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Part 4- Danger and
risks?
Experience "Flow"
Part 1- What describes the
mental state of flow?
Part 2- How to
achieve a state of
flow?
Part 3- 6 concrete
applications examples
Explore - Learn - Grow
Do you know your Happiness Score? Get your Life Satisfaction Report. Free, no registration required. I Contact
Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ?
Originally introduced by Mihály Csíkszentmihályiu
Flow is the mental state of operation
in which a person in an activity is
fully immersed in a feeling of
energized focus, full involvement,
and success in the process of the
activity.
2
Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? 2
* Csikszentmihalyi describes flow as "being completely
involved in an activity for its own sake.
Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ?
Can you think of any activities during which time disappears,
you are completely absorbed into what you are doing?
3
* The ego falls away. Time flies.
Every action, movement, and
thought follows inevitably from the
previous one, like playing jazz. Your
whole being is involved, and you're
using your skills to the utmost."
* People enter a flow state when
they are fully absorbed in activity
during which they lose their sense
of time and have feelings of great
satisfaction.
How does it feel?
* Completely involved, focused,
concentrating - with this either due
to innate curiosity or as the result
of training
* Sense of ecstasy - of being
outside everyday reality
* Great inner clarity - knowing
what needs to be done and how
es its own reward
Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? 4
* Knowing the activity is doable - that
the skills are adequate, and neither
anxious or bored
* Sense of serenity - no worries about
self, feeling of growing beyond the
boundaries of ego
* Timeliness - thoroughly focused on
present, don't notice time
* Intrinsic motivation - whatever
produces "flow" becomes its own reward
How does it feel?
* Completely involved
* Sense of ecstasy
* Great inner clarity
* Knowing the activity is doable
* Sense of serenity
* Timeliness
* Intrinsic motivation
Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ?
Have you ever felt
like this?
What were you
doing?
Can you replicate it?
5
Click on the screen
Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow?
1. Clear goals Expectations and rules are discernible and goals
are attainable and align with one's skill set and
abilities.
2. High concentration A person engaged in the activity will have the
opportunity to focus and to delve deeply into it).
3. Feeling of self-
consciousness
The merging of action and awareness. Action with
awareness fades into action alone.
4. Distorted sense of
time
One's subjective experience of time is altered.
5. Direct and
immediate feedback
Successes and failures in the course of the activity
are apparent, so that behavior can be adjusted
6
Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow?
6. Balance between
ability and challenge
The activity is neither too easy nor too difficult
7. Control A sense of personal control over the situation or
activity.
8. Reward The activity is intrinsically rewarding, so there is an
effortlessness of action.
9. A lack of
awareness of bodily
needs
To the extent that one can reach a point of great
hunger or fatigue without realizing it
10. Absorption into
the activity
Narrowing of the focus of awareness down to the
activity itself, action awareness merging
7
Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow?
In summary, to achieve
flow, focus on doing
something:
* you are really good at →
right skills & abilities
* really challenging
→ right challenge
Next page describes this model in more details
8
Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow?
* optimum
skills
* right
challenge
9
Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? 10
1) List your most common activities of the week
2) Plot them in the graph
3) When are you in a state of flow?
Part 3- 6 concrete application examples
of the flow theory
Flow in education
* create instructional design
models that favor intrinsic
motivation
* develop teaching that
generates enthusiasm,
enhances concentration and
favors creativity
* Csíkszentmihályi and
psychologist Kevin Rathunde
studied student experiences
in Montessori versus
traditional settings and
traditional educational
settings. Research reported
that students achieved flow
experiences more frequently
in Montessori settings.
Element How flow helps design learning
challenge
&
curiosity
an activity should trigger curiosity and allow
the learner at the same time to formulate
goals, while preserving some element of
surprise regarding the outcome.
control levels to play (in gaming), technical
difficulties in project, some liberty to select
goals strategies & tactics
fantasy imagination and freedom (make believe +
voluntary activity)
feedback clear and immediate feedback should be
provided if the goal or not has been
reached.
self-
esteem
tasks should be adapted (see above) and
encouragement to learn & augment results
should be provided.
