful suffering (duhkha). This repulsion to pain is useful. It is a protective mechanism that has enabled survival of the species through millions of years of evolution. Dwesha is deeply rooted in the genetic makeup. Dwesha ensures survival. Dwesha is necessary at the lower level, but must be transcended by the evolving being. As Ammaji so beautifully puts it, "What was previously virtue for the animal becomes a vice for the human as we consciously evolve". A great irony in human existence is the confusion between pleasure and pain. We are unsure of what we truly like and what we truly dislike. Many times we think something is pleasurable or painful, and then we find out we were sadly mistaken. What was once upon a time the "best day in our life" may very easily become the worst in retrospect! Swamiji used the example of a young couple very much in love declaring their marriage day as "the best day of their life". Later, after years of conflict in an unhappy marriage, they may term that very same marriage day as the worst day of their lives! The opposite is also true. Many a time the "worst thing to ever happen to us" becomes the best thing in retrospect for it sends us upward on the evolutionary path.
  • 15. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 121 II:9 º´É®úºÉ´ÉɽþÒ Ê´ÉnùÖ¹ÉÉä%Ê{É ºÉ¨ÉÉ°üføÉä%ʦÉÊxÉ´Éä¶É: * svarasav¤h¯ vidu¿o'pi sam¤r¶¹ho'bhinive½aÇ The universal desire to survive is found even in the most learned of humans. Abhinivesha is the deeply rooted survival instinct, clinging to life, fear of death. All want to be immortal. This impulse has been evidenced in much crazed behaviour throughout human history. This klesha has a powerful momentum and affects even the wisest and most knowledgeable (vidushoapi). This billion-year-old instinct is not in our hands, having its own powerful energy. Many spiritual seekers glibly remark, "I don't mind dying today – I have no attachment to this body". These things are easy to say when in a placid, non-stressful, safe environment. One may even feel this to be perfectly true. But the test comes only in a "life and death" situation. Only then does abhinivesha show its true colours. One can shut down sensory apparatus, because the senses depend on the mind (mana) for energy. The mind is the master energy source for all senses, and so removal of the energy source by withdrawal of the mind (pratyahara) results in control over the senses. Sensory control thus is largely possible for a cultivated mind. On the other hand, abhinivesha does not depend on the mind for its energy thrust. Abhinivesha has its own independent energy source (swarasavahi). Thus it is much more difficult to overcome. Self-preservation is the basic instinct in nature, and in the animal world it is the highest good. This is why abhinivesha is built into
  • 16. 122 Understanding the Yoga Darshan the genetic structure, firmly established (tatharudho), to ensure the survival of the species at all cost. Once we chose the yogic path towards liberation, we realize the physical body is a mere vehicle. We realize that the body must be perfected as much as possible. But then the body must be sacrificed at the altar of kaivalya. The virtue of abhinivesha in the animal, becomes a vice in the human incarnation. Many people chant the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra because they think it will help them prevent death of this physical incarnation! They do not realize that the mantra instead helps overcome fear of death, not the actual physical death itself. People die in the fear of death long before their actual death! The old proverb says wisely: "Cowards die a thousand times before their death, but the heroic man dies but once!" Fear of death is a wide spread affliction, making living a hell of trepidation.
  • 17. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 123 II:10 iÉä |ÉÊiÉ|ɺɴɽþäªÉÉ: ºÉÚI¨ÉÉ: * te pratiprasavahey¤Ç s¶k¿m¤Ç One must go against the very subtle source of these afflictions [if they are to be eradicated]. These klesha are the afflictions, the coloured prisms through which we view worldly life. Good sadhana draws the afflictions (klesha) back into (pratiprasava) the subtle source from which they have emanated. They must be destroyed (heyah) for further progress. Self-awareness and self-witnessing through swadhyaya is the key skill in uprooting the klesha. The klesha can hide themselves very well, from common view, especially in the dormant state. One must be careful and remain ever vigilant. As Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister who led embattled and beleaguard England through World War II, cautioned his countrymen, "The price of freedom is eternal vigilance." Aspiration for the highest freedom carries an expensive price tag. That price is constant self-analysis.
