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2011-GE-56
CONTENTS
 Study the various inert explosives manufactured by Wah Nobel industries, write a short
note on them indicating specifications, their uses etc.
 Study the various accessories (inert) manufactured by Wah Nobel and write
.brief note stating their specifications, uses etc.
 Study the various inert explosives manufactured by Biafo industries, write a short note
on them indicating specifications, their uses etc.
 Study the various accessories (inert) manufactured by Biafo and write a brief note
stating their specifications, uses etc.
 Draw the diagram of a blasting cap used in conjunction with safety fuse showing the
explosive train. Also practice the assemblage of blasting cap (inert) and safety fuse
making the proper setting of safety fuse in the cap and cramp it with the help of crimper
at the proper place.
 Study a Nonel detonator (inert) and various associated accessories and delays (inert) and
practice its connection in lab.
 Practice the recommended knots for detonating cord on inert detonating cord or nylon
strings.
 To study the construction and working of Nonel shock tube initiator (actual).
 To study the working of different types of electric blasting machines in the lab.
 Practice with the help of detonators (inert) and primer (inert) the various proper
techniques in making primers.
 How to check the blasting machine energy
2011-GE-56
LAB 1
TO STUDY THE VARIOUS INERT EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURED BY
WAH NOBEL INDUSTRIES, WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON THEM
INDICATING SPECIFICATIONS, THEIR USES
WAH NOBLE EXPLOSIVES:
 Emulsion Explosives
 Seismic Emulite (E-3):
Seismic emulsion explosives (E-3) meet the highest standard of safety required in rough and
tough conditions of seismic prospecting. E-3 has excellent storage properties especially of high
temperature and humid climate.
Emulite E-3
Technical Data( E-3):
Density 1.25 g/cc
Gas Volume 796 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 5000 - 5400 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
Consistency Emulsion
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 Emulite – 150 / Emulite – 150 (G):
This cap sensitive explosive has plastic consistency and is very suitable for achieving high
loading density. It has excellent blasting properties. It can be used as bottom charge for any kind
of blasting. Due to its consistency and high water resistance it can be confidently employed for
deep under water blasting.
Technical Data (E-150):
Density 1.25 g/cc
Gas Volume 830 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 5000 - 5500 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
Consistency Emulsion
Technical Data Emulite – 150 (G):
Density 1.25 g/cc
Gas Volume 860 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 4600 - 5000 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
Consistency Emulsion
 Emulite -100/100 G:
Suitable for pre- spilling, smooth and controlled blasting. In dry and wet bore holes it is also used as a
column charge and ideally suited in the tunnel blasting.
Technical Data Emulite– 100 / 100 (G):
Density 1.20 g/cc
Gas Volume 900 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 5000 - 5500 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
2011-GE-56
Consistency Emulsion
Technical Data Emulite – 100 (G):
Density 1.20 g/cc
Gas Volume 932 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 4500 - 5000 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
Consistency Emulsion
 Permissible Emulite E-408:
Emulite-408 is of special composition for use in gassy coal mines. It produces short lived
detonation flames and prevents firedamp or coal dust explosion in underground coal mines
This explosive can be employed in underground mining of other ores as well.
Technical Data Emulite (E-408)
Density 1.12-1.15 g/cc
Gas Volume 820 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 4400 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
Consistency Emulsion
 Nitroglycerine Based Dynamite:
 Explosives S – 3 (Seismic Explosive):
The severe conditions encountered in oil prospecting demand explosives of a special type. S-
3 the seismic explosive manufactured by Wah Nobel is the best answer to such demands. S-3
has excellent water resistance and capable of withstanding extremely high Hydrostatic
2011-GE-56
pressure. It is cartridge in specially designed high density rigid plastic tubes which can be
coupled in to another to make the desired length of column of charge.
Explosive S-3
Technical Data:
 Wabox:
Wabox is suitable for all types of rock blasting operations. It is manufactured in a different
grade, namely 80, 60 and 40 percent. These explosives have excellent blasting properties,
highest level of safety in handling and transportation as well as in storage. They are meant
for hard and medium hard rocks and are suitable in dry and wet conditions in quarrying,
striping and underground mining. These explosives give excellent results in under water
blasting as well. All grades of wabox are manufactured according to the requirements of
customers.
Technical Data:
Density 1.40-1.45 g/cc
Gas Volume 860 lit. / Kg
Density 1.50-1.55 g/cc
Gas Volume 520 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 5500 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No.8
Consistency Gelatinous
2011-GE-56
V.O.D (unconfined) +5000 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No.8
Consistency Gelatinous
 Wabofite:
Wabofite is oxygen - balanced semi gelatinous dynamite. It is employed for pre splitting,
smooth and controlled blasting. It can also be used as a base charge in medium hard and
soft rocks. In dry and wet bore holes it is also used as a column charge in quarrying and it
is ideal for tunneling blasting.
Technical data:
Density 0.90-1.00 g/cc
Gas Volume 873 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) +3000 - 3500 m/sec
Sensitivity Detonator No.8
Consistency Semi Gelatinous
 Powder Explosives:
Wabofite
2011-GE-56
 Wabonite:
Wabonite is a low density explosive of relative high weight strength well suited mainly as
a column charge in all types of rocks where conditions are moderately dry. It is not cap
sensitive explosive and required premier for initiation. Wabonite has excellent storage
properties and offer maximum safety in handling
and transportation.
Technical data:
 Wapril (ANFO):
Wapril is a mixture of Ammonium Nitrate and fuel oil having a special sensitizer designed to
give optimum blasting performance. Wapril is a low cost explosive which extensively employed
as column charge in all types of rock blasting operations and is particularly used as a main
charge (with primer) in a large diameter hole blasting.
Density 0.90 g/cc
Gas Volume 918 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 3000 m/sec
Sensitivity Primer Required
Consistency Prills
Wabonite
2011-GE-56
Wapril
Technical Data:
Density 0.80 g/cc
Gas Volume 988 lit. / Kg
V.O.D (unconfined) 2500 m/sec
Sensitivity Primer Required
Consistency Prills
Comments:
In this lab it is clear about the type and the use of an explosive. So if we have the situation then
choosing the proper explosive is not so difficult. Also the best explosive is the emulsion
explosives.
2011-GE-56
LAB 2
STUDY THE VARIOUS ACCESSORIES (INERT) MANUFACTURED BY
WAHNOBEL AND WRITE A BRIEF NOTE STATING THEIR
SPECIFICATIONS, USES ETC.
ACCESSORIES BY WAH NOBLE:
 Wabocord detonating cord:
Wabocord consist of a core of high explosive contained in polythene and wrapped in various
layers of cottons /jute yarn. The detonating cord is then coated with PVC, giving it a high tensile
strength and making it water proof. The structure of Wabocord assures its efficient field
performance as it is unaffected by both heat and cold within a wide range from - 60 °C to 30 °C
Technical Data:
 Safety Fuse:
Safety fuse consist of a central core of specially formulated black power with jute and cotton
countering. Water proofing is done by bitumen, wax as well as PVC. It is designed to propagate
flame to the plain detonators within time limit.