11
Part 3- 6 concrete application examples
of the flow theory
Flow & music
* Research has shown that
performers in a flow state have
a heightened quality of
performance
* Flow can be experienced
individually or in a group of
musicians (example on the left)
* See book from Parncutt,
Richard & McPherson, Gary E.
(2002), The Science &
Psychology of Music
Performance, Oxford University
Press US, p. 119, ISBN 978-0-
19-513810-8
Groups of drummers experience a
state of flow when they sense a
collective energy that drives the
beat, something they refer to as
getting into the groove.
12
Part 3- 6 concrete application examples
of the flow theory
Flow in the business
1- Did you identify the interests and strengths of your employees? How do you
up-skill them?
2- Did you assign challenging but achievable goals?
3- Do you have some hours in the week where you are able to work in a state of
flow? In your area of expertise, undisturbed, well defined activities related to your
goals
Flow is reflected in the elements of
good leadership:
* Goals are clear
* Feedback is immediate
* Opportunity and capacity are balanced
* Concentration Deepens
* The present is what matters
* Control is no problem
* Sense of time is altered
* Ego is lost
13
Part 3- 6 concrete application examples
of the flow theory
Flow & sports
* Athletes' preparation often apply
the priciples of mental coaching
and meditation and attitudes required
to "get in the zone" and fully
internalize mastery of the sport
* Conversely, most research suggests
anxiety is detrimental to performance
* Similar commonly used techniques
are:
Arousal regulation
Goal setting
Imagery
Pre-performance routines
Self-talk
Formula One driver Ayrton
Senna, after the 1988
Monaco Grand Prix:
“I was driving it by a kind of
instinct, only I was in a
different dimension. It was
like I was in a tunnel."
14
Part 3- 6 concrete application examples
of the flow theory
What are the symptoms:
Merging of action and awareness
"I was in a heated discussion on a chat network, I cannot
remember what the subject was about, but all I knew was I
was totally blind to the world."
A Loss of Self-Consciousness
"I feel agitated and compelled to get the job done to the
point of ignoring hunger, thirst or the need to go to the
bathroom."
Sense of Time Distortion
“Time went by extremely fast. Two hours had passed before
I had ever realized it. I was quite shocked that so much time
had passed without me being aware of it."
15
Flow & internet: Researchers suggest that using the internet can cause a flow
state for users: Surfing, reading, chatting, ...
Part 3- 6 concrete application examples
of the flow theory
16
Flow in gaming: Sweetser & Wyeth’s
model provides an integrated account of
enjoyment of entertainment games.
* Included eight dimensions: challenge,
player skills, concentration, control, goal
clarity, feedback, immersion and social
interaction
* Fu, Su and Yu (2005) added a knowledge
improvement scale to their EGameFLow model
to measure “the level of enjoyment brought to
the learner by e-learning games”.
Csikszentmihalyi wrote: ‘...enjoyable activities that produce
flow have a potentially negative effect: while they are capable
of improving the quality of existence by creating order in the
mind, they can become addictive, at which point the self
becomes captive of a certain kind of order, and is then
unwilling to cope with the ambiguities of life'.
Part 4- Danger and risks? 17
Watch out!
* workaholic managers or employees
* hobbies and passion “eating away” sleeping time
* too much time surfing the internet
* over-exercising as a result of distorted body image (or
dysmorphia)
* children playing PC games all day instead of enjoying time
outside
Clarify your challenges
* How challenging is your work?
* Have you talked to your supervisor about more
challenging activities?
* Any non-work related challenges? Passion, hobbies?
Personal Action Plan / My Take-away's
When do you reach a state of flow in your ideal week?
Do you reserve undisturbed time in your personal agenda?
18
Define your expertise
* Do you know what are your personal strength? See
character strength questionnaire in the reference page
* What is your undisputed domain of expertise? What
are you a master of?
Click on the screen
* wikipedia.com
* edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Flow_theory
* youtube: flow thinking allowed
* Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988), "The flow experience and its significance for
human psychology", in Csikszentmihalyi, M., Optimal experience: psychological
studies of flow in consciousness, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp.