  • 18. 124 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:11 vªÉÉxɽþäªÉɺiÉnÂù´ÉÞkɪÉ: * dhy¤nahey¤stadvÁttayaÇ Fluctuations of the klesha can be silenced through meditative awareness. Through deep meditation, the multifold activities and fluctuations of the klesha can be silenced. This is an internal process which must be followed in conjunction with swadhyaya. In the intense meditative state, the root cause of the klesha, avidya, ceases to exist. The fuel which empowers the klesha becomes exhausted and the afflictions have no place to play their illusionary games. Dhyana is not just sitting quietly with the eyes closed, nor is it the monotonously performed japa (repeated chanting) of some mantra. What is implied here is the actual meditative state of "All Awareness" that occurs in dhyana. Ego and ignorance cease to exist in such an exalted state. Mystic absorption occurs, and in that state of being, all afflictions are dissolved as salt in ocean water.
  • 19. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 125 II:12 C±Éä¶É¨ÉÚ±Éô: Eò¨ÉÉǶɪÉÉä où¹]õÉoù¹]VÉx¨É´ÉänùxÉÒªÉ: * kle½am¶laÇ karm¤½ayo dÁ¿·¤dÁ¿·ajanmavedan¯yaÇ With these afflictions as the root, karmic bondage manifests through perceived and un-perceived experiences of the present and future incarnations. Karma and its inevitable fructification surface in a clear manner in this sutra. Maharishi Patañjali describes karmic bondages resulting from the action-reaction spiral. This karmic trap is a vicious, deadly spiral, not just a simple merry-go-round. The science of yantra explains this karmic spiral as always moving forward and never backwards. The difference in layers and intensity of consciousness makes the process faster or slower, but each evolutionary cycle will always be a step higher than the preceding one. The injunction "be careful" implies that one must be full of care! Inaction also produces a reaction and the result of inaction is worse than that of action. Better to go on the wrong path than to stand on the corner, indecisively. Lord Krishna motivates Arjuna into action in the Bhagavad Gita for this very reason as the great warrior sits in dejection on the ground. Arjuna was in a state of tamasica inaction. Lord Krishna gently pushes him into a state of rajasica action, and from there, into the sattwica state. Kleshamulah refers both to the point of origin from which the klesha arise and also to that karmashaya, the accumulation of karma for which they are the root cause. The accumulated karma may manifest
  • 20. 126 Understanding the Yoga Darshan in our present experiences or may occur at some other time in the future. Both the manifest (drishta) and un-manifest (adrishta) "fruits of past actions" are due to the klesha. Sabija karma manifests through genetics, through the parents we choose, the family we choose, the place and time of birth we choose. We are drawn, as if by a magnetic pull towards the context (family, country or region) that gives the best opportunity to manifest our karma and thus burn it up. We are drawn to the life experiences that are most conducive for us to experience our karma. Having a human birth is an occasion to burn up karma and this is why the earth is called karma bhumi. We can burn up our karma only by incarnating on this plane of existence. Even the gods and demigods had to incarnate on this human plane in order to work out their karma. This is vividly narrated in so many stories of the mythological-history and historical-mythology of Hinduism. There is no other place where you can work your karma out except here on earth and there is no other time but the now! Generally, people avoid the burning of karma feeling it to be too hot, and thus accumulate more and more karma. Why does this happen? This is because of avidya, the state of ignorance of who we really are and what we are really here for. The mistaken idea is that one is here only to enjoy, to seek pleasure and avoid pain is the trap most get caught in. Pujya Swamiji said, "If you do not learn your lessons in this lifetime you will have to learn them again by coming back once more". He gave a glimmer of hope by saying, "One day, we are all going to get out of this cycle; we will all achieve kaivalya someday". The speed with which we escape this vicious cycle is dependent upon consciousness, and how we live our lives. From another viewpoint we can say that every second is like a lifetime and that through consciousness we can burn up the karma of a lifetime every second!
