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Sustainable Bites:
Innovating Low
Emission Food
Systems One
Country at a Time
Thursday, 13 June 2024
11:45-13:00
Room Bonn, WCCB
Side Event at 60th Sessions of
the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low-
emissions
development
opportunities in
food systems
Christopher Martius
Center for International
Forestry Research
(CIFOR) - World
Agroforestry (ICRAF)
c.martius@cifor-icraf.org
Louis Verchot
Alliance Bioversity-CIAT
l.verchot@cgiar.org
www.cgiar.org
What we will talk about today
Food systems globally are responsible for 31% of GHG emissions
The food system is key for food and nutrition safety
Addressing food system emissions is feasible but requires building on mitigation-
adaptation win-wins (emissions density reduction, efficiency gains)
Low-hanging fruit: Addressing food system emissions in an integrated way
accelerate emission reductions
4
Table SPM1. Net anthropogenic emissions due to
Agriculture, Forestry, and other Land Use (AFOLU) and
non-AFOLU (Panel 1)
Direct Anthropogenic
Gas Units
Net anthropogenic emissions due to
Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use
(AFOLU)
Non-AFOLU
anthropogenic
GHG
emissions6
Total net
anthropogenic
emissions (AFOLU +
non-AFOLU) by gas
AFOLU as a % of
total net
anthropogenic
emissions, by
gas
Panel 1: Contribution of AFOLU
FOLU Agriculture Total
A B C = A + B D E = C + D F = (C/E) *100
CO2
2
Gt CO2 y-1
5.2 ± 2.6 No data11
5.2 ± 2.6 33.9 ± 1.8 39.1 ± 3.2 13%
CH4
3,8
Gt CO2e y-1
0.5 ± 0.2 4.0 ± 1.2 4.5 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 2.8 10.1 ± 3.1 44%
N2O3,8
Gt CO2e y-1
0.1 ± 0.0 2.2 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.7 81%
Total (GHG) Gt CO2e y-1
5.8 ± 2.6 6.2 ± 1.4 12.0 ± 2.9 40.0 ± 3.4 52.0 ± 4.5 23%
…is more than
agriculture and
land use change:
a food system combines “all the
elements (environment, people, inputs,
processes, infrastructures, institutions,
etc.) and activities that relate to the
production, processing, distribution,
preparation and consumption of food,
and the outputs of these activities,
including socio-economic and
environmental outcomes”
High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition
(HLPE 2014)
Our food systems need transformation
…moves annually US$ 12 trillion
provides food security, nutrition,
livelihoods
DRC
-
Photo
by
Axel
Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF
-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/52222779687
Indonesia
-
Photo
by
Nanang
Sujana/CIFOR
-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/36299541016
…is responsible for ecosystem
degradation, biodiversity loss,
water pollution, depletion of fish
stocks
and GHG emissions 31% (23-
42%)1
The global food system…
1 IPCC (Babiker et al. 2022)
Our food systems need transformation
…moves annually US$ 12 trillion
provides food security, nutrition,
livelihoods
DRC
-
Photo
by
Axel
Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF
-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/52222779687
Indonesia
-
Photo
by
Nanang
Sujana/CIFOR
-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/36299541016
…is responsible for ecosystem
degradation, biodiversity loss,
water pollution, depletion of fish
stocks
and GHG emissions 31% (23-
42%)1
The global food system…
1 IPCC (Babiker et al. 2022)
Food system
emissions are
31%
of global GHG
emissions
Impact of Climate Change on Food Systems
Availability of Food
• Reduced Agricultural Productivity: crop failures and reduced harvests
• Fisheries and Aquaculture: fish availability and distribution
Access to Food
• Economic Impact: Reduced yields increase food prices,
• Infrastructure Damage: Extreme weather events hinder transportation and distribution
Utilization of Food
• Nutritional Quality: Climate change affects the nutritional content of some crops
• Food Safety: higher temperatures and humidity → more food spoilage and contamination
Stability of Food Production
• Weather Variability: Unpredictable weather patterns leading to fluctuations in production/supply
• Resource Scarcity: Water scarcity and soil degradation
Global food system emissions
‘not always the usual suspects’: 4 countries as examples
- FAOSTAT data
- All emissions are per year
- Numbers inside the boxes are percentages
- China shown as half of real size
Global food
system
emissions:
16,138 Mt
CO2eq/year
(31% of all
emissions)
Food system emissions
China: 14% of all natl. emissions
Viet Nam: 27%
Colombia: 62%
Kenya 72%
Global food system emissions
‘not always the usual suspects’: 4 countries as examples
- FAOSTAT data
- All emissions are per year
- Numbers inside the boxes are percentages