Velocity of detonation 6000-7000 m/sec
Water resistance
Water proof, can
Withstand pressure of 25 meters
water head for 48 hours.
Explosive grammage 10 + 1 g/m
2011-GE-56
Safety Fuse
Technical Data:
Burning Time
100-120 m/sec
Suitable for damp and dry
conditions
Coating PVC / Bitumen
 Detonator:
Plain detonator No.8:
Standard type Plain Detonator No.8 consists of base charge of high explosive and a primary
charge of an initiating explosive pressed in to an aluminum tube. It is used with safety fuse.
Plain Detonator No.8
Technical Data:
Length of 41mm(Nominal)
2011-GE-56
Aluminum casing
Outer Dia. 7mm
Use In combination with
safety fuse
Packing:
100 Detonators packed in a smaller card box. 50 small boxes packed in a master card board box
containing total of 5000 detonators.
Electric Detonator No. 8:
Electrical energy is required to initiate electric detonators. The advantage of electric firing over
firing with safety fuse and plain detonator is that several shot can be connected up and fired
simultaneously with much greater control over the blast.
Electric detonator No.8
Technical Data:
Length of Aluminum
casing
47 mm
Standard wire 3 mtr
Resistance 1.5 - 2.0 ohms
Packing: 10 Detonators packed in a smaller card box. 50 small boxes packed in a master card
box containing of 500 detonators.
P Seismic Detonator:
2011-GE-56
Seismic Detonators are specially formulated, high density, high energy detonators for sensitive
seismic explosives. Offering moderate velocity and extraordinarily low gas production, they
improved seismic energy across usable bandwidth for superior final data as well as improved
signal-to-noise ratio.
P Seismic detonator
Technical Data:
Material Aluminum
Length 45 - 45.7 mm
External Dia 7.0 - 7.2 mm
Wire length 4.5, 12,24 and 30 meter
MS/HS Electric Delay Detonators:
Millisecond and half second electric delay detonators are meant to effect delayed blasting action
in multi row bench blasting and tunneling. This action greatly improves blasting results as better
fragmentation and this action greatly improves blasting fragmentation and ground vibration
control is achieved. For surface blasting only, MS delays are used while in underground blasting,
a combination of both MS and HS detonators is employed.
MS/HS Electric delay detonator
 LEHER initiation system:
2011-GE-56
LEHER is the trade name of the latest “Non-Electric Initiation System (Nonel) developed by
Research and development Laboratories of Wah Nobel.
Advantages:
 No stray current or radio transmission hazards.
 No side initiation.
 No noise problem
 Simple and rational connections.
 No limits on the size of blast round.
Comments:
Wah Nobel produces a lot of accessories the above are the examples.
LAB 3
TO STUDY THE VARIOUS ACCESSORIES (INERT) MANUFACTURED BY
BIAFO AND WRITE A BRIEF NOTE STATING THEIR SPECIFICATIONS
AND USES ETC.
Biafo Industries Limited is a Pakistani manufacturer and distributor of commercial explosives
and blasting accessories.
PRODUCTS AND THEIR DESCRIPTION:
 Tovex Water Gel Explosives:
Tovex, a complete replacement for dynamite, is being accepted by blasting experts throughout
the country and the world because tovex performs equal to or better than dynamite, and it’s much
safer. Tovex super blaster is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and
surface applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high
strength product is required to do the job.
Tovex Water Gel Exp
 Tovex offers improved flexibility in loading
 Tovex reduces propagation between holes.
 Tovex has reliable water resistance.
 Tovex cuts smoke and noxious fumes.
 Tovex eliminated nitroglycerin headaches.
Biafo offers complete explosives systems for above and below ground application, where rock
must be broken are:
1. Super Blaster:
Super blaster is a cap sensitive cartridged water gel designed for underground and surface
applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength
product is required to do the job. Tovex super blaster is available in standard diameters from 25
mm to 90 mm.
Super Blaster
Technical Data:
Density 1.25g / cc
V.O.D 16,400 ft./sec (5000 m /sec)
Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at
ambient temperature
Sensitivity Blasting cap# 8
Water
Resistance
Excellent
2. Blaster
Blaster is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface applications.
This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is
required to do the job. TOVEX® BLASTER is available in standard diameters from 25 mm to
90 mm. BLASTER 200-S is available in 25 mm dia and 200 mm length in hard plastic tubes.
Blaster
Density 1.15g / cc
V.O.D 14,750 ft./sec (4500 m /sec )
Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at
ambient temperatures
Water
Resistance
Excellent
Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator
3. Super Breaker:
Super breaker is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface
applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength
product is required to do the job. Tovex super breaker is available in standard diameters from 25
mm to 90 mm.
Super Breaker
Density 1.1g / cc
V.O.D 12,465 ft./sec (3800 m /sec)
Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored
at ambient temperatures
Water Resistance Excellent
Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator
4. Breaker:
Breaker is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface applications.
This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is
required to do the job. TOVEX BREAKER is available in standard diameters from 25 mm to 90
mm.
Breaker
Density 0.90g / cc
V.O.D 10,825 ft/sec (3300 m /sec)
Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at
ambient temperatures
Water Resistance Excellent
Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator
5. Seismic
Seismic explosive has proven a consistently performance, high safety in shot hole explosive that
provides performance equivalent to dynamite with increased safety for seismic prospecting.
Tovex is particularly well suited for sleeper charges because of its resistance to water and to
desensitization under high hydrostatic pressure. Tovex® seismic water gel offers increased
safety to impact, shock and fire and gives high energy level when compared to dynamite.
Seismic Exp
Density 1.28-1.30 gm / cc
V.O.D Greater than 18,045 ft/sec
Shelf Life One year from date of manufacturing stored at
ambient temperatures
Water
Resistance
Excellent
Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator
6. Coal Miner:
Coalminer permissible water gel is multipurpose small diameter cartridge explosive, specially
designed for though loading and shooting conditions in underground coal and rock applications.
Tovex coalminer offers excellent fumes ad smoke control compared to dynamites. Energies
developed are comparable to permissible dynamites, without using nitroglycerine or other
headache-causing ingredients. It is available in standards diameters from 25mm to 32mm.
Coal Miner
7. Powder Explosives
Powder explosives or low density explosives are unique because of their explosives properties as
well as their premier requirement. Ammonium Nitrate is an essential ingredient.
Density 1.13g / cc
V.O.D 14,500 ft/sec (4420 m /sec )
Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at ambient
temperatures
Water Resistance Excellent
Priming
Requirements
Blasting cap#8 strength detonator
Powder Explosive
 Bio Prill
Bio prill is a non- cap sensitive blasting agent blend of granulated ammonium nitrate prills and
fuel oil. It is uniformly mixed and free running. Bio prill is intended for use as column charge for
open cut blasting work.
