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Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
EXPLORING ESTROGEN’S ROLE
IN METABOLISM
Reilly Enos, PhD
Assistant Professor
University of South Carolina, School of Medicine
WEBINAR OUTLINE
• Brief overview of sex steroids including androgens and
estrogens
• Clinical morbidities linked to estrogen deficiency
• Overview of some questions that elude scientists with respect to
estrogen and how we are attempting to shed light on
unanswered questions using animal models
• Translational relevance of basic science research
STEROIDS
Taken from PMID: 25846979
Aromatase
SITES OF STEROID SYNTHESIS
Predominant Sites
• Gonads
• Ovaries
• Testes
• Adrenal Glands
• Cortex
• Adipose Tissue
• Brain
• Skeletal Muscle
• Kidney
• Etc.
Secondary Sites
Taken from PMID: 25846979
SEX STEROIDS
ANDROGENS (Primary)
1. Testosterone
2. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
3. Androstenedione
4. Androstenediol
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Sulfate (DHEAS)
5. Dehydroepiandrosterone
(DHEA)
ESTROGENS
1. Estrone (E1) (primary
estrogen during post-
menopause in humans)
2. 17β-Estradiol (E2) (primary
estrogen during pre-
menopause)
3. Estriol (E3) – high during
pregnancy
4. Estetrol (E4) – derived from
fetus
ESTROGEN THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN
Taken from PMID: 19002143
CLINICAL MORBIDITIES ASSOCIATED WITH
ESTROGEN DEFICIENCY
Taken from PMIDs: 18332882 & 31997311
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE QUESTIONS THAT ELUDE
SCIENTISTS?
• How is E2 protective against obesity and associated metabolic
dysfunction – are the primary effects central or peripheral?
• What levels of E2 are necessary to elicit certain physiological
effects? Why is this important?
1. First, we must understand the natural cyclicity of E2
• What animal models can we use to answer these questions?
HOW DO WE STUDY ESTROGEN
DEFICIENCY IN A MOUSE MODEL?
OVARIECTOMY OR AROMATASE KNOCKOUT
• Benefits
• Similarities to humans with respect
to endocrine changes
1. Increases in FSH
2. Interrupted cycling
3. Dramatic reduction/non-detectable
levels of plasma estradiol
• Pre-menopausal oophorectomy is
performed in approximately 300,00 females/year
in USA
• Drawbacks
• No peri-menopause
• Short duration of sexual maturity
(depending on age at which OVX occurs)
THE IMPORTANCE OF AROMATASE
Taken from PMID: 25846979
Aromatase
HOW IS E2 PROTECTIVE AGAINST OBESITY AND
ASSOCIATED METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION – ARE
THE PRIMARY EFFECTS CENTRAL OR
PERIPHERAL?
CENTRAL VS. PERIPHERAL EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN
Central
• Impacts food intake
• Impacts physical activity
Peripheral
• Deletion or blockade of the
primary estrogen receptor
(ERα) has been shown to
impact metabolic processes
in various tissues
Mauvais-Jarvis et. al. (PMID 23460719)
TWO MODELS OF ESTROGEN
DEFICIENCY
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
0
10
20
30
40
50
Female Body Weight Data
Weeks of Diet
Grams
F WT LFD
F AROM KO LFD
F WT HFD
F AROM KO HFD
OVX HFD
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
0
5
10
15
20
25
Female Body Weight Δ
Weeks of Diet
Grams
F WT LFD
F AROM KO LFD
F WT HFD
F AROM KO HFD
OVX HFD
a
b
c
d
ME: Diet
ME: Genotype
✱
Pay Attention Here
E2 DEFICIENCY & ITS CENTRAL EFFECTS
Promethion Metabolic Cages
HOW DO YOU TEASE OUT CENTRAL
VS. PERIPHERAL EFFECTS OF E2?
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
• No benefit with respect to glucose metabolism
• But adipose tissue inflammation….