  • 21. A Abhinivesha(-h) 13, 112, 114, 117, 121, 122, 131, 167, 206, 273, 322, 326 Abhyasa 6, 9, 11, 28, 31, 32, 48, 50, 82, 135, 187, 205, 317, 333, 356, 357, 365 Acharam 156, 174 Acharya 157, 291 Adhibauthika 72, 128, 319 Adhidaivika 72, 128, 319 Adhikarin 181, 182, 208, 349 Adhimatra 65 Adhishthatritvam 294 Adhyatma 102 Adi 50, 276, 350, 370 Adi Shankara 276, 350, 370 Adimatra 7 Adrishta 126 Adyatmika 72, 319 Agama 41 Agasthya, sage 33, 284 Ahamkara 38, 79, 88, 350 Ahara 210 Ahimsa 15, 16, 154, 155, 168, 193 Ajapa gayatri 199 Ajapa japa 88, 199 Ajna bindu 266, 267 Ajna chakra 91, 266, 267 Ajnana 146, 367 Akasha 280, 281, 283, 284 Akashagamanam 281 Aklishta 38 Alabdhabhumikatwa 78 Alambana 328 Alasya 9, 76 Alinga(-ni) 100, 138, 188 Ammaji (Yogacharini Smt. Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani) 48, 51, 109, 119, 120, 156, 173, 194, 207, 313, 318, 320, 332, 338 Ananda tandavam 113 Anandam 13, 28, 139, 364, 374 Anandamaya kosha 56, 185, 263 Ananta 18, 151, 195, 259 Anantasamapattibhyam 358 Anatmasu 117 Anavasthitatwani 78 Anda chakra 285 Andaja 311 Angamejayatwa 9, 81 Anima 22, 286 Anitya 117 Annamaya kosha 262, 263 Antah karana 138, 139 Antara 18, 202, 266 Antara hrudaya 266 Antaranga(-m) 5, 19, 20, 21, 226 Antaraya 5, 9, 73, 74, 75, 78, 80, 82 Anumana 41 Anumodita 16, 165 Anushasanam 31, 32, 173 Anushthana 32, 152 Anvaya 283, 290 Apa 283 Apana 202 Apara 52, 354, 356 Apara vairagya 52, 354 Aparigraha 15, 17, 154, 157, 176 Apavarga 27, 137, 290, 353, 371 Apunya 85, 129, 250 Arjuna 61, 77, 80, 125, 128, 133, 161, 166, 186, 196, 274, 284, 297, 303, 320, 325, 327, 367 Artha 97, 137, 239, 353, 373 Arthavattva 283, 290 Arunagiri 61, 277 Arupa 188 Asamprayoge 245 Asana 14, 18, 50, 75, 81, 152, 153, 158, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 201, 212, 226, 258, 312, 358 Asanga 278 Asat 53, 332 Ashrama 276, 354 Ashraya 328 Ashta siddhi 286, 287 Ashtanga yoga 5, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 66, 211, 328 Ashuddhikshaye 152 Asmita 7, 13, 24, 56, 112, 118, 228, 290, 313, 314 Asteya 15, 16, 154, 156, 173 Ashuchi 117 Asura 33, 43, 168, 261, 311 Asvada 273 Atha 29, 31, 32, 107, 215, 305 Atharva Shirsha, Ganesha 204 Atharva Veda 204 Atma 13, 75, 102, 117, 141, 181, 324, 356 Atma bhava 356 Atma jnana 13, 75, 324, 325
  • 22. ccclxxxiv Understanding the Yoga Darshan Atmadarshana 181, 182 Atmamaya kosha 56 Atman prasadanam 15, 102, 162 Aum 8, 27, 71, 72, 73, 238, 362 Aum japa 27, 73, 362 Aushadi 24, 307 Avasta 204 Avidya 12, 13, 14, 31, 37, 47, 112, 115, 117, 119, 124, 126, 147, 233, 313, 314, 328, 366 Avirati 9, 76, 77 Ayu 127, 328 B Bahiranga(-m) 5, 11, 20, 226, 227 Bahya 18, 88, 202 Bala 288 Bandha(-h) 13, 20, 217, 276, 302, 324, 366 Bhagavad 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125, 128, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 185, 186, 194, 196, 202, 265, 275, 276, 303, 320, 321, 327, 331, 333, 342, 349, 356, 358, 369 Bhagavad Gita 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125, 128, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 185, 186, 194, 196, 202, 265, 275, 303, 320, 321, 327, 331, 333, 342, 349, 356, 358, 369 Bhakti 15, 17, 162, 