SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Extended Collective Licensing –
the view of a national library.

Benjamin White, Head of Intellectual Property
British Library
The British Library Collection



• 150 millions items

 35km of music shelving (357 years to listen 9-5. 3
 minutes of new music collected every minute.)

• 12km added a year from legal deposit.
British Library Mass Digitisation Collections



• 4 million pages of 17th – 19th Century Newspapers

• 25 million pages of “out-of-copyright” books 1800 –
 1900

  2000 days of Sound Recordings

• 85,000 books from the 19th century
What is Mass Digitisation?


• Minimal or ideally no “weeding” – top left hand corner
  to bottom right.

• Intellectual creation by curators of a thematically
  aligned collection.

• A whole historical collection or a part of a historical
  collection.
Text: 24 pt
● Bullet
● Bullet
● Bullet
Unique and rare material
Why digitise?


Not “because it’s there” but

• Increasingly digital targets for cultural bodies;
• Educational, research and cultural benefits for
  ! citizens;
• Stimulate further artistic creativity in turn;
• Promote business and technology innovations.
! “Europe can become a leader in the
  distribution of digital content, and as part
  of this change, our digital heritage is an
  important component.”



!   Orange’s Vision – The Migration of Digital Content to Open Markets.

!   Comité des Sages Hearing October 2010.
19th Century Study of In-Copyright Material
            excluded from Digitisation

• Total Number of titles excluded from digitisation as in-
  copyright = 865



• Number of titles theoretically available for purchase = 173



• Number of titles available in print on demand format = 140



• Number in stock = 1
Public Domain pre 1923 in America.
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
1988


 §2(1) The owner of the copyright in a work of any
 description has the exclusive right to do the acts
 (specified in Chapter II), as the acts restricted by the
 copyright in a work of that description.
Mass Digitisation

Strong correlation between commercially
valuable works and ability to efficiently clear
rights.

Research libraries interested in rare, unique,
less common material including unpublished
material.

Inevitably this means that rights clearance
issues are manifold.
Orphan Works - evidence


• Broadcast / unpublished sound recordings high? > 90%

• Film – 21% of film in European film archives orphan.
  (60% of these are over 60 years old.)

• ARROW – 2011 study of 140 titles from 1870 – 2010.
  31% are Orphan Works.
Rights Clearance


• BBC estimate 12 hours to clear one hour’s worth of film.

• ARROW study shows that simultaneous rights
  clearance of 140 titles on average took 4 hours per
  book.

• To clear rights for the 500,000 estimated 20th century
  out of commerce works at the BNF it would take one
  person over 1200 years to clear (with no weekends).
Rights Clearance Framework and its effect
                on Digitisation


• Stick to public domain and contribute to the “blackhole
  of the 20th Century”.

• Only cover commercial material with active
  rightsholders – could already be digitised so value
  questionable unless curated, arranged and presented
  differently.

• Spend a lot of time looking for rightsholders and then
  just take the legal and reputational risk with what you
  cannot clear.
How do you clear rights en masse in the
    context of mass digitisation?




     Extended Collective Licensing


                  but
Issues
•   How does it work across borders?
•   Are collecting societies open, transparent and
    independently regulated?
•   Is it acceptable to multi-national publishers?
•   Is it acceptable to incumbent commercially active creators
    and authors?
•   Does it negate all new limitations and exceptions – the
    “comfort blanket” or “sovepute” effect – and where does
    that leave the public interest?
•   What happens to the money collected for the
    unrepresented?
•   Does it create more problems for memory institutions –
    orphan works?
Orphan Works

  Governmental Licence or an Exception?
• Much unique material not produced with
  commercial intent in mind – JISC In from
  the Cold.
• Is a diligent search more appropriate for
  certain collections?
• Ethical problems with commercialising
  through collecting societies –
  exacerbates problems with re-emerging
  owners.
What is the solution?