15–35, ISBN 978-0-521-43809-4
* Dr Elizabeth Boyle, A review of outcomes and impacts of playing computer
games, University of the West of Scotland, High Street
* Ezra Holland, CEO, Ezra Holland Consulting (EHC), Going Beyond Enhancing the
Workplace, Faculty of San Francisco State University
Sources and References 19
Participant notes
20
In the note section of this slide

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Experience flow-

  • 1. Part 4- Danger and risks? Experience "Flow" Part 1- What describes the mental state of flow? Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? Part 3- 6 concrete applications examples Explore - Learn - Grow Do you know your Happiness Score? Get your Life Satisfaction Report. Free, no registration required. I Contact
  • 2. Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? Originally introduced by Mihály Csíkszentmihályiu Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person in an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. 2
  • 3. Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? 2
  • 4. * Csikszentmihalyi describes flow as "being completely involved in an activity for its own sake. Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? Can you think of any activities during which time disappears, you are completely absorbed into what you are doing? 3 * The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. Your whole being is involved, and you're using your skills to the utmost." * People enter a flow state when they are fully absorbed in activity during which they lose their sense of time and have feelings of great satisfaction.
  • 5. How does it feel? * Completely involved, focused, concentrating - with this either due to innate curiosity or as the result of training * Sense of ecstasy - of being outside everyday reality * Great inner clarity - knowing what needs to be done and how es its own reward Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? 4 * Knowing the activity is doable - that the skills are adequate, and neither anxious or bored * Sense of serenity - no worries about self, feeling of growing beyond the boundaries of ego * Timeliness - thoroughly focused on present, don't notice time * Intrinsic motivation - whatever produces "flow" becomes its own reward
  • 6. How does it feel? * Completely involved * Sense of ecstasy * Great inner clarity * Knowing the activity is doable * Sense of serenity * Timeliness * Intrinsic motivation Part 1- What is the mental state of flow ? Have you ever felt like this? What were you doing? Can you replicate it? 5
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  • 8. Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? 1. Clear goals Expectations and rules are discernible and goals are attainable and align with one's skill set and abilities. 2. High concentration A person engaged in the activity will have the opportunity to focus and to delve deeply into it). 3. Feeling of self- consciousness The merging of action and awareness. Action with awareness fades into action alone. 4. Distorted sense of time One's subjective experience of time is altered. 5. Direct and immediate feedback Successes and failures in the course of the activity are apparent, so that behavior can be adjusted 6
  • 9. Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? 6. Balance between ability and challenge The activity is neither too easy nor too difficult 7. Control A sense of personal control over the situation or activity. 8. Reward The activity is intrinsically rewarding, so there is an effortlessness of action. 9. A lack of awareness of bodily needs To the extent that one can reach a point of great hunger or fatigue without realizing it 10. Absorption into the activity Narrowing of the focus of awareness down to the activity itself, action awareness merging 7
  • 10. Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? In summary, to achieve flow, focus on doing something: * you are really good at → right skills & abilities * really challenging → right challenge Next page describes this model in more details 8
  • 11. Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? * optimum skills * right challenge 9
  • 12. Part 2- How to achieve a state of flow? 10 1) List your most common activities of the week 2) Plot them in the graph 3) When are you in a state of flow?