190, 191, 287, 311 Bhakti yoga 15, 17, 162, 190, 191, 287, 311 Bhavana(-m) 16, 163, 338 Bhavapratyayo 60, 61 Bhaya(-m) 53, 287, 350 Bhoga 27, 127, 137, 271, 290, 328, 353, 371 Bhrantidarshana 9, 77 Bhuloka 291 Bhutajaya 239, 283, 284, 285, 286 Bija(-m) 8, 23, 56, 101, 227, 370 Bija jagrat 370 Bindu 100, 266, 267, 288 Brahmacharya 15, 16, 154, 156, 157, 174, 175, 193, 276, 354 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 234 Brumadhya 266 Buddha 102, 155 Buddhi 11, 13, 23, 44, 56, 166, 302, 349, 350 Buddhi yoga 349 Buddhibuddhe 347 C Chakra 28, 77, 91, 259, 260, 263, 266, 267, 270, 279, 284, 285, 291 Chandra(-ma) 257, 345 Chanuraaga 166 Chatur ashrama 354 Chaturvidha 353, 373 Chela 41, 75, 199, 268 Chit(-ta(-m)) 3, 20, 24, 25, 26, 28, 78, 92, 139, 347, 364, 374 Chitta vikshepa 9, 74, 78 Chittabhumi 218, 230 Chittaprasadanam (Chitta prasadanam) 84, 250 Chittavritti 6, 33, 34, 37, 47, 205 D Daivika 320 Darshana 141, 355 Dasa Shloki 350, 370 Dasendriya 89 Daurmanasya 80 Deha vasana 322 Desha 18, 20, 25, 203, 217, 300 Deva 33, 43, 261 Dharana 11, 14, 19, 20, 27, 87, 152, 153, 208, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 243, 293, 357, 362 Dharma 27, 79, 133, 137, 138, 140, 141, 147, 156, 232, 233, 235, 241, 244, 250, 251, 284, 287, 334, 353, 354, 364, 366, 368 Dharma marga 241 Dharma megha 27, 57, 364, 366, 368 Dharmaraja 119 Dhyana 11, 14, 20, 124, 152, 153, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 293, 316, 317, 357 Dirgakala 51 Doshabhija kshaye 296 Drashta 139 Draupadi 358 Dravidian 60, 61, 67, 184, 221, 277, 309, 311 Drishta 126 Drishyam 290 Duhkha(-m) 9, 13, 80, 85, 117, 120, 135, 250, 291 Dwaitam 96 Dwandwa 18, 81, 196, 198, 350
  • 23. Index ccclxxxv Dwandwateetha 197, 198, 350 Dwesha 13, 112, 113, 120 E Ekagrah 181 Ekagrata 44, 218, 230, 231 Ekagrata parinama 231 Ekasamaye 346 Ekendriya 19, 210, 293 G Gana 43 Ganesha, Lord 43, 76, 204, 232, 235 Garima 286 Garuda Purana 311 Gati 200 Gita 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125, 128, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 185, 186, 194, 196, 202, 265, 275, 303, 320, 321, 327, 331, 333, 342, 349, 356, 358, 367, 369 Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj, Dr. Swami 4, 15, 31, 33, 89, 178, 213, 349 Grahana 96, 290 Grahasta 276, 354 Grahyeshu 96 Guna 5, 14, 25, 27, 54, 55, 136, 138, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 350, 369, 370, 371, 373, 374 Gunateetha 54, 204, 333, 350, 369 Guna vritti 131, 136 Guru 6, 12, 31, 33, 41, 61, 64, 70, 75, 89, 137, 143, 144, 146, 150, 156, 178, 199, 213, 221, 268, 274, 308, 324, 325, 338, 342, 351, 367 Guru Stotra 150, 324, 325, 367 H Hamsa-soham 88, 199, 200 Hanuman, Lord 253, 254, 284, 286, 287 Hatha yoga 18, 50, 75, 81, 175, 192, 196, 200, 264, 288 Hatha Yoga Pradipika 288 Hetu 328 Heyah 123 Himsa 155, 165 I Ida 260, 263, 264 Indriya 138, 291, 292, 293 Indriya jaya 181, 290, 292, 293 Ishitwa 286 Ishtadevata 188, 189 Ishwara 8, 12, 15, 17, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 109, 110, 115, 160, 161, 162, 190, 191, 205, 220, 227, 287, 294, 366 Ishwara pranidhana 12, 15, 17, 66, 109, 110, 115, 160, 161, 162, 190, 191, 205, 220, 