   No one size fits all.
What are the options for Out of
Commerce Works and Orphan Works?
Orphan Works


● “Pure” Exception – US and UK

● Governmental Licence – Canada, Japan, Hungary, UK (?)

● Licensing Based Solution (Extended) – Scandinavia

Out-of-Commerce Works

● Streamlined licensing solution. e.g. ECL
www.bl.uk/ip

ben.white@bl.uk

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Europeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developments
Europeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developmentsEuropeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developments
Europeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developments
Europeana Licensing
 
OER IPR Support
OER IPR SupportOER IPR Support
OER IPR Support
OERIPRSupport
 
Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013
Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013
Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013
Europeana Licensing
 
ECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU law
ECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU lawECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU law
ECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU law
Europeana Licensing
 
Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?
Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?
Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?
Europeana Licensing
 
Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013
Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013
Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013
Europeana Licensing
 
Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013
Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013
Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013
Europeana Licensing
 
The ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensing
The ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensingThe ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensing
The ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensing
Europeana Licensing
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Europeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developments
Europeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developmentsEuropeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developments
Europeana Licensing Framework - Current status & future developments
 
OER IPR Support
OER IPR SupportOER IPR Support
OER IPR Support
 
Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013
Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013
Antoinette Graves - UK Orphan Works Scheme 062013
 
ECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU law
ECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU lawECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU law
ECL provisions in relation to international conventions and EU law
 
Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?
Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?
Extended Collective License 
– what, when, where?
 
Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013
Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013
Olaf Stokkmo - IFFRO - Rights Clearance 062013
 
Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013
Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013
Enrico Turrin - ARROW - Luxembourg - 062013
 
The ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensing
The ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensingThe ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensing
The ECL-model in it ́s Nordic context Copyright and Collective licensing
 

Similar to Extended Collective Licensing - the view of a national library

Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)
Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)
Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)
Eleonora Rosati
 
Advantages of the long tail
Advantages of the long tailAdvantages of the long tail
Advantages of the long tail
LiamFlan93
 
What is Intellectual Property : A Primer For Librarians
What is Intellectual Property : A Primer For LibrariansWhat is Intellectual Property : A Primer For Librarians
What is Intellectual Property : A Primer For Librarians
Professor Jon Cavicchi, UNH School of Law
 
(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)
(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)
(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)
JeremyOHare1
 
Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...
Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...
Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...
Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels
 
Proyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado Mangas
Proyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado MangasProyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado Mangas
Proyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado Mangas
Biblioteca Nacional de España
 
On Creativity, Copyrights and Commerce
On Creativity, Copyrights  and CommerceOn Creativity, Copyrights  and Commerce
On Creativity, Copyrights and Commerce
Adelphi Consulting
 
The Public Domain Charter
The Public Domain CharterThe Public Domain Charter
The Public Domain Charter
Paul Keller
 
53 million objects! Now what?
53 million objects! Now what?53 million objects! Now what?
53 million objects! Now what?
David Haskiya
 
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British LibraryDigital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Nora McGregor
 
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British LibraryDigital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Research and Curator Team @ British Library
 
Muehlberger umea google
Muehlberger umea googleMuehlberger umea google
Muehlberger umea google
Günter Mühlberger
 
Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...
Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...
Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...
Phonothèque MMSH
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
Omid Aminzadeh Gohari
 
Hidden Collections
Hidden CollectionsHidden Collections
Hidden Collections
ResearchLibrariesUK
 
Collections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan Corbett
Collections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan CorbettCollections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan Corbett
Collections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan Corbett
National Digital Forum
 
Introduction to IP Research Tools & Strategies
Introduction to IP Research Tools & StrategiesIntroduction to IP Research Tools & Strategies
Introduction to IP Research Tools & Strategies
Professor Jon Cavicchi, UNH School of Law
 
2005
20052005
2005
suschung
 
DRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptx
DRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptxDRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptx
DRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptx
dri_ireland
 
Dh2016 dstp
Dh2016 dstpDh2016 dstp

Similar to Extended Collective Licensing - the view of a national library (20)

Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)
Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)
Orphan works in the EU and UK (E Rosati)
 
Advantages of the long tail
Advantages of the long tailAdvantages of the long tail
Advantages of the long tail
 
What is Intellectual Property : A Primer For Librarians
What is Intellectual Property : A Primer For LibrariansWhat is Intellectual Property : A Primer For Librarians
What is Intellectual Property : A Primer For Librarians
 
(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)
(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)
(W) introduction to copyright (nov 2016) (1)
 
Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...
Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...
Sänger: Retro-Digitisation of Library Stocks in Europe – Alternatives to the ...
 
Proyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado Mangas
Proyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado MangasProyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado Mangas
Proyecto Arrow. Ana Manchado Mangas
 
On Creativity, Copyrights and Commerce
On Creativity, Copyrights  and CommerceOn Creativity, Copyrights  and Commerce
On Creativity, Copyrights and Commerce
 
The Public Domain Charter
The Public Domain CharterThe Public Domain Charter
The Public Domain Charter
 
53 million objects! Now what?
53 million objects! Now what?53 million objects! Now what?
53 million objects! Now what?
 
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British LibraryDigital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
 
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British LibraryDigital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
Digital Cultural Heritage: Experiences from British Library
 
Muehlberger umea google
Muehlberger umea googleMuehlberger umea google
Muehlberger umea google
 
Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...
Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...
Copyright challenges and policy choices in European heritage projects Tools, ...
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
 
Hidden Collections
Hidden CollectionsHidden Collections
Hidden Collections
 
Collections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan Corbett
Collections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan CorbettCollections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan Corbett
Collections online and copyright law – Is there a disconnect? Susan Corbett
 
Introduction to IP Research Tools & Strategies
Introduction to IP Research Tools & StrategiesIntroduction to IP Research Tools & Strategies
Introduction to IP Research Tools & Strategies
 
2005
20052005
2005
 
DRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptx
DRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptxDRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptx
DRI Copyright and Licencing_UCC_Mar23.pptx
 
Dh2016 dstp
Dh2016 dstpDh2016 dstp
Dh2016 dstp
 

More from Europeana Licensing

Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013
Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013
Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013
Europeana Licensing
 
Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013
Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013
Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013
Europeana Licensing
 
Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013
Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013
Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013
Europeana Licensing
 
Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013
Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013
Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013
Europeana Licensing
 
The ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohan
The ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohanThe ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohan
The ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohan
Europeana Licensing
 
THE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAW
THE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAWTHE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAW
THE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAW
Europeana Licensing
 
Filmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sector
Filmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sectorFilmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sector
Filmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sector
Europeana Licensing
 
Europeana and Extended Collective Licensing
Europeana and Extended Collective LicensingEuropeana and Extended Collective Licensing
Europeana and Extended Collective Licensing
Europeana Licensing
 

More from Europeana Licensing (8)

Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013
Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013
Lucie Guibault - IViE - Cross Border Licensing 06.2013
 
Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013
Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013
Luis Ferraro - DG CONNECT - culture and creativity in the digital realm 062013
 
Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013
Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013
Francesca Schulze - Europeana Licensing 062013
 
Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013
Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013
Godfrey Rust - Rights.com - Linked Content Coalition 062013
 
The ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohan
The ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohanThe ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohan
The ECL model in a multi-territorial / cross-border settingJohan
 
THE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAW
THE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAWTHE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAW
THE EBU PROPOSAL ON ECL + APPLICABLE LAW
 
Filmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sector
Filmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sectorFilmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sector
Filmotech Netherlands: a voluntary ECL model in the AV sector
 
Europeana and Extended Collective Licensing
Europeana and Extended Collective LicensingEuropeana and Extended Collective Licensing
Europeana and Extended Collective Licensing
 