 Bi Bulk
Bi-bulk is a non-cap sensitive blasting agent blend of ammonium nitrate prills, fuel oil,
aluminium and other ingredients. It is uniformly mixed and free running. Presence of Aluminum
in this product produces more heave action resulting in greater rock breakage and movement. Bi-
bulk is used for column charge for open cut blasting work..
Comments:
The Biafo is one the most famous industry in Pakistan that produces many types of explosives
and accessories. The different explosives are given only to the registered industries and persons.
LAB 4
STUDY THE VARIOUS ACCESSORIES (INERT) MANUFACTURED BY
BIAFO AND WRITE A BRIEF NOTE STATING THEIR SPECIFICATIONS,
USES
THEORY:
Accessories:
Accessories are the initiating devices for any blasting operation. Better results can only be
achieved when the initiating devices used to detonate the explosive charge are carefully chosen
and properly utilized.
Biafo offers the following Accessories or initiating devices:
 Detonators
 Bi Nel
 Biafo cord
 Safety fuse
1- Detonators:
 Plain Detonators:
Plain detonator No.8 is made of Aluminum sheet, lead aside, lead styphnate and Penta erythritol
tetra nitrate (PETN.) Ultrasonic cleaning makes it free from sharp edges, surface defects, grease
and oil, its length is 45 mm and diameter is 6.8 mm and shall perforate completely a 4 mm thick
lead plate. Detonator can be employed to initiate Tovex, dynamite, detonating cord and other cap
sensitive explosives.
Plain Detonator
 Electronic Detonators:
Electric detonator No 8 is identical to Plain detonator except that fuse head assembly along with
two copper wires insulated with PVC are attached, its diameter at crimped places is 502mm and
is provided with 3 meter leg wire. It shall not be initiated by a direct current of 0.25 Amps for 30
seconds and shall be initiated by a direct current of 1.0 Amps for 0.01 seconds. All electric
detonators have shunts on the free ends of the leg wires to help protect against unwanted current
flowing through the bridge circuit.
Electric Detonator
 Seismic Detonators
Biafo also produced Seismic Detonators for Oil Exploration Companies in different lengths.
2. Bi Nel:
Biafo also produced Non Electric Delay Detonator with different lengths of Shock Tube. In
addition to this we also supply the following
Seismic Detonator
Bi Nel
3. Biafo Cord:
Biafo Cord is a flexible cord containing a centre of high explosive Pentaerythritoltetranitrate
(PETN), which is covered with combination of various yarn and finally with LDPE/PVC
coating. This process protects Biafo cord from extreme temperatures, water, oil or other elements
and provides essential feature as tensile strength, flexibility and other handling characteristics. It
can be initiated by use of a plain or an electric detonator.
Biafo Cord
4. Safety Fuse:
Safety Fuse is a flexible cord containing a centre of Explosive Black Powder which is covered
with combination of various yarns and finally with PVC / LDPE coating. This process protects
Safety fuse from extreme temperature, water, oil or other elements and provides essential feature
of tensile strength, flexibility and other handling characteristics. It can be initiated with hot
object or open flame.
Safety Fuse
omments:C
The accessories above produced by only Biafo and hence they are producing it in high quality for
the use in different fields like in mining purposes etc.
LAB 5
TO DRAW THE DIAGRAM OF BLASTING CAP USED IN CONJUCTION
WITH SAFETY FUSE SHOWING THE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN:
APPARATUS:
 Blasting cap
 Safety fuse
 Crimper
THEORY:
Blasting cap:
The oldest and simplest type of blasting cap, fuse caps are a metal cylinder, closed at one end.
From the open end inwards, there is first an empty space into which a pyrotechnic fuse is
inserted and crimped, then a pyrotechnic ignition mix, a primary explosive and then the main
detonating explosive charge.
Blasting Cap
Safety fuse:
Safety fuse contains a black powder core (potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal, 74:16:10)
sheathed by a waxed fiber covering. It does not require air to burn and burns at a rate of 40 ft/sec.
It was invented by William Bickford in 1831.
Safety Fuse
Crimper:
A mechanical device for crimping the metallic shell of a fuse detonator or igniter cord connector
securely to a section of inserted safety fuse. Crimper is also used to safely cut detonating cord,
Nonel and safety fuse.
Crimper
PROCEDURE:
 Inspect the blasting cap to insure it is clear of foreign matter.
Cap Inspection
 Gently slip the blasting cap over the fuse so that the flash charge in the cap is in contact with
the end of the time fuse. DO NOT FORCE IT IN THE CAP.
 After seating the cap, crimp it 3/8 inch from the open end of the cap with the help of a cap
crimper.
Connection of different wellbores
Crimping of cap
Cap and safety fuse connection
PRECAUTIONS:
 Point the cap out and away from you when crimping.
 Safety fuse should be freshly cut so that there are no chances of misfire.
 Safety fuse should besquarely cut while inserted into the cap, otherwise there will be gap
between fuse and ignition mixture causing misfire.
Slanty Cut
Comments:
Precautions should be followed to avoid cut off and to ensure the safety.
Ignition mixtureBase Charge
Open End
LAB 6
PRACTICE THE RECOMMENDED KNOTS FOR DETONATING CORD ON
INERT DETONATING CORD OR NYLON STRINGS.
THEORY:
Detonating cord:
Detonating cord (also called detonation cord, detacord, det. cord, detcord, primer cord or sun
cord) is a thin, flexible plastic tube filled with PETN (Pentaerythritoltetranitrate). With the PETN
exploding at a rate of approximately 4 miles per second, any common length of det. cord appears
to explode instantaneously. It is a high-speed fuse which explodes, rather than burns, and is
suitable for detonating high explosives. The velocity of detonation is sufficient to use it for
synchronizing multiple charges to detonate almost simultaneously even if the charges are placed
at different distances from the point of initiation. It is used to reliably and inexpensively chains
together multiple explosive charges. Typical uses include mining, drilling & demolition.
Types of detonating cords:
They are of different types depending upon amount of PETN present in it. They may be of
 400 grains/foot
 4 grains/foot
Connecting safety fuses
Types of Knotting:
There are three basic types of knotting the detonating cord and nonel or detonating cord with a
detonating cord;
 Half Hitch Knotting
 Double Wrap Half Hitch Knotting
 Square Knotting
Half Hitch Knotting:
This is done between trunk line and down line of blasting pattern. The junction should make the
two lines tight and perpendicular to each other.
Half hitch Knot
Double wrap half hitch knotting
This is again done between trunk line and down line but it gives more grips to junction of two
lines.
DOUBLE Wrap Half Hitch
Square knotting:
Usually this is done between open end of trunk and down line to complete the circuit (spread).
Square knotting
PROCEDURE:
Half Hitch Knotting:
Keep the trunk line tight and make a half hitch knot of down line. The knot should be tight and
two lines should be perpendicular to each other after knotting.