  • 13. Part 3- 6 concrete application examples of the flow theory Flow in education * create instructional design models that favor intrinsic motivation * develop teaching that generates enthusiasm, enhances concentration and favors creativity * Csíkszentmihályi and psychologist Kevin Rathunde studied student experiences in Montessori versus traditional settings and traditional educational settings. Research reported that students achieved flow experiences more frequently in Montessori settings. Element How flow helps design learning challenge & curiosity an activity should trigger curiosity and allow the learner at the same time to formulate goals, while preserving some element of surprise regarding the outcome. control levels to play (in gaming), technical difficulties in project, some liberty to select goals strategies & tactics fantasy imagination and freedom (make believe + voluntary activity) feedback clear and immediate feedback should be provided if the goal or not has been reached. self- esteem tasks should be adapted (see above) and encouragement to learn & augment results should be provided. 11
  • 14. Part 3- 6 concrete application examples of the flow theory Flow & music * Research has shown that performers in a flow state have a heightened quality of performance * Flow can be experienced individually or in a group of musicians (example on the left) * See book from Parncutt, Richard & McPherson, Gary E. (2002), The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, Oxford University Press US, p. 119, ISBN 978-0- 19-513810-8 Groups of drummers experience a state of flow when they sense a collective energy that drives the beat, something they refer to as getting into the groove. 12
  • 15. Part 3- 6 concrete application examples of the flow theory Flow in the business 1- Did you identify the interests and strengths of your employees? How do you up-skill them? 2- Did you assign challenging but achievable goals? 3- Do you have some hours in the week where you are able to work in a state of flow? In your area of expertise, undisturbed, well defined activities related to your goals Flow is reflected in the elements of good leadership: * Goals are clear * Feedback is immediate * Opportunity and capacity are balanced * Concentration Deepens * The present is what matters * Control is no problem * Sense of time is altered * Ego is lost 13
  • 16. Part 3- 6 concrete application examples of the flow theory Flow & sports * Athletes' preparation often apply the priciples of mental coaching and meditation and attitudes required to "get in the zone" and fully internalize mastery of the sport * Conversely, most research suggests anxiety is detrimental to performance * Similar commonly used techniques are: Arousal regulation Goal setting Imagery Pre-performance routines Self-talk Formula One driver Ayrton Senna, after the 1988 Monaco Grand Prix: “I was driving it by a kind of instinct, only I was in a different dimension. It was like I was in a tunnel." 14
  • 17. Part 3- 6 concrete application examples of the flow theory What are the symptoms: Merging of action and awareness "I was in a heated discussion on a chat network, I cannot remember what the subject was about, but all I knew was I was totally blind to the world." A Loss of Self-Consciousness "I feel agitated and compelled to get the job done to the point of ignoring hunger, thirst or the need to go to the bathroom." Sense of Time Distortion “Time went by extremely fast. Two hours had passed before I had ever realized it. I was quite shocked that so much time had passed without me being aware of it." 15 Flow & internet: Researchers suggest that using the internet can cause a flow state for users: Surfing, reading, chatting, ...
  • 18. Part 3- 6 concrete application examples of the flow theory 16 Flow in gaming: Sweetser & Wyeth’s model provides an integrated account of enjoyment of entertainment games. * Included eight dimensions: challenge, player skills, concentration, control, goal clarity, feedback, immersion and social interaction * Fu, Su and Yu (2005) added a knowledge improvement scale to their EGameFLow model to measure “the level of enjoyment brought to the learner by e-learning games”.
  • 19. Csikszentmihalyi wrote: ‘...enjoyable activities that produce flow have a potentially negative effect: while they are capable of improving the quality of existence by creating order in the mind, they can become addictive, at which point the self becomes captive of a certain kind of order, and is then unwilling to cope with the ambiguities of life'. Part 4- Danger and risks? 17 Watch out! * workaholic managers or employees * hobbies and passion “eating away” sleeping time * too much time surfing the internet * over-exercising as a result of distorted body image (or dysmorphia) * children playing PC games all day instead of enjoying time outside
  • 20. Clarify your challenges * How challenging is your work? * Have you talked to your supervisor about more challenging activities? * Any non-work related challenges? Passion, hobbies? Personal Action Plan / My Take-away's When do you reach a state of flow in your ideal week? Do you reserve undisturbed time in your personal agenda? 18 Define your expertise * Do you know what are your personal strength? See character strength questionnaire in the reference page * What is your undisputed domain of expertise? What are you a master of?
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  • 22. * wikipedia.com * edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Flow_theory * youtube: flow thinking allowed * Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988), "The flow experience and its significance for human psychology", in Csikszentmihalyi, M., Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–35, ISBN 978-0-521-43809-4 * Dr Elizabeth Boyle, A review of outcomes and impacts of playing computer games, University of the West of Scotland, High Street * Ezra Holland, CEO, Ezra Holland Consulting (EHC), Going Beyond Enhancing the Workplace, Faculty of San Francisco State University Sources and References 19
  • 23. Participant notes 20 In the note section of this slide