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EVERYDAY SIMPLICITY  The Implications of Everyday Tasks For Ubiquitous Computing Applications   AMCIS 2007 Denver, Colorado, USA Florian Resatsch
Structure  Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies  Why Everyday Tasks & Everyday Simplicity? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation  Conclusions
Structure  Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies  Why Everyday Tasks & Everyday Simplicity? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation  Conclusions
Research & Case Studies in Ubiquitous Computing  We quickly started with  Near Field Communication  (NFC) as a main enabler for Ubiquitous Computing  The mobile phone can be perfectly used as a „ browser “ for RFID and real life data on it Mobile phones are  everyday  items New Nokia phones integrate  NFC  capabilities  Similar to high frequency RFID tags,  NFC works on a  13.56 MHz  frequency  Our case studys mostly use RFID or derivates for consumer applications (Example phone: Nokia 6131)
Case Study 1 – Mobile Prosumer  Display of relevant product information on the mobile phone. Modular and personalised information service at the point of sale Real-time monitoring of consumer behaviour Feedback channel producer and Retailer (CRM)
Case Study – The Mobile Sales Assistant (MSA) NFC/EPCIS Prototype  Supports sales assistants at the point of sale  May also be for use to customers Artifact difficult to built because of ONS/EPCIS  “ Let me check....” “ Do you  have these jeans in size 28?”
Case Study – News on the go  Contactless Competence Center Project Location User Tag Handelsblatt Content Handelsblatt Info Tag NFC enabled mobile Phone HTTP request with tag UID Handelsblatt content API/RSS TOUCH
Case Study – bluespot MAP  Picture copyright © Wall AG 2008
Case Study - Currently running in Frankfurt Germany  NFC Ticketing Service (Public Transport System) First  large scale  NFC user test in Europe  ( > 300 Participants) Methodology: Monthly online survey (duration: 3 months) Questionnaire / Evaluation on 7 topics  Picture copyright © RMV 2008
Research Setup  Learnings from several smaller case studies Mapping of hypotheses on large case studies -> Evaluation according learnings - Pilot studies  Mobile Prosumer RMV Retail ÖPNV Integrated Ubicomp System Public Space  Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5… easymeeting
Structure  Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies  Why Everyday Tasks & Everyday Simplicity? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation  Conclusions
What are everyday tasks and why are they important?  Everyday activities are  conceptually simple   Routine operations  performed on a daily basis – eating, meeting with friends Structure of everyday activities  minimizes planning and mental computation   An everyday task is  rather boring , so we want to get it over with as quickly as possible  (Examples: Buying tickets for public transport, payment at supermarket) An everyday task must therefore have either  few choices at any point   Everyday tasks are an important area for Ubiquitous Computing (Support people) (Sources: Maeda 2007, Norman 2005, Norman 1988) Imagesource: forum.stanford.edu/.../photos/ng_robotplate.jpg  Robot learns to grasp everyday chores
Example: Decision Trees as Starting Point (Ice cream) (Norman 1999) a1 a2 a3 a4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 b Shallow decision tree Narrow decision tree First decision  Further choices  1 2 a exit exit exit exit exit
Structure  Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies  Why Everyday Tasks? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation  Conclusions
Ubicomp - Design Set 1 Norman states classic design principles that make everyday design understandable (Norman, 1988).  Visibility:   The user can immediately tell the state of the device and the alternatives for action.  Conceptual model:   Consistency in the presentation of operations and a coherent system image.  Mappings:   The relationship between system state and what is visible, between controls and their effects, and between actions and actual results must be clear and easy to determine.  Feedback:  Full and continuous feedback about every action.
Ubicomp – Design Set 2 Dey states three features of a context-aware application   (Dey, 2001) : Presentation  of information and services automatic execution  of a service  tagging of context  to information to support later retrieval   www3.sympatico.ca/spacesbyrohan/context.html
Ubicomp – Design Set 3 Marc Langheinrich stated four principles for use in Ubicompp environments (Langheinrich, 2002): Notice:  A Ubicompp environment needs mechanisms to declare collection practices, but also efficient ways to communicate these to the user. Choice and consent:  In order to give users a true choice, we need to provide a selection mechanism so that users can indicate which services they prefer. Proximity and locality:  The system should support mechanisms to encode and use locality information for collected data that can enforce access restrictions. Access and recourse:  The system needs to provide a way for users to access their personal information in a simple way through standardized interfaces. Users should be informed about the usage of their data once it is stored […].
Combined to Ubicomp Design – Criteria Sets
Structure  Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies  Why Everyday Tasks? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation  Conclusions
Paper Case Study -> „easymeeting“? Easymeeting is a NFC prototype and case study that was conducted in 2006/2007 Simple NFC  meeting room management  Emphasis on  unobtrusive use of technology  since meetings have a personal and social character   Purpose of the case study was to  show the feasibility  of developing everyday task Ubicomp applications  and… to research if  certain design criteria  can be incorporated and evaluate the system
Prototype and location in meeting room (Organization 1)
The paper prototype
Example: Refill coffee Touch & receive Coffee
 