Double wrap half hitch knotting:
It is similar to half hitch knot the only difference is that before knotting the down line is wrapped
twice on trunk line. It provides extra strength.
Square knotting:
A square knot is formed by tying a left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand
knot, or vice versa. A common mnemonic for this procedure is "right over left, left over right".
The working ends of the square knot must emerge both at the top or both at the bottom.
PRECAUTIONS:
 In delay pattern, knotting should be done in such a way that it avoids cut-off as shown in
figure.
Knotting procedure
Comments:
 Angle between down line and trunk line should 90o
after knot is .
 Knot should be tight that no misfire occurs.
Reference:
 Montana Department of state Lands Blaster Certification Training Manual
LAB 7
TO STUDY THE CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF NONEL SHOCK
TUBE INITIATOR
APPARATUS:
 Nonel shock tube initiator, shock tube and shot shell primer.
Nonel Shock Tube Initiator
THEORY:
Nonel:
Nonel (Shock tube) is a thin hollow plastic tube with a light dusting of HMX-AL mixture
(powder) on the inner wall. The powder is held to the inside of the tube by electrostatic charges
when it is blown into the tube during manufacture. One pound of explosive mixture coats 70,000
ft of tube. It has a V.O.D of 6500 ft/sec. due to light loading of explosive there is no rupturing of
the tube. This property of the tube makes it safe to handle and also reduces air blast when used as
trunk line.
Nonel
Shock tube initiator:
In this shot shell primer is used to initiate the Nonel. The Explosive in shoot shell primer is a
primary explosive (i.e. Lead Azide or mercury fulminate) which are initiated by giving a sharp
below to it, which initiate the powder mixture of shock tube.
Electric initiation:
Nonel can be initiated by using electric initiation system. Electric nonel initiators use plasma or
spark technology to ignite the Nonel tubing.
PROCEDURE:
 Unscrew the coupling.
 Insert shot shell primer into the threaded end of the coupling.
 Screw the coupling back into the housing.
 Insert shock tube into the angled hole in the coupling from the top
 Pull the shock tube through the angle hole and then insert the shock tube into the center hole
in the coupling
 To fire hit the black cushion sharply with the palm of the hand.
Comments:
Electric blasting is a good technique used and gives more safety than other type.
Precautions:
 Keep hands and fingers away from the firing opening to avoid burns or whiplash from the
shock tube.
Electric Initiation
LAB 8
TO STUDY THE WORKING OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELECTRIC
BLASTING MACHINES IN THE LAB
THEORY:
There are two basic types of blasting machines
 Generator blasting machine
 CD machine
 Sequential Blasting machine
Generator blasting machine:
This machine is operated manually; when handle is pushed down a series of gears spins a rotor
inside the generator assembly producing voltage. When handle reaches the end of its travel, it
closes a switch which delivers the current produced to the output terminals of machine. This
current initiates the circuit.
Generator Blasting Machine
CD machine:
CD machine is basically a capacitor discharge system. It is an electronic circuit in which a series
of capacitor are fully charged using battery; a firing switch discharges the energy through the
blasting circuit connected to it.
CD Blasting Machine
Sequential Blasting machine:
A special class of CD blasting is sequential timing blasing machine which consist of a no. of
separate capacitor circuits and output terminals each capable of firing a series of electronic
detonators. These separate firing circuits discharge their energy at predetermined time interval.
Sequential Blasting Machine
Comments:
 Voltage from manual machine is depended upon the condition of machine and strength of
operator.
 Capacitance of capacitor decreases with time
LAB 9
STUDY A NONEL DETONATOR (INERT) AND VARIOUS ASSOCIATED
ACCESSORIES AND DELAYS (INERT) AND PRACTICE ITS CONNECTION
IN LAB
APPARATUS:
 Nonel (shock tube)
 Nonel detonator
 lead-in line
 Bunch Connector
 J-hook
 Block connector
THEORY:
Nonel (Shock tube):
Shock tube is a thin hollow plastic tube with a HMX-AL (powder) on the inner wall. The powder
is held to the inside of the tube by electrostatic charges when it is blown into the tube during
manufacture. It has a V.O.D of 6500 ft/sec. Nonel was invented by Dyno Nobel's Swedish
organization in the 1960s and 1970s
Nonel Detonator:
In Nonel a column of hot gases is traveled which removes the explosive from the walls and
propagates towards detonator. This flash has enough energy to initiate the pyro-technique charge
which further detonates the detonator.
Nonel Detonator
Down-hole detonator:
It employs both a primary charge and a base charge to provide the strength necessary to detonate
modern explosives. Lead Azide is the primary charge; its shape allows it to be fully encapsulated
by the base charge, which generally consists of PETN or polycoated PETN.
Surface detonator:
It does not require as much strength;utilize a simple Lead Azide explosive charge.
Lead-in line:
Nonel tube which is used to move away from site to the safe place during blast is called lead-in
line. Lead Line consists of a 2500 ft. spool of shock tube.
Lead in line
Bunch Connector:
The simplest way to hook up a NONEL is by using bunch connectors. The bunch connector is a
connector unit that is used to initiate a number of NONEL-tubes that have been gathered into a
bunch. The technique is used primarily in tunnel blasting.
Bunch Connector
Downhole Detonator
J-Hook:
It is usually used to connect the Nonel in down line and detonating cord as trunk line.
MS Delay Connectors:
These are used to provide the surface delays for detonating cord trunkline. In this a piece of
Nonel in between the two bunch block provides delay for detonating cord.
Bunch Block J- Hook
Precautions:
 Keep hands and fingers away from the firing opening to avoid burns or whiplash from the
shock tube.
Comments:
 J-hook provides only one way of detonation
 MS Delay connector provides two way detonations
LAB10
INTRODUCTION TO LIGHTNING STORM DETECTOR
LIGHTNING STORM DETECTOR:
INTRODUCTION:
The SD-250 is a unique, state of the art electronic storm warning system which satisfies the
requirements of The Bureau of Mines, O.S.H.A., and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It
reduces exposure to and potential hazard for people who are outside such as blasters,
construction and mining crews, window cleaners, airport and marina personnel, golfers and
swimmers, or anyone who needs advanced warning of approaching electrical storms. The SD-
250 provides this advanced warning by detecting the electric discharges of lightning with a
custom amplified receiver and is sensitive enough to detect strikes as far as 100 miles away. A
speaker function is built in to allow the user to monitor background noise when setting up the
unit to minimize interference from external devices. Proximity of electrical discharges can be
monitored as the distance of lightning strikes are indicated by the range lamps and an alarm can
be set to go off should the storm come closer than the distance set by the operator. When tripped
a built in "squawking" alarm sounds and twin lamps alternately flash until reset by the operator.
The system can also be configured to activate a variety of external warning devices such as
sirens, strobe lamps, transmitters, computer interfaces, etc. The system comes complete in a
watertight case with a smart battery charger and a system testing generator.