Extended Collective Licensing - the view of a national library

  • 1. Extended Collective Licensing – the view of a national library. Benjamin White, Head of Intellectual Property British Library
  • 2.
  • 3. The British Library Collection • 150 millions items 35km of music shelving (357 years to listen 9-5. 3 minutes of new music collected every minute.) • 12km added a year from legal deposit.
  • 4. British Library Mass Digitisation Collections • 4 million pages of 17th – 19th Century Newspapers • 25 million pages of “out-of-copyright” books 1800 – 1900 2000 days of Sound Recordings • 85,000 books from the 19th century
  • 5. What is Mass Digitisation? • Minimal or ideally no “weeding” – top left hand corner to bottom right. • Intellectual creation by curators of a thematically aligned collection. • A whole historical collection or a part of a historical collection.
  • 6. Text: 24 pt ● Bullet ● Bullet ● Bullet
  • 7. Unique and rare material
  • 8.
  • 9. Why digitise? Not “because it’s there” but • Increasingly digital targets for cultural bodies; • Educational, research and cultural benefits for ! citizens; • Stimulate further artistic creativity in turn; • Promote business and technology innovations.
  • 10. ! “Europe can become a leader in the distribution of digital content, and as part of this change, our digital heritage is an important component.” ! Orange’s Vision – The Migration of Digital Content to Open Markets. ! Comité des Sages Hearing October 2010.
  • 11. 19th Century Study of In-Copyright Material excluded from Digitisation • Total Number of titles excluded from digitisation as in- copyright = 865 • Number of titles theoretically available for purchase = 173 • Number of titles available in print on demand format = 140 • Number in stock = 1
  • 12.
  • 13. Public Domain pre 1923 in America.
  • 14. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 §2(1) The owner of the copyright in a work of any description has the exclusive right to do the acts (specified in Chapter II), as the acts restricted by the copyright in a work of that description.
  • 15. Mass Digitisation Strong correlation between commercially valuable works and ability to efficiently clear rights. Research libraries interested in rare, unique, less common material including unpublished material. Inevitably this means that rights clearance issues are manifold.
  • 16.
  • 17. Orphan Works - evidence • Broadcast / unpublished sound recordings high? > 90% • Film – 21% of film in European film archives orphan. (60% of these are over 60 years old.) • ARROW – 2011 study of 140 titles from 1870 – 2010. 31% are Orphan Works.
  • 18. Rights Clearance • BBC estimate 12 hours to clear one hour’s worth of film. • ARROW study shows that simultaneous rights clearance of 140 titles on average took 4 hours per book. • To clear rights for the 500,000 estimated 20th century out of commerce works at the BNF it would take one person over 1200 years to clear (with no weekends).
  • 19. Rights Clearance Framework and its effect on Digitisation • Stick to public domain and contribute to the “blackhole of the 20th Century”. • Only cover commercial material with active rightsholders – could already be digitised so value questionable unless curated, arranged and presented differently. • Spend a lot of time looking for rightsholders and then just take the legal and reputational risk with what you cannot clear.
  • 20. How do you clear rights en masse in the context of mass digitisation? Extended Collective Licensing but
  • 21. Issues • How does it work across borders? • Are collecting societies open, transparent and independently regulated? • Is it acceptable to multi-national publishers? • Is it acceptable to incumbent commercially active creators and authors? • Does it negate all new limitations and exceptions – the “comfort blanket” or “sovepute” effect – and where does that leave the public interest? • What happens to the money collected for the unrepresented? • Does it create more problems for memory institutions – orphan works?
  • 22. Orphan Works Governmental Licence or an Exception? • Much unique material not produced with commercial intent in mind – JISC In from the Cold. • Is a diligent search more appropriate for certain collections? • Ethical problems with commercialising through collecting societies – exacerbates problems with re-emerging owners.
  • 23. What is the solution? No one size fits all.
  • 24. What are the options for Out of Commerce Works and Orphan Works? Orphan Works ● “Pure” Exception – US and UK ● Governmental Licence – Canada, Japan, Hungary, UK (?) ● Licensing Based Solution (Extended) – Scandinavia Out-of-Commerce Works ● Streamlined licensing solution. e.g. ECL