IMPACT ON GLUCOSE METABOLISM AND ADIPOSE
TISSUE INFLAMMATION
INTERVENTION STUDY
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
WHAT ABOUT ESTROGEN LEVELS?
#1 PROBLEM SEX STEROID RESEARCHERS FACE
•Reliable and Accurate Measurement of Sex
Steroids, Particularly Estrogens
Liquid Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry for Sex Steroids
at Picogram Levels Using
Derivatization (1-Methylimidazole-2-
sulfonyl chloride) in Plasma & Tissue*
*See references PMIDs 25543003, 36039699, & 37421340
LOQ in 200 uL of charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum:
E2: 0.1 pg
Testosterone: 0.5 pg
Androstenedione: 0.5 pg
Progesterone: 1.0 pg
For further reading regarding mass spectrometry
and estrogens read the work of: David
Handelsman (University of Sydney), Claes
Ohlsson (University of Gothenburg), Kiran Soma
(University of British Columbia), and Ruth Andrew
(University of Edinburgh) to name a few…
Female Prevention
Female Intervention
FOLLOW-UP STUDY IN MALES
PMID: 37421340
METABOLIC CAGE DATA
CONCLUSIONS
• Different levels of E2 impact different physiological processes
A. Important for Hormone Replacement Therapy?
• WHAT LEVELS OF E2 ARE NECESSARY TO ELICIT
CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS? WHY IS THIS
IMPORTANT?
First, we must understand the natural
cyclicity of E2
HUMANS VS RODENTS
Humans Mice
UNCERTAINTY IN THE FIELD?
THE STUDY (UNPUBLISHED)
Diestrus 1
Proestrus Estrus
ESTRADIOL (E2) DATA
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
CLINICAL RELEVANCE
(HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY)
• Modes of Hormone Replacement in the Clinic
1. Nasal
2. Pills
3. Skin gel
4. Skin patches
5. Vaginal Creams
6. Vaginal Ring
• Combinational Therapy
1. Estrogen + Progesterone
• Potential Side Effects Due to “whole body” Effects
1. Rare increase of absolute breast cancer risk in some cases
2. Jury is out regarding heart disease – may depend on timing of when therapy is
initiated
CONCLUSIONS/THOUGHTS/FUTURE DIRECTIONS
• Brain is king
• Inducible overexpression of aromatase in other tissues
A. The desire would be to determine the role(s) that estrogen plays in
different tissues and the amount necessary to elicit beneficial effects
• Targeted estrogen therapies in the future
A. What are the needs of the patient?
B. Need to think about mode of delivery, type of estrogen, dose of
delivery, when to administer, combinational therapies
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Current & Former Lab Team
Ahmed Aladhami, MS, PhD
Christian Unger, MS
Trey Hope, MS
Cassidy Socia (Undergrad)
Cam Rice (Undergrad)
Aarushi Bhasin (Undergrad)
Faculty Mentors/Collaborators
Angela Murphy (USC)
Kandy Velazquez (USC)
Fiona Hollis (USC)
Holly LaVoie (USC)
Bill Cotham (USC)
Deborah Clegg (TTUHSC)
Owen McGuinness (Vanderbilt)
Kendall Nettles (Scripps, Florida)
Priscilla Furth (Georgetown)
John McCarthy (Kentucky)
Funding
ASPIRE
K01AT010348
K01AT010348-03S1
P20GM103641-10S1
P20-GM109091-10S1
U01 – CA272977-01
INBRE Pilot Project
USC - Magellan
THANKS!
WE ARE HAPPY TO COLLABORATE!
Reilly Enos
Assistant Professor
enosr@email.sc.edu
Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced
Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
Eran Levin, PhD, The Nutritional Ecology Lab, School of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University
The truth is out there…
Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS)
• Portable, simple and (relatively) cheap CO2 analyzers
• 13C/12C ratio in exhaled CO2
• 13C/12C ratio in tissues
1.8
m
δ13C
13C labeled nutrients
• ~ 10,000 13C enriched nutrients are commercially available
• Detection and tracking of a specific nutrient (macro and micro
nutrients)
~98.9% ~1.1% ~10-12%
Real time respirometry and δ13C detection
CO2 free air
CO2
Analyzer
O2
Analyzer
δ13C
Analyzer
RER = CO2 eliminated / O2 consumed
Exhaled air
Temperature controlled
metabolic chamber
(reference)
δ13C (‰)
VCO2
.