- China shown as half of real size
Global food
system
emissions:
16,138 Mt
CO2eq/year
(31% of all
emissions)
Food system emissions
China: 14% of all natl. emissions
Viet Nam: 27%
Colombia: 62%
Kenya 72%
Food system emissions are …
1. A large part of national emissions
2. often related to
• meat consumption (example Kenya)
• rice production (Viet Nam)
• forest conversion (Colombia)
but also to
• household consumption and food waste disposal (China)
Global food system emissions
‘not always the usual suspects’: 4 countries as examples
- FAOSTAT data
- All emissions are per year
- Numbers inside the boxes are percentages
- China shown as half of real size
Global food
system
emissions:
16,138 Mt
CO2eq/year
(31% of all
emissions)
Food system emissions
China: 14% of all natl. emissions
Viet Nam: 27%
Colombia: 62%
Kenya 72%
Kenya’s food system emissions
Inside the boxes, percentages are shown
FAO STAT
data
Next steps:
• integrate national data into analysis
• +data on forests, reforestation, aquaculture and fisheries
• from FWD to food loss and waste (FLW): data collection
Enteric fermentation Manure "FWD"
Food transport
Food household
consumption
Food waste disposal
 Livestock related emissions →
Suggested food system transformations in Kenya -
for discussion
sector activity perspective Co-benefits challenges
Livestock
emissions +
manure
management
Reducing enteric fermentation (CSA
technologies)
Reducing emissions from manure
management
Largest emitting sector (80% of
food system emissions)
Trade-off of
fighting
malnutrition
Research- and training-intensive
How to reduce emission intensity not
production
Food loss and
waste (FLW)
Reducing supply chain losses
(transport, storage, cooling,
processing), increase re-use
Reducing consumer household waste
2nd largest emission sector (11% of
food system emissions)
Reducing food
insecurity,
improving
productivity
Private sector role
National data collection on FLW to
identify the opportunities
Behavioral change needed
Restoration and
reforestation
Restoring woodlands,
peatlands/mangroves, and other
natural ecosystems and their
ecological functions
Preserving and growing a large
carbon sink
Kenya wants to plant 15 billion
trees
REDD+ is an established mechanism
Restoring
ecosystem
services
(biodiversity,
water, …)
Activity-based, but requires forestry
skills
Costs, scaling up
Land and carbon ownership, social
equity
Future needs
and demands
Climate change? Future food habits?
Higher biomass demand?
Export/import changes?
Very important in de-carbonization
of economy away from fossil fuels
Efficient state
budget planning
Research-intensive
‘Crystal ball’: Identify realistic
assumptions and scenarios
Conclusions
•Achieving 2030 and 2050 emission targets
• 2030 targets can be achieved with current strategies
• 2050 targets need innovation and agricultural sinks for net-zero emissions
•Reducing GHG emissions in food systems can be achieved
• by lowering emission intensity, anticipating population growth and dietary
changes
• and by integrating mitigation and adaptation objectives in food systems
- prioritizing food and nutrition security, and finding cost-reducing win-win solutions
•Governance, economics, and sociocultural aspects (e.g. food preferences)
• Comprehensive policies are key to food system transformations
Suggested way forward
•Jointly develop strategies for food system transformations
• Collaborate on strategies for resource-efficient, nutritious food production
•Provide proof of concept
• Case studies can show feasibility and benefits
•Integrating Food systems in national and sub-national planning
• Incorporate food system perspectives into NDCs, national, and sub-national plans
• Addressing their cross-cutting nature
•Upgrading NDCs and ambitions
• Enhance NDCs for food system resilience and productivity to increase food and
nutrition security
• Looking for “smart, fast wins”
Sources
China country profile. https://www.cifor-icraf.org/knowledge/publication/8865/
Colombia country profile. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008864
Kenya country profile, https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008997
Vietnam country profile. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/009048
China Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008866
Colombia Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008974
Kenya Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008994
Vietnam Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/009049
Paper: Ten promising pathways to GHG emission reduction in the global food system
https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008836
Contact
c.martius@cifor-icraf.org
Thank
you!