Lightning Storm Detector
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Dual Indicators Built in flashing lights and alarm speaker.
Range Indicators 10, 25, 50, and 100 miles ( switch selectable )
Sensitivity: one microvolt
Size 8”x 8”x 6.5”
Weight 14 lbs
Battery Rechargeable 6 volt GC-660 ( smart charger
supplied with unit )

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Explosive Engineering labs

  • 1. 2011-GE-56 CONTENTS  Study the various inert explosives manufactured by Wah Nobel industries, write a short note on them indicating specifications, their uses etc.  Study the various accessories (inert) manufactured by Wah Nobel and write .brief note stating their specifications, uses etc.  Study the various inert explosives manufactured by Biafo industries, write a short note on them indicating specifications, their uses etc.  Study the various accessories (inert) manufactured by Biafo and write a brief note stating their specifications, uses etc.  Draw the diagram of a blasting cap used in conjunction with safety fuse showing the explosive train. Also practice the assemblage of blasting cap (inert) and safety fuse making the proper setting of safety fuse in the cap and cramp it with the help of crimper at the proper place.  Study a Nonel detonator (inert) and various associated accessories and delays (inert) and practice its connection in lab.  Practice the recommended knots for detonating cord on inert detonating cord or nylon strings.  To study the construction and working of Nonel shock tube initiator (actual).  To study the working of different types of electric blasting machines in the lab.  Practice with the help of detonators (inert) and primer (inert) the various proper techniques in making primers.  How to check the blasting machine energy
  • 2. 2011-GE-56 LAB 1 TO STUDY THE VARIOUS INERT EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURED BY WAH NOBEL INDUSTRIES, WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON THEM INDICATING SPECIFICATIONS, THEIR USES WAH NOBLE EXPLOSIVES:  Emulsion Explosives  Seismic Emulite (E-3): Seismic emulsion explosives (E-3) meet the highest standard of safety required in rough and tough conditions of seismic prospecting. E-3 has excellent storage properties especially of high temperature and humid climate. Emulite E-3 Technical Data( E-3): Density 1.25 g/cc Gas Volume 796 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 5000 - 5400 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No. 8 Consistency Emulsion
  • 3. 2011-GE-56  Emulite – 150 / Emulite – 150 (G): This cap sensitive explosive has plastic consistency and is very suitable for achieving high loading density. It has excellent blasting properties. It can be used as bottom charge for any kind of blasting. Due to its consistency and high water resistance it can be confidently employed for deep under water blasting. Technical Data (E-150): Density 1.25 g/cc Gas Volume 830 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 5000 - 5500 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No. 8 Consistency Emulsion Technical Data Emulite – 150 (G): Density 1.25 g/cc Gas Volume 860 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 4600 - 5000 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No. 8 Consistency Emulsion  Emulite -100/100 G: Suitable for pre- spilling, smooth and controlled blasting. In dry and wet bore holes it is also used as a column charge and ideally suited in the tunnel blasting. Technical Data Emulite– 100 / 100 (G): Density 1.20 g/cc Gas Volume 900 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 5000 - 5500 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No. 8
  • 4. 2011-GE-56 Consistency Emulsion Technical Data Emulite – 100 (G): Density 1.20 g/cc Gas Volume 932 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 4500 - 5000 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No. 8 Consistency Emulsion  Permissible Emulite E-408: Emulite-408 is of special composition for use in gassy coal mines. It produces short lived detonation flames and prevents firedamp or coal dust explosion in underground coal mines This explosive can be employed in underground mining of other ores as well. Technical Data Emulite (E-408) Density 1.12-1.15 g/cc Gas Volume 820 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 4400 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No. 8 Consistency Emulsion  Nitroglycerine Based Dynamite:  Explosives S – 3 (Seismic Explosive): The severe conditions encountered in oil prospecting demand explosives of a special type. S- 3 the seismic explosive manufactured by Wah Nobel is the best answer to such demands. S-3 has excellent water resistance and capable of withstanding extremely high Hydrostatic
  • 5. 2011-GE-56 pressure. It is cartridge in specially designed high density rigid plastic tubes which can be coupled in to another to make the desired length of column of charge. Explosive S-3 Technical Data:  Wabox: Wabox is suitable for all types of rock blasting operations. It is manufactured in a different grade, namely 80, 60 and 40 percent. These explosives have excellent blasting properties, highest level of safety in handling and transportation as well as in storage. They are meant for hard and medium hard rocks and are suitable in dry and wet conditions in quarrying, striping and underground mining. These explosives give excellent results in under water blasting as well. All grades of wabox are manufactured according to the requirements of customers. Technical Data: Density 1.40-1.45 g/cc Gas Volume 860 lit. / Kg Density 1.50-1.55 g/cc Gas Volume 520 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 5500 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No.8 Consistency Gelatinous
  • 6. 2011-GE-56 V.O.D (unconfined) +5000 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No.8 Consistency Gelatinous  Wabofite: Wabofite is oxygen - balanced semi gelatinous dynamite. It is employed for pre splitting, smooth and controlled blasting. It can also be used as a base charge in medium hard and soft rocks. In dry and wet bore holes it is also used as a column charge in quarrying and it is ideal for tunneling blasting. Technical data: Density 0.90-1.00 g/cc Gas Volume 873 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) +3000 - 3500 m/sec Sensitivity Detonator No.8 Consistency Semi Gelatinous  Powder Explosives: Wabofite
  • 7. 2011-GE-56  Wabonite: Wabonite is a low density explosive of relative high weight strength well suited mainly as a column charge in all types of rocks where conditions are moderately dry. It is not cap sensitive explosive and required premier for initiation. Wabonite has excellent storage properties and offer maximum safety in handling and transportation. Technical data:  Wapril (ANFO): Wapril is a mixture of Ammonium Nitrate and fuel oil having a special sensitizer designed to give optimum blasting performance. Wapril is a low cost explosive which extensively employed as column charge in all types of rock blasting operations and is particularly used as a main charge (with primer) in a large diameter hole blasting. Density 0.90 g/cc Gas Volume 918 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 3000 m/sec Sensitivity Primer Required Consistency Prills Wabonite
  • 8. 2011-GE-56 Wapril Technical Data: Density 0.80 g/cc Gas Volume 988 lit. / Kg V.O.D (unconfined) 2500 m/sec Sensitivity Primer Required Consistency Prills Comments: In this lab it is clear about the type and the use of an explosive. So if we have the situation then choosing the proper explosive is not so difficult. Also the best explosive is the emulsion explosives.