287 J Jagrat(-i) 204, 274, 370 Janaka 137 Janma 24, 125, 176, 307, 324 Japa 8, 27, 73, 88, 124, 199, 362 Jarayuja 311 Jati 25, 127, 300, 328 Jnana(-m) 13, 14, 21, 42, 75, 81, 91, 97, 119, 146, 239, 260, 271, 299, 300, 301, 322, 324, 327, 351, 367 Jnana vasana 322 Jnanabhumi 355 Jnanendriya 89, 136, 210, 212, 232, 284, 292 Jyothi 91, 266, 267 K Kaivalya 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 52, 61, 62, 64, 122, 126, 147, 191, 211, 222, 234, 251, 294, 295, 301, 302, 308, 321, 330, 333, 340, 342, 357, 358, 360, 365, 373, 374 Kaivalya Pada 5, 6, 23, 25, 27, 294, 373 Kala 18, 25, 100, 203 Kama 19, 137, 166, 353, 373 Kambaliswamigal, Sri 308 Kambaliswami Madam 12, 178, 332 Karana 71, 138, 139, 276, 341 Karita 16, 165 Karma 5, 8, 13, 24, 27, 52, 65, 68, 72, 84, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 165, 227, 235, 241, 247, 248, 251, 284, 302, 307, 316, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322,
  • 24. ccclxxxvi Understanding the Yoga Darshan Karma (contd.) 324, 327, 338, 364, 366, 369, 373 Karma bandha 13, 302, 324, 366 Karma bhumi 126 Karmashaya 125 Karmavipaka 68 Karmendriya 89, 136, 210, 212, 232, 284, 292 Karuna 10, 84, 85, 250, 350 Kathopanishad 119 Kaya 186, 281, 286, 288 Kaya sampat 286, 288 Kayarupa 245 Kayavyuha jnanam 260 Kevala kumbhaka 18, 200, 205 Khyati 149, 150, 152, 365, 370 Klesha 5, 8, 12, 13, 27, 47, 68, 87, 111, 112, 115, 116, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 131, 147, 148, 186, 206, 227, 302, 314, 320, 328, 362, 364, 366, 373 Kleshamulah 125 Klishta 38 Koham 37, 358 Kosha 56, 185, 262, 263, 279, 284, 361 Krama(-m) 247, 299, 301, 369, 371 Krishna 15, 25, 61, 77, 125, 128, 133, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 172, 185, 186, 194, 196, 265, 274, 303, 319, 320, 321, 325, 327, 329, 331, 333, 356, 357, 358, 359, 367, 369 Krita 16, 165 Kriya yoga 11, 12, 17, 66, 109, 111, 115, 149, 161, 186, 191, 328, 362 Kriyamana 72, 319 Kriyamana karma 72, 319 Krodha(-h) 16, 165, 166, 167, 350 Krtartham 142 Kshana 299 Kshetra 115, 134 Kshetrajna 134 Kshipta 44, 218, 230 Kuladevata 188 Kumbhaka 18, 88, 200, 202, 205 Kundalini 77 Kurma nadi 263, 264 L Laghima 286 Lakshana(-m) 232, 288, 300 Lavanya 288 Laya kriya 259 Leela 100, 311 Linga 100, 138 Lingamatra 138, 188 Lobha 16, 165, 166, 167 Loka 255, 256, 284, 285, 322 Loka vasana 322 Lokeshana 323 M Mada 166 Madathipathi 178 Madhya 7, 65, 266 Maha jagrat 370 Mahabharata 77, 286, 297, 320, 358 Mahabhuta 89, 136, 232, 281, 283, 284, 286 Mahatma Gandhi 79, 157 Mahavratam 14, 158 Mahima 286 Maitri 10, 84, 85, 250 Mala 368 Mana 44, 56, 121, 292, 293, 309 Manana 63 Mandala 284 Manipura chakra 259, 260, 279 Manolaya 293 Mantra 8, 24, 72, 122, 124, 157, 199, 200, 239, 252, 301, 307, 309 Matsarya 166 Maya 100, 314, 330, 332, 335, 370 Mithyajnanam 42 Moha 16, 166, 167, 370 Mohamaya 316 Moksha 137, 144, 252, 290, 295, 325, 353, 358, 362, 373 Mridu 7, 65 Mridungam 180 Mudha 44, 75, 218, 350 Mudita 10, 84, 85, 250 Mudra 212, 225, 359 Mukti 310 Muladhara (chakra) 291 Mumukshu 365 Mumukshutva 64, 295, 323 Muni 143, 311 Murdha jyothi 266 Murdini jyothi 91 Muyalagan 113, 228 N Nachiketha 119 Nada 8, 71, 100, 238, 240, 284