Real time respirometry and δ13C detection
CO2 free air
δ13C
Analyzer
Exhaled air
Temperature controlled
metabolic chamber δ13C (‰)
VCO2
.
1-13C
Tissue
12CO2
12CO2
12CO2
13CO2
13CO2
12CO2
12CO2
13CO2
CRDS
Combustion chamber
δ13C
13C/12C ratio in tissues
Carbohydrates (simple and complex)
• Labeling of different positions on mlecule
• Tracking specific metabolic pathways
RER= VCO2/VO2
Prizinger et al. 1992
Voigt et al. 1999
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
RER
Time (sec)
RER for a fed M. sexta is around 1.7
RER for a fed monarch butterfly
(Danaus plexippus) is also high
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
5500 5550 5600 5650 5700 5750 5800 5850 5900 5950 6000
RER
Time (s)
RER for a fed bee is usually 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
RER
Time (sec)
Where is the “extra” CO2 is coming from?
PPP- Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Feeding labeled sugar to a hawk moth
RER δ13C
RER= VCO2/VO2
Levin et al. 2017 Science
Manduca sexta
● ●
RER
RER= VCO2/VO2
Levin et al. 2017 Science
Manduca sexta
● ●
RER
RER
Complex sugars
13C–chitin synthesis
13C-U glucose
Chitin extraction
13C labeled chitin (complex sugar)
Bouchebti et al. 2023 Entomologia Generalis
Zophobas morio
CRDS
Only larvae can digest chitin!
CO2 CO2
(non labeled chitin) (non labeled chitin)
Bouchebti et al. 2023 Entomologia Generalis
Ethanol
13
12
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
Rate of ethanol metabolism by honey bee and Oriental hornet
Bouchebti et al. in prep
Fatty acids
Absorbance, oxidation and allocation of 1-13C Labeled fatty
acids in diet
13
13
13
MUFA
PUFA
SFA
Dubiner et al. JEB 2023
CO2
Fat body Respiration
Seltzer et al. Journal of Insect Physiology 2023
Modification of fatty acids in the tissue
Domer et al. in prep
Amino acids and proteins
GABA
β-Alanine
Taurine
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research
Bodner et al., 2021 Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Dietary proline is oxidized as metabolic fuel
Bodner et al., 2021 Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
1-13C-Leu
Labeled protein
+
10 days
1-13C-Leu
muscle protein
Can adult hornets digest protein?
Bodner et al., 2022 Biology
a
a
a
ab
a
b
b
b
c
Two-way ANOVA, p < 0.0001
Queens
(n=30)
Males
(n=34)
Workers
(n=35)
‫בה‬
‫בה‬
Caste dependent protein digestion
δ
13
C
(‰)
Bodner et al., 2022 Biology
13C
12C
Digestive efficiency/dependence
a
a
a
ab
a
b
b
b
c
Two-way ANOVA, p < 0.0001
Queens
(n=30)
Males
(n=34)
Workers
(n=35)
δ
13
C
(‰)
Bodner et al., 2022 Biology
13C
12C 13C+larvae
Free flight metabolic rate
Green Rose Chafer (Cetonia aurata)
Mango stem borer (Batocera rufomaculata)
Free flight metabolic rate
Sodium bicarbonate (13C)
13
Urca et al. 2021. Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Free flight metabolic rate
Urca et al. 2021. Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Endless applications for the use of 13C
labeled macronutrients!
• Whole organism
• Specific tissues
• In the field
• In the lab
• Physiology
• Metabolism
• Behavior
• Nutrient flow
THANK YOU!