  • 9. 2011-GE-56 LAB 2 STUDY THE VARIOUS ACCESSORIES (INERT) MANUFACTURED BY WAHNOBEL AND WRITE A BRIEF NOTE STATING THEIR SPECIFICATIONS, USES ETC. ACCESSORIES BY WAH NOBLE:  Wabocord detonating cord: Wabocord consist of a core of high explosive contained in polythene and wrapped in various layers of cottons /jute yarn. The detonating cord is then coated with PVC, giving it a high tensile strength and making it water proof. The structure of Wabocord assures its efficient field performance as it is unaffected by both heat and cold within a wide range from - 60 °C to 30 °C Technical Data:  Safety Fuse: Safety fuse consist of a central core of specially formulated black power with jute and cotton countering. Water proofing is done by bitumen, wax as well as PVC. It is designed to propagate flame to the plain detonators within time limit. Velocity of detonation 6000-7000 m/sec Water resistance Water proof, can Withstand pressure of 25 meters water head for 48 hours. Explosive grammage 10 + 1 g/m
  • 10. 2011-GE-56 Safety Fuse Technical Data: Burning Time 100-120 m/sec Suitable for damp and dry conditions Coating PVC / Bitumen  Detonator: Plain detonator No.8: Standard type Plain Detonator No.8 consists of base charge of high explosive and a primary charge of an initiating explosive pressed in to an aluminum tube. It is used with safety fuse. Plain Detonator No.8 Technical Data: Length of 41mm(Nominal)
  • 11. 2011-GE-56 Aluminum casing Outer Dia. 7mm Use In combination with safety fuse Packing: 100 Detonators packed in a smaller card box. 50 small boxes packed in a master card board box containing total of 5000 detonators. Electric Detonator No. 8: Electrical energy is required to initiate electric detonators. The advantage of electric firing over firing with safety fuse and plain detonator is that several shot can be connected up and fired simultaneously with much greater control over the blast. Electric detonator No.8 Technical Data: Length of Aluminum casing 47 mm Standard wire 3 mtr Resistance 1.5 - 2.0 ohms Packing: 10 Detonators packed in a smaller card box. 50 small boxes packed in a master card box containing of 500 detonators. P Seismic Detonator:
  • 12. 2011-GE-56 Seismic Detonators are specially formulated, high density, high energy detonators for sensitive seismic explosives. Offering moderate velocity and extraordinarily low gas production, they improved seismic energy across usable bandwidth for superior final data as well as improved signal-to-noise ratio. P Seismic detonator Technical Data: Material Aluminum Length 45 - 45.7 mm External Dia 7.0 - 7.2 mm Wire length 4.5, 12,24 and 30 meter MS/HS Electric Delay Detonators: Millisecond and half second electric delay detonators are meant to effect delayed blasting action in multi row bench blasting and tunneling. This action greatly improves blasting results as better fragmentation and this action greatly improves blasting fragmentation and ground vibration control is achieved. For surface blasting only, MS delays are used while in underground blasting, a combination of both MS and HS detonators is employed. MS/HS Electric delay detonator  LEHER initiation system:
  • 13. 2011-GE-56 LEHER is the trade name of the latest “Non-Electric Initiation System (Nonel) developed by Research and development Laboratories of Wah Nobel. Advantages:  No stray current or radio transmission hazards.  No side initiation.  No noise problem  Simple and rational connections.  No limits on the size of blast round. Comments: Wah Nobel produces a lot of accessories the above are the examples.
  • 14. LAB 3 TO STUDY THE VARIOUS ACCESSORIES (INERT) MANUFACTURED BY BIAFO AND WRITE A BRIEF NOTE STATING THEIR SPECIFICATIONS AND USES ETC. Biafo Industries Limited is a Pakistani manufacturer and distributor of commercial explosives and blasting accessories. PRODUCTS AND THEIR DESCRIPTION:  Tovex Water Gel Explosives: Tovex, a complete replacement for dynamite, is being accepted by blasting experts throughout the country and the world because tovex performs equal to or better than dynamite, and it’s much safer. Tovex super blaster is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is required to do the job. Tovex Water Gel Exp
  • 15.  Tovex offers improved flexibility in loading  Tovex reduces propagation between holes.  Tovex has reliable water resistance.  Tovex cuts smoke and noxious fumes.  Tovex eliminated nitroglycerin headaches. Biafo offers complete explosives systems for above and below ground application, where rock must be broken are: 1. Super Blaster: Super blaster is a cap sensitive cartridged water gel designed for underground and surface applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is required to do the job. Tovex super blaster is available in standard diameters from 25 mm to 90 mm. Super Blaster Technical Data: Density 1.25g / cc V.O.D 16,400 ft./sec (5000 m /sec) Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at ambient temperature Sensitivity Blasting cap# 8 Water Resistance Excellent
  • 16. 2. Blaster Blaster is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is required to do the job. TOVEX® BLASTER is available in standard diameters from 25 mm to 90 mm. BLASTER 200-S is available in 25 mm dia and 200 mm length in hard plastic tubes. Blaster Density 1.15g / cc V.O.D 14,750 ft./sec (4500 m /sec ) Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at ambient temperatures Water Resistance Excellent Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator 3. Super Breaker: Super breaker is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is required to do the job. Tovex super breaker is available in standard diameters from 25 mm to 90 mm.
  • 17. Super Breaker Density 1.1g / cc V.O.D 12,465 ft./sec (3800 m /sec) Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at ambient temperatures Water Resistance Excellent Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator 4. Breaker: Breaker is a cap sensitive cartridge water gel designed for underground and surface applications. This water gel provides improved performance where a medium to high strength product is required to do the job. TOVEX BREAKER is available in standard diameters from 25 mm to 90 mm. Breaker
  • 18. Density 0.90g / cc V.O.D 10,825 ft/sec (3300 m /sec) Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at ambient temperatures Water Resistance Excellent Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator 5. Seismic Seismic explosive has proven a consistently performance, high safety in shot hole explosive that provides performance equivalent to dynamite with increased safety for seismic prospecting. Tovex is particularly well suited for sleeper charges because of its resistance to water and to desensitization under high hydrostatic pressure. Tovex® seismic water gel offers increased safety to impact, shock and fire and gives high energy level when compared to dynamite. Seismic Exp Density 1.28-1.30 gm / cc V.O.D Greater than 18,045 ft/sec Shelf Life One year from date of manufacturing stored at ambient temperatures Water Resistance Excellent Sensitivity Blasting cap#8 strength detonator
  • 19. 6. Coal Miner: Coalminer permissible water gel is multipurpose small diameter cartridge explosive, specially designed for though loading and shooting conditions in underground coal and rock applications. Tovex coalminer offers excellent fumes ad smoke control compared to dynamites. Energies developed are comparable to permissible dynamites, without using nitroglycerine or other headache-causing ingredients. It is available in standards diameters from 25mm to 32mm. Coal Miner 7. Powder Explosives Powder explosives or low density explosives are unique because of their explosives properties as well as their premier requirement. Ammonium Nitrate is an essential ingredient. Density 1.13g / cc V.O.D 14,500 ft/sec (4420 m /sec ) Shelf Life One year from date of manufacture stored at ambient temperatures Water Resistance Excellent Priming Requirements Blasting cap#8 strength detonator Powder Explosive
  • 20.  Bio Prill Bio prill is a non- cap sensitive blasting agent blend of granulated ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil. It is uniformly mixed and free running. Bio prill is intended for use as column charge for open cut blasting work.  Bi Bulk Bi-bulk is a non-cap sensitive blasting agent blend of ammonium nitrate prills, fuel oil, aluminium and other ingredients. It is uniformly mixed and free running. Presence of Aluminum in this product produces more heave action resulting in greater rock breakage and movement. Bi- bulk is used for column charge for open cut blasting work.. Comments: The Biafo is one the most famous industry in Pakistan that produces many types of explosives and accessories. The different explosives are given only to the registered industries and persons.
