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EXPECTANCY
THEORY OF
MOTIVATION
Expectancy
Theory
• Proposed byVictor
Vroom in 1964
• Focuses on the thought
process behind
motivation
• How does the work
help the employee
meet their own goals?
Four Assumptions
• People choose jobs based on their
needs and past experiences
• Behavior/Actions (work effort) is
dictated by conscious choices
• What motivates people is different for
each individual
• People will work to optimize their
personal benefits when given options
EMPLOYEES NEED TO SEE
A RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN THEIR WORK
AND THE ATTAINMENT OF
THEIR PERSONAL GOALS
EFFORT AND EXPECTANCY
Are the goals attainable?
Effort and Expectancy
• Expectancy is the assessment of the work
needed to complete a job or task
• The probability of 0 means the employee
does not believe the effort will lead to an
acceptable outcome
• A probability of 1 means that the employee
believes that an acceptable outcome is almost
certain to be met and the employee sees a
relationship between their level of effort and
their personal goals
PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUMENTALITY
Will high performance lead to the reward?
Performance and Instrumentality
• Instrumentality is where the employee makes
estimates about how much their task performance
relates to receiving the reward
• The employee should be able to see a relationship
between how well they perform and the personal
rewards they receive in order to increase their
motivation
• If an employee perceives that a relationship between
their performance always exists, the probability of it
existing on new tasks is nearly certain and would be a 1
REWARD AND VALENCE
Is the reward in line with my goals?
Reward and Valence
• Valence is how much an employee prefers
certain rewards over other rewards
• The employee may consider multiple rewards
and choose the one that most meets their
personal goals
• Valence can be shown on a scale that ranges
from -1 to 1; with a 0-level valence being
indifferent to the award
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY EQUATION
Is the employee motivated?
Motivational Level
• Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x
Valence
– M = E x I xV
• Using the probabilities for expectancy,
instrumentality, and valence, you can
calculate how motivated employees are
Source: Luneneburg, F.C. (2011) ExpectancyTheory of
Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations.
Retrieved From
http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal
%20Volumes/Luneneburg,%20Fred%20C%20Expectan
cy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJ
MBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf
Joshua Render
Vroom’s ExpectancyTheory:
https://agile-mercurial.com/2019/07/08/vrooms-expectancy-theory-of-motivation/
https://agile-mercurial.com/
https://twentyfirstcenturyworkforce.com/

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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

  • 2.
  • 3. Expectancy Theory • Proposed byVictor Vroom in 1964 • Focuses on the thought process behind motivation • How does the work help the employee meet their own goals?
  • 4. Four Assumptions • People choose jobs based on their needs and past experiences • Behavior/Actions (work effort) is dictated by conscious choices • What motivates people is different for each individual • People will work to optimize their personal benefits when given options
  • 5. EMPLOYEES NEED TO SEE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR WORK AND THE ATTAINMENT OF THEIR PERSONAL GOALS
  • 6. EFFORT AND EXPECTANCY Are the goals attainable?
  • 7. Effort and Expectancy • Expectancy is the assessment of the work needed to complete a job or task • The probability of 0 means the employee does not believe the effort will lead to an acceptable outcome • A probability of 1 means that the employee believes that an acceptable outcome is almost certain to be met and the employee sees a relationship between their level of effort and their personal goals
  • 8. PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUMENTALITY Will high performance lead to the reward?
  • 9. Performance and Instrumentality • Instrumentality is where the employee makes estimates about how much their task performance relates to receiving the reward • The employee should be able to see a relationship between how well they perform and the personal rewards they receive in order to increase their motivation • If an employee perceives that a relationship between their performance always exists, the probability of it existing on new tasks is nearly certain and would be a 1
  • 10. REWARD AND VALENCE Is the reward in line with my goals?
  • 11. Reward and Valence • Valence is how much an employee prefers certain rewards over other rewards • The employee may consider multiple rewards and choose the one that most meets their personal goals • Valence can be shown on a scale that ranges from -1 to 1; with a 0-level valence being indifferent to the award
  • 12. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY EQUATION Is the employee motivated?
  • 13. Motivational Level • Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence – M = E x I xV • Using the probabilities for expectancy, instrumentality, and valence, you can calculate how motivated employees are
  • 14. Source: Luneneburg, F.C. (2011) ExpectancyTheory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations. Retrieved From http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal %20Volumes/Luneneburg,%20Fred%20C%20Expectan cy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJ MBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf Joshua Render Vroom’s ExpectancyTheory: https://agile-mercurial.com/2019/07/08/vrooms-expectancy-theory-of-motivation/ https://agile-mercurial.com/ https://twentyfirstcenturyworkforce.com/