The Nutritional
Ecology lab
Levona Bodner
Dr. Sofia Bouchebti
Dr. Tali Magory
Ariel Drabkin
Shaher Dubiner
Dr. Rya Zeltzer
Dr. Adi Domer
Nitzan Cohen
Mika Volov
Roy Ben Bezalel
Dr. Reut Vardi

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Exploring Estrogen’s Role in Metabolism and the Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research

  • 2. EXPLORING ESTROGEN’S ROLE IN METABOLISM Reilly Enos, PhD Assistant Professor University of South Carolina, School of Medicine
  • 3. WEBINAR OUTLINE • Brief overview of sex steroids including androgens and estrogens • Clinical morbidities linked to estrogen deficiency • Overview of some questions that elude scientists with respect to estrogen and how we are attempting to shed light on unanswered questions using animal models • Translational relevance of basic science research
  • 4. STEROIDS Taken from PMID: 25846979 Aromatase
  • 5. SITES OF STEROID SYNTHESIS Predominant Sites • Gonads • Ovaries • Testes • Adrenal Glands • Cortex • Adipose Tissue • Brain • Skeletal Muscle • Kidney • Etc. Secondary Sites Taken from PMID: 25846979
  • 6. SEX STEROIDS ANDROGENS (Primary) 1. Testosterone 2. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) 3. Androstenedione 4. Androstenediol Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) 5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ESTROGENS 1. Estrone (E1) (primary estrogen during post- menopause in humans) 2. 17β-Estradiol (E2) (primary estrogen during pre- menopause) 3. Estriol (E3) – high during pregnancy 4. Estetrol (E4) – derived from fetus
  • 7. ESTROGEN THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN Taken from PMID: 19002143
  • 8. CLINICAL MORBIDITIES ASSOCIATED WITH ESTROGEN DEFICIENCY Taken from PMIDs: 18332882 & 31997311
  • 9. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE QUESTIONS THAT ELUDE SCIENTISTS? • How is E2 protective against obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction – are the primary effects central or peripheral? • What levels of E2 are necessary to elicit certain physiological effects? Why is this important? 1. First, we must understand the natural cyclicity of E2 • What animal models can we use to answer these questions?
  • 10. HOW DO WE STUDY ESTROGEN DEFICIENCY IN A MOUSE MODEL?
  • 11. OVARIECTOMY OR AROMATASE KNOCKOUT • Benefits • Similarities to humans with respect to endocrine changes 1. Increases in FSH 2. Interrupted cycling 3. Dramatic reduction/non-detectable levels of plasma estradiol • Pre-menopausal oophorectomy is performed in approximately 300,00 females/year in USA • Drawbacks • No peri-menopause • Short duration of sexual maturity (depending on age at which OVX occurs)
  • 12. THE IMPORTANCE OF AROMATASE Taken from PMID: 25846979 Aromatase
  • 13. HOW IS E2 PROTECTIVE AGAINST OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION – ARE THE PRIMARY EFFECTS CENTRAL OR PERIPHERAL?
  • 14. CENTRAL VS. PERIPHERAL EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN Central • Impacts food intake • Impacts physical activity Peripheral • Deletion or blockade of the primary estrogen receptor (ERα) has been shown to impact metabolic processes in various tissues Mauvais-Jarvis et. al. (PMID 23460719)
  • 15. TWO MODELS OF ESTROGEN DEFICIENCY 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 10 20 30 40 50 Female Body Weight Data Weeks of Diet Grams F WT LFD F AROM KO LFD F WT HFD F AROM KO HFD OVX HFD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 5 10 15 20 25 Female Body Weight Δ Weeks of Diet Grams F WT LFD F AROM KO LFD F WT HFD F AROM KO HFD OVX HFD a b c d ME: Diet ME: Genotype ✱ Pay Attention Here
  • 16. E2 DEFICIENCY & ITS CENTRAL EFFECTS Promethion Metabolic Cages
  • 17. HOW DO YOU TEASE OUT CENTRAL VS. PERIPHERAL EFFECTS OF E2?