  • 21. LAB 4 STUDY THE VARIOUS ACCESSORIES (INERT) MANUFACTURED BY BIAFO AND WRITE A BRIEF NOTE STATING THEIR SPECIFICATIONS, USES THEORY: Accessories: Accessories are the initiating devices for any blasting operation. Better results can only be achieved when the initiating devices used to detonate the explosive charge are carefully chosen and properly utilized. Biafo offers the following Accessories or initiating devices:  Detonators  Bi Nel  Biafo cord  Safety fuse 1- Detonators:  Plain Detonators: Plain detonator No.8 is made of Aluminum sheet, lead aside, lead styphnate and Penta erythritol tetra nitrate (PETN.) Ultrasonic cleaning makes it free from sharp edges, surface defects, grease and oil, its length is 45 mm and diameter is 6.8 mm and shall perforate completely a 4 mm thick lead plate. Detonator can be employed to initiate Tovex, dynamite, detonating cord and other cap sensitive explosives. Plain Detonator
  • 22.  Electronic Detonators: Electric detonator No 8 is identical to Plain detonator except that fuse head assembly along with two copper wires insulated with PVC are attached, its diameter at crimped places is 502mm and is provided with 3 meter leg wire. It shall not be initiated by a direct current of 0.25 Amps for 30 seconds and shall be initiated by a direct current of 1.0 Amps for 0.01 seconds. All electric detonators have shunts on the free ends of the leg wires to help protect against unwanted current flowing through the bridge circuit. Electric Detonator  Seismic Detonators Biafo also produced Seismic Detonators for Oil Exploration Companies in different lengths. 2. Bi Nel: Biafo also produced Non Electric Delay Detonator with different lengths of Shock Tube. In addition to this we also supply the following Seismic Detonator Bi Nel
  • 23. 3. Biafo Cord: Biafo Cord is a flexible cord containing a centre of high explosive Pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), which is covered with combination of various yarn and finally with LDPE/PVC coating. This process protects Biafo cord from extreme temperatures, water, oil or other elements and provides essential feature as tensile strength, flexibility and other handling characteristics. It can be initiated by use of a plain or an electric detonator. Biafo Cord 4. Safety Fuse: Safety Fuse is a flexible cord containing a centre of Explosive Black Powder which is covered with combination of various yarns and finally with PVC / LDPE coating. This process protects Safety fuse from extreme temperature, water, oil or other elements and provides essential feature of tensile strength, flexibility and other handling characteristics. It can be initiated with hot object or open flame. Safety Fuse omments:C The accessories above produced by only Biafo and hence they are producing it in high quality for the use in different fields like in mining purposes etc.
  • 24. LAB 5 TO DRAW THE DIAGRAM OF BLASTING CAP USED IN CONJUCTION WITH SAFETY FUSE SHOWING THE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: APPARATUS:  Blasting cap  Safety fuse  Crimper THEORY: Blasting cap: The oldest and simplest type of blasting cap, fuse caps are a metal cylinder, closed at one end. From the open end inwards, there is first an empty space into which a pyrotechnic fuse is inserted and crimped, then a pyrotechnic ignition mix, a primary explosive and then the main detonating explosive charge. Blasting Cap Safety fuse: Safety fuse contains a black powder core (potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal, 74:16:10) sheathed by a waxed fiber covering. It does not require air to burn and burns at a rate of 40 ft/sec. It was invented by William Bickford in 1831. Safety Fuse
  • 25. Crimper: A mechanical device for crimping the metallic shell of a fuse detonator or igniter cord connector securely to a section of inserted safety fuse. Crimper is also used to safely cut detonating cord, Nonel and safety fuse. Crimper PROCEDURE:  Inspect the blasting cap to insure it is clear of foreign matter. Cap Inspection  Gently slip the blasting cap over the fuse so that the flash charge in the cap is in contact with the end of the time fuse. DO NOT FORCE IT IN THE CAP.  After seating the cap, crimp it 3/8 inch from the open end of the cap with the help of a cap crimper. Connection of different wellbores
  • 26. Crimping of cap Cap and safety fuse connection PRECAUTIONS:  Point the cap out and away from you when crimping.  Safety fuse should be freshly cut so that there are no chances of misfire.  Safety fuse should besquarely cut while inserted into the cap, otherwise there will be gap between fuse and ignition mixture causing misfire. Slanty Cut Comments: Precautions should be followed to avoid cut off and to ensure the safety. Ignition mixtureBase Charge Open End
  • 27. LAB 6 PRACTICE THE RECOMMENDED KNOTS FOR DETONATING CORD ON INERT DETONATING CORD OR NYLON STRINGS. THEORY: Detonating cord: Detonating cord (also called detonation cord, detacord, det. cord, detcord, primer cord or sun cord) is a thin, flexible plastic tube filled with PETN (Pentaerythritoltetranitrate). With the PETN exploding at a rate of approximately 4 miles per second, any common length of det. cord appears to explode instantaneously. It is a high-speed fuse which explodes, rather than burns, and is suitable for detonating high explosives. The velocity of detonation is sufficient to use it for synchronizing multiple charges to detonate almost simultaneously even if the charges are placed at different distances from the point of initiation. It is used to reliably and inexpensively chains together multiple explosive charges. Typical uses include mining, drilling & demolition. Types of detonating cords: They are of different types depending upon amount of PETN present in it. They may be of  400 grains/foot  4 grains/foot Connecting safety fuses
  • 28. Types of Knotting: There are three basic types of knotting the detonating cord and nonel or detonating cord with a detonating cord;  Half Hitch Knotting  Double Wrap Half Hitch Knotting  Square Knotting Half Hitch Knotting: This is done between trunk line and down line of blasting pattern. The junction should make the two lines tight and perpendicular to each other. Half hitch Knot Double wrap half hitch knotting This is again done between trunk line and down line but it gives more grips to junction of two lines. DOUBLE Wrap Half Hitch
  • 29. Square knotting: Usually this is done between open end of trunk and down line to complete the circuit (spread). Square knotting PROCEDURE: Half Hitch Knotting: Keep the trunk line tight and make a half hitch knot of down line. The knot should be tight and two lines should be perpendicular to each other after knotting. Double wrap half hitch knotting: It is similar to half hitch knot the only difference is that before knotting the down line is wrapped twice on trunk line. It provides extra strength. Square knotting: A square knot is formed by tying a left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand knot, or vice versa. A common mnemonic for this procedure is "right over left, left over right". The working ends of the square knot must emerge both at the top or both at the bottom. PRECAUTIONS:  In delay pattern, knotting should be done in such a way that it avoids cut-off as shown in figure.