  • 25. Index ccclxxxvii Nadi 260, 263, 264, 265 Nairantarya 51 Narayana arpana bhava 190 Narayana bhava 190 Natha 61, 277, 308 Navaratna 239 Nidi 35 Nididhyasana 63 Nidra 6, 40, 46, 93 Nilakantha 261 Nimita bhava 190 Nirbija 10, 57, 106, 227, 364 Nirbija samadhi 10, 57, 106, 227, 364 Nirguna 55, 204, 332, 333 Nirodha parinama 228 Niruddha 44, 218 Nirvichara 10, 57, 99, 101, 102 Nirvitarka 10, 56, 98, 101 Nishkama 185 Nishpanda 194, 358 Nitya 25, 117, 326 Nivritti 27, 356 Niyama 14, 15, 16, 17, 152, 153, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165, 168, 180, 188, 226, 332 P Pancha 12, 14, 15, 89, 136, 186, 200, 212, 232, 264, 278, 279, 281, 283, 284, 291, 314, 361 Para 6, 23, 52, 55, 295, 296, 332, 354, 356, 364, 365 Para brahman 55, 332 Para vairagya 7, 23, 52, 295, 296, 354, 356, 364, 365 Paramamahattwanta 95 Paramanu 95 Parampara 70 Parinama 31, 228, 230, 231, 232, 343 Pathigam 309 Phala 170, 328 Pinda chakra 285 Pingala 260, 263, 264 Pracchardana 87, 88 Prajna 7, 62, 63, 103, 151, 175, 196, 224, 265, 330, 349 Prajnaloka 224 Prakamya 286 Prakasha 14, 19, 136, 206, 245 Prakriti 55, 60, 138, 142, 144, 147, 271, 283, 285, 293, 295, 310, 343, 355, 369 Prakriti laya 61, 62, 295 Pramada 9, 76 Pramana 6, 39, 41, 43 Prana 10, 27, 43, 44, 87, 88, 199, 201, 202, 205, 213, 259, 264, 278, 279, 284, 291, 360, 362 Prana vayu 264, 278, 279, 284 Pranamaya kosha 262, 263, 279 Pranava 8, 71, 72, 73, 238 Pranavritti 205 Pranayama 14, 18, 19, 20, 81, 87, 152, 153, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 211, 218, 219, 226, 282, 312, 317 Prapti 286 Prarabdha karma 72, 319 Prasupta 13, 115 Pratibha 273 Pratibhadva 351 Pratipaksha bhavanam 16, 163 Pratiprasava 123, 373 Pratishtha 168, 173 Pratyahara 14, 19, 20, 77, 90, 121, 152, 153, 210, 211, 212, 213, 226, 292, 293 Pratyaksha 41 Prayatna shaithilya 18, 194, 358 Preya 119 Prithvi 283 Puja 12, 138, 168, 180, 191 Punya 85, 129, 250, 284, 319 Puraka 202 Purusha 8, 19, 23, 27, 70, 138, 139, 142, 144, 147, 151, 233, 257, 271, 273, 285, 294, 302, 311, 320, 333, 343, 344, 345, 346, 349, 351, 352, 355, 366, 373 Purusha Suktam 257, 345 Purushartha 27, 137, 173, 353, 373 Putreshana 323 R Raga 13, 112, 113, 119, 239, 350 Rajasica 14, 55, 125, 136, 183, 204, 331, 332 Rama, Lord 52, 77, 80, 161, 253, 284, 287, 301, 363 Ramayana 77, 284, 286, 287 Rechaka 202
  • 26. ccclxxxviii Understanding the Yoga Darshan Riddhi 173 Rishi 61, 141, 156, 168, 169, 170, 189, 193, 198, 239, 258, 277, 284, 289, 294, 297, 298, 308, 311, 323, 330, 334, 363 Rishipatni 156 Rupa 288, 331 S Sabija 56, 72, 101, 126, 227, 241, 319, 324 Sabija karma 72, 126, 241, 324 Sabija samadhi 56 Sadhaka 4, 5, 9, 11, 14, 16, 19, 22, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 73, 74, 78, 80, 93, 132, 175, 180, 183, 274, 297, 317, 318, 355, 365 Sadhana 5, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 48, 53, 60, 73, 76, 78, 81, 123, 132, 135, 149, 152, 168, 173, 175, 176, 187, 194, 200, 203, 209, 211, 212, 213, 218, 220, 225, 228, 236, 275, 282, 291, 294, 295, 297, 314, 317, 318, 332, 333, 339, 343, 353, 362, 365, 372 Sadhana chatushtaya 295 Sadhana Pada 5, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 