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Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems

  • 1. Sustainable Bites: Innovating Low Emission Food Systems One Country at a Time Thursday, 13 June 2024 11:45-13:00 Room Bonn, WCCB Side Event at 60th Sessions of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies
  • 3. Exploring low- emissions development opportunities in food systems Christopher Martius Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) - World Agroforestry (ICRAF) c.martius@cifor-icraf.org Louis Verchot Alliance Bioversity-CIAT l.verchot@cgiar.org
  • 4. www.cgiar.org What we will talk about today Food systems globally are responsible for 31% of GHG emissions The food system is key for food and nutrition safety Addressing food system emissions is feasible but requires building on mitigation- adaptation win-wins (emissions density reduction, efficiency gains) Low-hanging fruit: Addressing food system emissions in an integrated way accelerate emission reductions
  • 5. 4 Table SPM1. Net anthropogenic emissions due to Agriculture, Forestry, and other Land Use (AFOLU) and non-AFOLU (Panel 1) Direct Anthropogenic Gas Units Net anthropogenic emissions due to Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Non-AFOLU anthropogenic GHG emissions6 Total net anthropogenic emissions (AFOLU + non-AFOLU) by gas AFOLU as a % of total net anthropogenic emissions, by gas Panel 1: Contribution of AFOLU FOLU Agriculture Total A B C = A + B D E = C + D F = (C/E) *100 CO2 2 Gt CO2 y-1 5.2 ± 2.6 No data11 5.2 ± 2.6 33.9 ± 1.8 39.1 ± 3.2 13% CH4 3,8 Gt CO2e y-1 0.5 ± 0.2 4.0 ± 1.2 4.5 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 2.8 10.1 ± 3.1 44% N2O3,8 Gt CO2e y-1 0.1 ± 0.0 2.2 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.7 81% Total (GHG) Gt CO2e y-1 5.8 ± 2.6 6.2 ± 1.4 12.0 ± 2.9 40.0 ± 3.4 52.0 ± 4.5 23%
  • 6. …is more than agriculture and land use change: a food system combines “all the elements (environment, people, inputs, processes, infrastructures, institutions, etc.) and activities that relate to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, and the outputs of these activities, including socio-economic and environmental outcomes” High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE 2014)
  • 7. Our food systems need transformation …moves annually US$ 12 trillion provides food security, nutrition, livelihoods DRC - Photo by Axel Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/52222779687 Indonesia - Photo by Nanang Sujana/CIFOR - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/36299541016 …is responsible for ecosystem degradation, biodiversity loss, water pollution, depletion of fish stocks and GHG emissions 31% (23- 42%)1 The global food system… 1 IPCC (Babiker et al. 2022)
  • 8. Our food systems need transformation …moves annually US$ 12 trillion provides food security, nutrition, livelihoods DRC - Photo by Axel Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/52222779687 Indonesia - Photo by Nanang Sujana/CIFOR - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/36299541016 …is responsible for ecosystem degradation, biodiversity loss, water pollution, depletion of fish stocks and GHG emissions 31% (23- 42%)1 The global food system… 1 IPCC (Babiker et al. 2022) Food system emissions are 31% of global GHG emissions
  • 9. Impact of Climate Change on Food Systems Availability of Food • Reduced Agricultural Productivity: crop failures and reduced harvests • Fisheries and Aquaculture: fish availability and distribution Access to Food • Economic Impact: Reduced yields increase food prices, • Infrastructure Damage: Extreme weather events hinder transportation and distribution Utilization of Food • Nutritional Quality: Climate change affects the nutritional content of some crops • Food Safety: higher temperatures and humidity → more food spoilage and contamination Stability of Food Production • Weather Variability: Unpredictable weather patterns leading to fluctuations in production/supply • Resource Scarcity: Water scarcity and soil degradation
  • 10. Global food system emissions ‘not always the usual suspects’: 4 countries as examples - FAOSTAT data - All emissions are per year - Numbers inside the boxes are percentages - China shown as half of real size Global food system emissions: 16,138 Mt CO2eq/year (31% of all emissions) Food system emissions China: 14% of all natl. emissions Viet Nam: 27% Colombia: 62% Kenya 72%