  • 30. Knotting procedure Comments:  Angle between down line and trunk line should 90o after knot is .  Knot should be tight that no misfire occurs. Reference:  Montana Department of state Lands Blaster Certification Training Manual
  • 31. LAB 7 TO STUDY THE CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF NONEL SHOCK TUBE INITIATOR APPARATUS:  Nonel shock tube initiator, shock tube and shot shell primer. Nonel Shock Tube Initiator THEORY: Nonel: Nonel (Shock tube) is a thin hollow plastic tube with a light dusting of HMX-AL mixture (powder) on the inner wall. The powder is held to the inside of the tube by electrostatic charges when it is blown into the tube during manufacture. One pound of explosive mixture coats 70,000 ft of tube. It has a V.O.D of 6500 ft/sec. due to light loading of explosive there is no rupturing of the tube. This property of the tube makes it safe to handle and also reduces air blast when used as trunk line. Nonel
  • 32. Shock tube initiator: In this shot shell primer is used to initiate the Nonel. The Explosive in shoot shell primer is a primary explosive (i.e. Lead Azide or mercury fulminate) which are initiated by giving a sharp below to it, which initiate the powder mixture of shock tube. Electric initiation: Nonel can be initiated by using electric initiation system. Electric nonel initiators use plasma or spark technology to ignite the Nonel tubing. PROCEDURE:  Unscrew the coupling.  Insert shot shell primer into the threaded end of the coupling.  Screw the coupling back into the housing.  Insert shock tube into the angled hole in the coupling from the top  Pull the shock tube through the angle hole and then insert the shock tube into the center hole in the coupling  To fire hit the black cushion sharply with the palm of the hand. Comments: Electric blasting is a good technique used and gives more safety than other type. Precautions:  Keep hands and fingers away from the firing opening to avoid burns or whiplash from the shock tube. Electric Initiation
  • 33. LAB 8 TO STUDY THE WORKING OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELECTRIC BLASTING MACHINES IN THE LAB THEORY: There are two basic types of blasting machines  Generator blasting machine  CD machine  Sequential Blasting machine Generator blasting machine: This machine is operated manually; when handle is pushed down a series of gears spins a rotor inside the generator assembly producing voltage. When handle reaches the end of its travel, it closes a switch which delivers the current produced to the output terminals of machine. This current initiates the circuit. Generator Blasting Machine CD machine: CD machine is basically a capacitor discharge system. It is an electronic circuit in which a series of capacitor are fully charged using battery; a firing switch discharges the energy through the blasting circuit connected to it.
  • 34. CD Blasting Machine Sequential Blasting machine: A special class of CD blasting is sequential timing blasing machine which consist of a no. of separate capacitor circuits and output terminals each capable of firing a series of electronic detonators. These separate firing circuits discharge their energy at predetermined time interval. Sequential Blasting Machine Comments:  Voltage from manual machine is depended upon the condition of machine and strength of operator.  Capacitance of capacitor decreases with time
  • 35. LAB 9 STUDY A NONEL DETONATOR (INERT) AND VARIOUS ASSOCIATED ACCESSORIES AND DELAYS (INERT) AND PRACTICE ITS CONNECTION IN LAB APPARATUS:  Nonel (shock tube)  Nonel detonator  lead-in line  Bunch Connector  J-hook  Block connector THEORY: Nonel (Shock tube): Shock tube is a thin hollow plastic tube with a HMX-AL (powder) on the inner wall. The powder is held to the inside of the tube by electrostatic charges when it is blown into the tube during manufacture. It has a V.O.D of 6500 ft/sec. Nonel was invented by Dyno Nobel's Swedish organization in the 1960s and 1970s Nonel Detonator: In Nonel a column of hot gases is traveled which removes the explosive from the walls and propagates towards detonator. This flash has enough energy to initiate the pyro-technique charge which further detonates the detonator. Nonel Detonator
  • 36. Down-hole detonator: It employs both a primary charge and a base charge to provide the strength necessary to detonate modern explosives. Lead Azide is the primary charge; its shape allows it to be fully encapsulated by the base charge, which generally consists of PETN or polycoated PETN. Surface detonator: It does not require as much strength;utilize a simple Lead Azide explosive charge. Lead-in line: Nonel tube which is used to move away from site to the safe place during blast is called lead-in line. Lead Line consists of a 2500 ft. spool of shock tube. Lead in line Bunch Connector: The simplest way to hook up a NONEL is by using bunch connectors. The bunch connector is a connector unit that is used to initiate a number of NONEL-tubes that have been gathered into a bunch. The technique is used primarily in tunnel blasting. Bunch Connector Downhole Detonator
  • 37. J-Hook: It is usually used to connect the Nonel in down line and detonating cord as trunk line. MS Delay Connectors: These are used to provide the surface delays for detonating cord trunkline. In this a piece of Nonel in between the two bunch block provides delay for detonating cord. Bunch Block J- Hook Precautions:  Keep hands and fingers away from the firing opening to avoid burns or whiplash from the shock tube. Comments:  J-hook provides only one way of detonation  MS Delay connector provides two way detonations
  • 38. LAB10 INTRODUCTION TO LIGHTNING STORM DETECTOR LIGHTNING STORM DETECTOR: INTRODUCTION: The SD-250 is a unique, state of the art electronic storm warning system which satisfies the requirements of The Bureau of Mines, O.S.H.A., and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It reduces exposure to and potential hazard for people who are outside such as blasters, construction and mining crews, window cleaners, airport and marina personnel, golfers and swimmers, or anyone who needs advanced warning of approaching electrical storms. The SD- 250 provides this advanced warning by detecting the electric discharges of lightning with a custom amplified receiver and is sensitive enough to detect strikes as far as 100 miles away. A speaker function is built in to allow the user to monitor background noise when setting up the unit to minimize interference from external devices. Proximity of electrical discharges can be monitored as the distance of lightning strikes are indicated by the range lamps and an alarm can be set to go off should the storm come closer than the distance set by the operator. When tripped a built in "squawking" alarm sounds and twin lamps alternately flash until reset by the operator. The system can also be configured to activate a variety of external warning devices such as sirens, strobe lamps, transmitters, computer interfaces, etc. The system comes complete in a watertight case with a smart battery charger and a system testing generator. Lightning Storm Detector
  • 39. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: Dual Indicators Built in flashing lights and alarm speaker. Range Indicators 10, 25, 50, and 100 miles ( switch selectable ) Sensitivity: one microvolt Size 8”x 8”x 6.5” Weight 14 lbs Battery Rechargeable 6 volt GC-660 ( smart charger supplied with unit )