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  Expanding Our Reach Into The Solar System  Prof. G. Scott Hubbard, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Stanford University  April 15, 2010
Space Exploration: Humans or Robots? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Astrobiology - the Scientific Heart of Space Exploration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exploring Mars: Following the Water Why Mars?  It is the most Earth-like of the planets  The most likely to have past or present life Reachable every 26 months Why Water?  Liquid water is required for life as we know it.  Climate Life Common Thread Human Exploration Geology W A T E R When Where Form Amount
Today’s Robotic Mars Exploration Program Redefined in October 2000 after twin failures in 1999 A science-driven effort to characterize and understand Mars as a dynamic system, including its present and past environment, climate cycles, geology, and biological potential.  Central among the questions to be asked is…   “ Did life ever arise on Mars?” The science strategy is known as “Follow the Water.” Mars Global Surveyor Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Odyssey Phoenix Scout Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Science Laboratory
Mars Odyssey Finds Water Ice From Orbit Measurements show strong evidence of underground water ice
Mars Phoenix Confirms Polar Ice! ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Water Picture from  Mars Global Surveyor Flat northern hemisphere may represent the location of a large ancient ocean. Minerals consistent with long exposure to water
Mars Rovers Find the Water Minerals! 5th year of operations!! “ Berries” of minerals that on Earth are always associated with liquid water
Next: 2011 Mars Science Laboratory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Rover Family Tree
Human/Robot Comparison ,[object Object],[object Object],Drove 36 km in 20 hours of EVA (less time driving) Collected 110 kgs of rocks from 30 sites; analysis still ongoing The Spirit rover drove 3.6 km in 8 months and examined roughly 25 rocks. It cannot collect rocks.
Challenges of Human Exploration of Mars Technology must be available  Must be affordable in budgetary and human terms The biomedical problem must be solved $$$ +
IT Challenges for Space Exploration  Beyond LEO ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mars Sample Return Campaign Mars Orbit Rendezvous Return to Earth Lander to the Surface ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Future of Space Exploration:  Searching for Life with Humans and Robots Together

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Expanding Our Reach Into the Solar System by Prof. G. Scott Hubbard

  • 1. Expanding Our Reach Into The Solar System Prof. G. Scott Hubbard, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Stanford University April 15, 2010
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Exploring Mars: Following the Water Why Mars? It is the most Earth-like of the planets The most likely to have past or present life Reachable every 26 months Why Water? Liquid water is required for life as we know it. Climate Life Common Thread Human Exploration Geology W A T E R When Where Form Amount
  • 5. Today’s Robotic Mars Exploration Program Redefined in October 2000 after twin failures in 1999 A science-driven effort to characterize and understand Mars as a dynamic system, including its present and past environment, climate cycles, geology, and biological potential. Central among the questions to be asked is… “ Did life ever arise on Mars?” The science strategy is known as “Follow the Water.” Mars Global Surveyor Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Odyssey Phoenix Scout Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Science Laboratory
  • 6. Mars Odyssey Finds Water Ice From Orbit Measurements show strong evidence of underground water ice
  • 7.
  • 8. The Water Picture from Mars Global Surveyor Flat northern hemisphere may represent the location of a large ancient ocean. Minerals consistent with long exposure to water
  • 9. Mars Rovers Find the Water Minerals! 5th year of operations!! “ Berries” of minerals that on Earth are always associated with liquid water
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Challenges of Human Exploration of Mars Technology must be available Must be affordable in budgetary and human terms The biomedical problem must be solved $$$ +
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. The Future of Space Exploration: Searching for Life with Humans and Robots Together

Editor's Notes

  1. Add movie
  2. Goal 1 -- Life: Determine if life ever arose on Mars Determine if life exists today Determine if life existed on Mars in the past Assess the extent of prebiotic organic chemical evolution on Mars Goal 2 -- Climate Characterize Mars’ present climate and climate processes Characterize Mars’ ancient climate and climate processes Goal 3 -- Geology Determine the geological processes that have resulted in formation of the Martian crust and surface Characterize the structure, dynamics, and history of Mars interior Goal 4 -- Prepare for human exploration Acquire Martian environmental data set (such as radiation) Conduct in-situ engineering/science demonstration Establish infrastructure for future missions
  3. With goals to detect health hazards for future human space explorers, to discover what our neighboring planet is made of, and to find buried water ice in the shallow subsurface of Mars, the 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter has achieved mission success. "As of August 24, 2004, the end date for its primary mission, Odyssey has officially fulfilled its science goals, and we look forward to refining our understanding of the red planet throughout an extended mission," said Dr. Jeff Plaut, Odyssey project scientist.
  4. TES 1km res
  5. Magellan was ripped apart in the Philippines. 260 sailors, 5 ships, 3 years later 1 ship returned with 16 men Magellan crews dying daily, and the living surviving by eating rats and boiled leather. Columbus: #1--3 ships, 104 men. Lost 2 ships and most of the men (40 killed in the new world) #2--With 17 ships, 1,200 men and boys #3The monarchs financed yet another voyage for Columbus. On May 30, 1498, Columbus set sail with six ships.= Columbus was arrested and sent back to Spain in chains. #4—10 years later with four ships and 150 crewmen, one being his 13-year-old son, Diego.
  6. 1--Columbia & Examples 2--Autonomy--SCIP for MSL ‘09 Evolvable Design 3--Humans and robots Steve Squyres How to work with “Mule”/IVHM Reliable software 4--Future Where do humans and robots converge? Conclusion