211, 282, 314, 353, 362 Sadharanatvat 142 Sadhu 11, 362 Sadhu sangamah 362 Sakshi 35 Sama bhava 349 Samadhi 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 20, 23, 24, 27, 31, 54, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 66, 96, 97, 106, 111, 152, 153, 175, 186, 190, 191, 222, 223, 227, 230, 238, 274, 287, 293, 295, 307, 309, 357, 358, 364, 365, 366 Samadhi Pada 5, 10, 11, 23, 31, 175, 190, 238, 295, 366 Samana 259, 279 Samapatti(-h) 10, 96, 97, 358 Samatvam 18, 194, 198, 265, 358 Sambandar 309 Samhananatvani 288 Samkirna 97, 271 Samkya 18, 203 Samprajnata samadhi 7, 56 Samsakttinamika 355 Samshaya 9, 76 Samskara 7, 21, 25, 26, 58, 65, 79, 105, 106, 131, 143, 166, 228, 229, 241, 242, 273, 275, 301, 316, 321, 324, 326, 328, 341, 361, 362, 363 Samvedanam 349 Samyami 143, 274 Samyogah 134, 145 Sananda 57 Sanatana dharma 138, 141 Sanchita 72, 319, 324 Sanchita karma 319 Sanga 166, 278, 362 Sankalpa 342 Sannyasa 276, 354 Santosha(-m) 15, 17, 53, 160, 183, 184, 185, 350, 362 Sapta 151, 355 Saptadha bhumi 151 Sara adija vyadhi 75 Saranagathi 190 Sarvabhava 294 Sarvabhuta rutajnanam 21, 239 Sarvajnatrtvam 294 Sarvam 13, 268, 351 Sarvatha vishayam 301, 352 Sarvartham 351 Sarva vishayam 301, 352 Sasmita 57 Sat 11, 28, 112, 139, 269, 332, 364, 374 Sat-chit-anandam 28, 139, 364, 374 Satguru 150, 218, 324 Satkara 51 Satsangha 119, 362 Sattwa (Sattva ) 19, 23, 55, 181, 271, 294, 302, 332, 351, 355 Sattwica 14, 55, 110, 114, 125, 136, 160, 170, 181, 183, 194, 204, 206, 207, 331, 332 Satya 15, 16, 154, 155, 156, 170, 255 Saumanasya 181 Savichara 10, 56, 99, 101 Savitarka 10, 56, 97, 101 Shabda 71, 97, 213, 238, 239, 240, 291 Shaiva Siddhantha 248, 277, 309 Shaivite 273 Shakti(-h) 27, 291 Shama 362 Shankara Giri 178
  • 27. Index ccclxxxix Sharira 341, 361 Shat ripu 166, 234 Shatsampat 295 Shaucha 17, 160, 178, 179, 180 Shiva, Lord 19, 57, 100, 113, 228, 261, 262, 273, 350 Shiva Puranam 43, 67, 221, 311 Shodasha samskara 58 Shotra 280 Shraddha 7, 53, 62, 175 Shravana 63, 273 Shreya 119 Shukla 25, 319 Shunyaka 88 Shunyanam 374 Shvetaasvatara Upanishad 288 Siddha 22, 266, 267, 274, 287, 307, 308 Siddhi 5, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 33, 61, 89, 168, 170, 171, 173, 179, 186, 187, 190, 223, 224, 253, 268, 274, 275, 276, 277, 282, 286, 287, 288, 291, 292, 307, 308, 309, 351 Siddhya 186 Smriti 6, 7, 40, 62, 166, 175, 324 So-ham 358 Spanda 194, 358 Stambhavritti 48, 202 Sthirasukhamasanam 192 Sthula 71, 227, 283, 341 Stitha prajna 196, 349 Styana 9, 75 Subheechakhya 355 Shuchi 117 Sukha(-m) 18, 84, 85, 117, 183, 192, 193, 195, 196, 250, 291, 346, 350 Sukha stanam 196 Sukshma 18, 25, 71, 100, 227, 283, 341 Sukshmavishayatvam 100 Sura 33 Surya namaskar 339 Sushumna 260, 263, 264 Sushupti 204, 370 Swabuddhi 349 Swadharma 149, 182, 373 Swadhyaya 12, 15, 17, 66, 79, 93, 109, 115, 123, 124, 160, 161, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 242, 332, 333 Swamiji (Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri) 12, 15, 31, 33, 34, 35, 43, 44, 50, 52, 57, 66, 77, 89, 91, 98, 102, 120, 126, 133, 137, 158, 162, 173, 178, 180, 184, 191, 194, 197, 198, 210, 221, 237, 238, 243, 247, 