  • 21. • No benefit with respect to glucose metabolism • But adipose tissue inflammation…. IMPACT ON GLUCOSE METABOLISM AND ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION
  • 25. #1 PROBLEM SEX STEROID RESEARCHERS FACE •Reliable and Accurate Measurement of Sex Steroids, Particularly Estrogens Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Sex Steroids at Picogram Levels Using Derivatization (1-Methylimidazole-2- sulfonyl chloride) in Plasma & Tissue* *See references PMIDs 25543003, 36039699, & 37421340 LOQ in 200 uL of charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum: E2: 0.1 pg Testosterone: 0.5 pg Androstenedione: 0.5 pg Progesterone: 1.0 pg For further reading regarding mass spectrometry and estrogens read the work of: David Handelsman (University of Sydney), Claes Ohlsson (University of Gothenburg), Kiran Soma (University of British Columbia), and Ruth Andrew (University of Edinburgh) to name a few…
  • 27. FOLLOW-UP STUDY IN MALES PMID: 37421340
  • 29. CONCLUSIONS • Different levels of E2 impact different physiological processes A. Important for Hormone Replacement Therapy?
  • 30. • WHAT LEVELS OF E2 ARE NECESSARY TO ELICIT CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS? WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? First, we must understand the natural cyclicity of E2
  • 33. THE STUDY (UNPUBLISHED) Diestrus 1 Proestrus Estrus
  • 36. CLINICAL RELEVANCE (HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY) • Modes of Hormone Replacement in the Clinic 1. Nasal 2. Pills 3. Skin gel 4. Skin patches 5. Vaginal Creams 6. Vaginal Ring • Combinational Therapy 1. Estrogen + Progesterone • Potential Side Effects Due to “whole body” Effects 1. Rare increase of absolute breast cancer risk in some cases 2. Jury is out regarding heart disease – may depend on timing of when therapy is initiated
  • 37. CONCLUSIONS/THOUGHTS/FUTURE DIRECTIONS • Brain is king • Inducible overexpression of aromatase in other tissues A. The desire would be to determine the role(s) that estrogen plays in different tissues and the amount necessary to elicit beneficial effects • Targeted estrogen therapies in the future A. What are the needs of the patient? B. Need to think about mode of delivery, type of estrogen, dose of delivery, when to administer, combinational therapies
  • 38. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Current & Former Lab Team Ahmed Aladhami, MS, PhD Christian Unger, MS Trey Hope, MS Cassidy Socia (Undergrad) Cam Rice (Undergrad) Aarushi Bhasin (Undergrad) Faculty Mentors/Collaborators Angela Murphy (USC) Kandy Velazquez (USC) Fiona Hollis (USC) Holly LaVoie (USC) Bill Cotham (USC) Deborah Clegg (TTUHSC) Owen McGuinness (Vanderbilt) Kendall Nettles (Scripps, Florida) Priscilla Furth (Georgetown) John McCarthy (Kentucky) Funding ASPIRE K01AT010348 K01AT010348-03S1 P20GM103641-10S1 P20-GM109091-10S1 U01 – CA272977-01 INBRE Pilot Project USC - Magellan
  • 39. THANKS! WE ARE HAPPY TO COLLABORATE! Reilly Enos Assistant Professor enosr@email.sc.edu
  • 40. Use of 13C-Labeled Nutrients for Advanced Animal Physiology and Nutrition Research Eran Levin, PhD, The Nutritional Ecology Lab, School of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University
  • 41. The truth is out there…
  • 42. Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) • Portable, simple and (relatively) cheap CO2 analyzers • 13C/12C ratio in exhaled CO2 • 13C/12C ratio in tissues 1.8 m δ13C
  • 43. 13C labeled nutrients • ~ 10,000 13C enriched nutrients are commercially available • Detection and tracking of a specific nutrient (macro and micro nutrients) ~98.9% ~1.1% ~10-12%
  • 44. Real time respirometry and δ13C detection CO2 free air CO2 Analyzer O2 Analyzer δ13C Analyzer RER = CO2 eliminated / O2 consumed Exhaled air Temperature controlled metabolic chamber (reference) δ13C (‰) VCO2 .