  • 11. Global food system emissions ‘not always the usual suspects’: 4 countries as examples - FAOSTAT data - All emissions are per year - Numbers inside the boxes are percentages - China shown as half of real size Global food system emissions: 16,138 Mt CO2eq/year (31% of all emissions) Food system emissions China: 14% of all natl. emissions Viet Nam: 27% Colombia: 62% Kenya 72% Food system emissions are … 1. A large part of national emissions 2. often related to • meat consumption (example Kenya) • rice production (Viet Nam) • forest conversion (Colombia) but also to • household consumption and food waste disposal (China)
  • 12. Global food system emissions ‘not always the usual suspects’: 4 countries as examples - FAOSTAT data - All emissions are per year - Numbers inside the boxes are percentages - China shown as half of real size Global food system emissions: 16,138 Mt CO2eq/year (31% of all emissions) Food system emissions China: 14% of all natl. emissions Viet Nam: 27% Colombia: 62% Kenya 72%
  • 13. Kenya’s food system emissions Inside the boxes, percentages are shown FAO STAT data Next steps: • integrate national data into analysis • +data on forests, reforestation, aquaculture and fisheries • from FWD to food loss and waste (FLW): data collection Enteric fermentation Manure "FWD" Food transport Food household consumption Food waste disposal  Livestock related emissions →
  • 14. Suggested food system transformations in Kenya - for discussion sector activity perspective Co-benefits challenges Livestock emissions + manure management Reducing enteric fermentation (CSA technologies) Reducing emissions from manure management Largest emitting sector (80% of food system emissions) Trade-off of fighting malnutrition Research- and training-intensive How to reduce emission intensity not production Food loss and waste (FLW) Reducing supply chain losses (transport, storage, cooling, processing), increase re-use Reducing consumer household waste 2nd largest emission sector (11% of food system emissions) Reducing food insecurity, improving productivity Private sector role National data collection on FLW to identify the opportunities Behavioral change needed Restoration and reforestation Restoring woodlands, peatlands/mangroves, and other natural ecosystems and their ecological functions Preserving and growing a large carbon sink Kenya wants to plant 15 billion trees REDD+ is an established mechanism Restoring ecosystem services (biodiversity, water, …) Activity-based, but requires forestry skills Costs, scaling up Land and carbon ownership, social equity Future needs and demands Climate change? Future food habits? Higher biomass demand? Export/import changes? Very important in de-carbonization of economy away from fossil fuels Efficient state budget planning Research-intensive ‘Crystal ball’: Identify realistic assumptions and scenarios
  • 15. Conclusions •Achieving 2030 and 2050 emission targets • 2030 targets can be achieved with current strategies • 2050 targets need innovation and agricultural sinks for net-zero emissions •Reducing GHG emissions in food systems can be achieved • by lowering emission intensity, anticipating population growth and dietary changes • and by integrating mitigation and adaptation objectives in food systems - prioritizing food and nutrition security, and finding cost-reducing win-win solutions •Governance, economics, and sociocultural aspects (e.g. food preferences) • Comprehensive policies are key to food system transformations
  • 16. Suggested way forward •Jointly develop strategies for food system transformations • Collaborate on strategies for resource-efficient, nutritious food production •Provide proof of concept • Case studies can show feasibility and benefits •Integrating Food systems in national and sub-national planning • Incorporate food system perspectives into NDCs, national, and sub-national plans • Addressing their cross-cutting nature •Upgrading NDCs and ambitions • Enhance NDCs for food system resilience and productivity to increase food and nutrition security • Looking for “smart, fast wins”
  • 17. Sources China country profile. https://www.cifor-icraf.org/knowledge/publication/8865/ Colombia country profile. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008864 Kenya country profile, https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008997 Vietnam country profile. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/009048 China Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008866 Colombia Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008974 Kenya Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008994 Vietnam Infobrief. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/009049 Paper: Ten promising pathways to GHG emission reduction in the global food system https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor-icraf/008836 Contact c.martius@cifor-icraf.org Thank you!