253, 259, 263, 268, 278, 291, 308, 313, 318, 320, 322, 332, 342, 344, 352 Swanga 180 Swapna 93, 204, 370 Swapna nidra 93 Swarupa 20, 27, 283, 290, 331 Swarupashunyeva 98 Swarupe avasthanam 35 Swasa-praswasa 9, 81 Swaswami 144 Swatmarama 288 Swedaja 311 T Tada 26, 342 Tadgati 258 Tamasica 14, 40, 55, 110, 114, 125, 136, 160, 183, 204, 207, 317, 330, 331, 332 Tamizh Moovayiram 60 Tamovritti 46 Tandava(-m) 113, 228 Tanmatra 89, 138, 232, 284 Tansen 239, 240, 284 Tantra(-m) 25, 175, 324, 339 Tanu 13, 115 Tanukarana 111 Tanumanasa 355 Tapa(-h) 12, 15, 17, 24, 66, 109, 115, 131, 132, 160, 161, 168, 170, 186, 191, 251, 258, 297, 307, 309, 327 Tapatraya 72, 129, 319 Taraka 301 Tasmad yogi bhavarjuna 303 Tattva(-m) 284, 285, 291, 334 Teja 102, 175, 279, 283 Thuriya 204 Thuriyateetha 204 Tirukkural 325 Tirumandiram 60, 277 Tirumoolar 60, 75, 277 Tiruppugazh 277 Tiruvalluvar 325 Tivra samvegin 64 Tri sharira 361 Triguna 54, 130, 131, 136, 204, 331, 332, 334, 343, 349, 369, 370, 373
  • 28. cccxc Understanding the Yoga Darshan Trikala jnani 25, 177, 299, 330 Trishanku 61 Trivasana 322 Turyaga 355 U Udana 278 Udaranam 13, 115 Udbija 311 Uktam 362 Upaprana 264 Upekshanam 10, 84, 85, 250 V Vachaka(-h) 8, 71, 238 Vairagya 6, 7, 23, 28, 48, 52, 53, 54, 92, 109, 113, 135, 205, 276, 295, 296, 322, 332, 333, 354, 356, 357, 358, 364, 365 Vaishnavite 273 Vajra 288 Vanaprasta 354 Varta 273 Vasana 24, 79, 145, 166, 322, 323, 326, 328, 341, 353 Vashishta (sage) 13, 52, 61, 161, 284, 363 Vashitwa 286 Vasishtha (Yoga) 13, 52, 75, 80, 161, 337, 341, 350, 353, 354, 355, 362, 368, 369, 370, 372 Vastu 43, 53, 334, 336, 339, 341 Vasudaiva kudumbhakam 234 Vayu 259, 264, 278, 279, 281, 283, 284 Veda 3, 204, 268, 345 Vedana 273, 349 Veerya 7, 62, 175 Vibhuti 5, 19, 20, 23, 178, 302, 303 Vibhuti Pada 5, 19, 20, 23, 302 Vicchinna 13, 115 Vichara 7, 56, 99, 362 Vicharana 355 Videha 60, 61, 62, 282, 295 Vikalpa 6, 39, 43, 54, 97 Vikshepa sahabhuvah 80 Vikshipta 44, 218, 230 Viniyoga 225 Viparyaya 6, 39, 42 Vishaya(-m) 47, 92, 100, 301, 352 Vishayati 89 Vishesha 8, 138, 188, 355 Vishnu, Lord 151, 259, 273 Vishoka 91 Vishuddha (chakra) 291 Vishwamitra 61, 284, 297 Vitaraga 92 Vitarka(-h) 7, 56, 99, 163, 165 Viteshana 323 Viveka 13, 14, 119, 149, 150, 152, 276, 295, 332, 349, 364, 365, 370 Viveka khyati 14, 149, 150, 152, 364, 365, 370 Vivekajam 299, 300, 301, 351 Vivekajam jnanam 299, 300, 301, 351 Vivekanimnam 26, 357, 359 Viyoga(-m) 135, 272, 355 Vritti 6, 38, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 54, 96, 106, 136 Vyadhi 9, 50, 75 Y Yama 14, 15, 16, 17, 119, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 163, 165, 168, 176, 226 Yantra 74, 84, 125, 186, 234, 241, 319, 329 Yoga marga 267, 365 Yoga sadhana 5, 14, 15, 17, 23, 73, 187, 200, 275, 295, 339, 343 Yoga yukta 320 Yogabhyasa 365 Yoganga 14, 20, 149, 152, 213, 218 Yoganushasanam 31 Yogarudda 342 Yogi(-c) 8, 9, 25, 54, 60, 61, 81, 88, 106, 114, 122, 130, 133, 135, 136, 143, 152, 158, 181, 186, 187, 193, 194, 201, 203, 213, 234, 240, 246, 248, 262, 264, 265, 274, 277, 280, 287, 288, 289, 292, 294, 303, 312, 318, 319, 320, 327, 356, 358, 365, 374 Yogini 61 Yogyata 19, 87, 181 Yudhisthira 358