  • 45. Real time respirometry and δ13C detection CO2 free air δ13C Analyzer Exhaled air Temperature controlled metabolic chamber δ13C (‰) VCO2 .
  • 47. Carbohydrates (simple and complex) • Labeling of different positions on mlecule • Tracking specific metabolic pathways
  • 48. RER= VCO2/VO2 Prizinger et al. 1992 Voigt et al. 1999
  • 50. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 RER Time (sec) RER for a fed M. sexta is around 1.7
  • 51. RER for a fed monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is also high 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 5500 5550 5600 5650 5700 5750 5800 5850 5900 5950 6000 RER Time (s)
  • 52. RER for a fed bee is usually 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 RER Time (sec)
  • 53. Where is the “extra” CO2 is coming from? PPP- Pentose Phosphate Pathway
  • 54. Feeding labeled sugar to a hawk moth RER δ13C
  • 55. RER= VCO2/VO2 Levin et al. 2017 Science Manduca sexta ● ● RER
  • 56. RER= VCO2/VO2 Levin et al. 2017 Science Manduca sexta ● ● RER RER
  • 58. 13C–chitin synthesis 13C-U glucose Chitin extraction 13C labeled chitin (complex sugar) Bouchebti et al. 2023 Entomologia Generalis Zophobas morio CRDS
  • 59. Only larvae can digest chitin! CO2 CO2 (non labeled chitin) (non labeled chitin) Bouchebti et al. 2023 Entomologia Generalis
  • 62. Rate of ethanol metabolism by honey bee and Oriental hornet Bouchebti et al. in prep
  • 64. Absorbance, oxidation and allocation of 1-13C Labeled fatty acids in diet 13 13 13 MUFA PUFA SFA
  • 65. Dubiner et al. JEB 2023
  • 66. CO2 Fat body Respiration Seltzer et al. Journal of Insect Physiology 2023
  • 67. Modification of fatty acids in the tissue Domer et al. in prep
  • 68. Amino acids and proteins GABA β-Alanine Taurine
  • 71. Bodner et al., 2021 Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • 72. Dietary proline is oxidized as metabolic fuel Bodner et al., 2021 Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • 73. 1-13C-Leu Labeled protein + 10 days 1-13C-Leu muscle protein Can adult hornets digest protein? Bodner et al., 2022 Biology
  • 74. a a a ab a b b b c Two-way ANOVA, p < 0.0001 Queens (n=30) Males (n=34) Workers (n=35) ‫בה‬ ‫בה‬ Caste dependent protein digestion δ 13 C (‰) Bodner et al., 2022 Biology 13C 12C
  • 75. Digestive efficiency/dependence a a a ab a b b b c Two-way ANOVA, p < 0.0001 Queens (n=30) Males (n=34) Workers (n=35) δ 13 C (‰) Bodner et al., 2022 Biology 13C 12C 13C+larvae
  • 76. Free flight metabolic rate Green Rose Chafer (Cetonia aurata) Mango stem borer (Batocera rufomaculata)
  • 77. Free flight metabolic rate Sodium bicarbonate (13C) 13 Urca et al. 2021. Proceedings of the Royal Society B
  • 78. Free flight metabolic rate Urca et al. 2021. Proceedings of the Royal Society B
  • 79. Endless applications for the use of 13C labeled macronutrients! • Whole organism • Specific tissues • In the field • In the lab • Physiology • Metabolism • Behavior • Nutrient flow
  • 80. THANK YOU! The Nutritional Ecology lab Levona Bodner Dr. Sofia Bouchebti Dr. Tali Magory Ariel Drabkin Shaher Dubiner Dr. Rya Zeltzer Dr. Adi Domer Nitzan Cohen Mika Volov Roy Ben Bezalel Dr. Reut Vardi