 
IT architecture overview Nokia 6131 NFC Discover tag Perform action according stored ID SMS2EMail  Gateway Convert incoming SMS to email  and forward to predefined adress  Microsoft  Exchange Server Receive e-Mail on Server and  process rule  E-Mail Client Webbrowser Receive e-Mail or SMS on local client and webbrowser (ticketing) Initiate real world process  User interaction Technical process User interaction Mobile phone
Evaluation  *(Venkatesh 2004) n=37 with n1=22 (O1) and n2=15 (O2) Sample number Random Sample type Two organizations with 25 employees (O1) up to 300 employees (O2) Universe Quantitative: Interval 5-item-scale (Mostly UTAUT* Items) Qualitative: Questionnaire survey  Measuring method  December 19 th  2006 to February 6 th  2007 Period Personal interview with questionnaire Method of data collection Quantitative/qualitative survey Research framework
Evaluation – Highlights (Quantitative) Only  2.7% considered themselves to be very knowledgeable  about  RFID/NFC , while the majority of  24.3% knew nothing  about RFID/NFC and 21.6% only very little.  On performance expectancy,  32.4% found easymeeting very useful for their work  (strongly agree).  Attitude toward the technology was also positive, with 35.1% strongly agreed to the statement  “I like more applications such as easymeeting ” Facilitating conditions: Although most of the participants rated their knowledge of RFID/NFC on a scale from 1 = none at all to 3 = neutral,  78% felt capable of using the application (see next slide).   This shows that knowledge on RFID/NFC is unnecessary for the usage of an Ubicomp application but also implies that the used design criteria enforced simplicity.
Evaluation
Evaluation – Highlights (Quantitative)  Ten participants had problems with the  OK button on the mobile phone  and others struggled with the  internal Nokia screensaver .  The prototype was attached to the wall in O1. Some said it would be better to  place the tags on the table  instead of the wall, because it is less obtrusive. Placing it on the table avoids unnecessary walking around during meetings.  The  built-in haptic feedback of the phone was considered helpful  in determining  visibility and feedback .  Interestingly in O2 the main argument against future usage, were the previously  introduced Blackberry handsets  without NFC The main problem for most users was the  location of the reader and antenna within the phone.
Structure  Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies  Why Everyday Tasks? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation  Conclusions
Conclusions It is very easy to set up a  cheap, simple, grassroots Ubicomp  information system with currently available standard components.  We believe that such  simple applications show a clear benefit to the user and lead to further adoption  of Ubicomp.   The system has had  no implications for the privacy concerns  of end-users (Business Setting -> good opportunity)  The design criteria obviously supported the development of the application. But: Future research needs to  evaluate more specific  and structured design principles in order to improve convenience of Ubicomp applications and the  correlation of one design criteria  to another.   In particular, the  simplicity of everyday tasks affords an opportunity to start a grassroots initiative in ”tagging” the world around us.
Every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination .  John Dewey Contact Florian Resatsch [email_address]

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Everyday simplicity - The Implications of Everyday Tasks For Ubiquitous Computing Applications by Florian Resatsch

  • 1. EVERYDAY SIMPLICITY The Implications of Everyday Tasks For Ubiquitous Computing Applications AMCIS 2007 Denver, Colorado, USA Florian Resatsch
  • 2. Structure Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies Why Everyday Tasks & Everyday Simplicity? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation Conclusions
  • 3. Structure Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies Why Everyday Tasks & Everyday Simplicity? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation Conclusions
  • 4. Research & Case Studies in Ubiquitous Computing We quickly started with Near Field Communication (NFC) as a main enabler for Ubiquitous Computing The mobile phone can be perfectly used as a „ browser “ for RFID and real life data on it Mobile phones are everyday items New Nokia phones integrate NFC capabilities Similar to high frequency RFID tags, NFC works on a 13.56 MHz frequency Our case studys mostly use RFID or derivates for consumer applications (Example phone: Nokia 6131)
  • 5. Case Study 1 – Mobile Prosumer Display of relevant product information on the mobile phone. Modular and personalised information service at the point of sale Real-time monitoring of consumer behaviour Feedback channel producer and Retailer (CRM)
  • 6. Case Study – The Mobile Sales Assistant (MSA) NFC/EPCIS Prototype Supports sales assistants at the point of sale May also be for use to customers Artifact difficult to built because of ONS/EPCIS “ Let me check....” “ Do you have these jeans in size 28?”
  • 7. Case Study – News on the go Contactless Competence Center Project Location User Tag Handelsblatt Content Handelsblatt Info Tag NFC enabled mobile Phone HTTP request with tag UID Handelsblatt content API/RSS TOUCH
  • 8. Case Study – bluespot MAP Picture copyright © Wall AG 2008
  • 9. Case Study - Currently running in Frankfurt Germany NFC Ticketing Service (Public Transport System) First large scale NFC user test in Europe ( > 300 Participants) Methodology: Monthly online survey (duration: 3 months) Questionnaire / Evaluation on 7 topics Picture copyright © RMV 2008
  • 10. Research Setup Learnings from several smaller case studies Mapping of hypotheses on large case studies -> Evaluation according learnings - Pilot studies Mobile Prosumer RMV Retail ÖPNV Integrated Ubicomp System Public Space Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5… easymeeting
  • 11. Structure Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies Why Everyday Tasks & Everyday Simplicity? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation Conclusions
  • 12. What are everyday tasks and why are they important? Everyday activities are conceptually simple Routine operations performed on a daily basis – eating, meeting with friends Structure of everyday activities minimizes planning and mental computation An everyday task is rather boring , so we want to get it over with as quickly as possible (Examples: Buying tickets for public transport, payment at supermarket) An everyday task must therefore have either few choices at any point Everyday tasks are an important area for Ubiquitous Computing (Support people) (Sources: Maeda 2007, Norman 2005, Norman 1988) Imagesource: forum.stanford.edu/.../photos/ng_robotplate.jpg Robot learns to grasp everyday chores
  • 13. Example: Decision Trees as Starting Point (Ice cream) (Norman 1999) a1 a2 a3 a4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 b Shallow decision tree Narrow decision tree First decision Further choices 1 2 a exit exit exit exit exit
  • 14. Structure Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies Why Everyday Tasks? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation Conclusions
  • 15. Ubicomp - Design Set 1 Norman states classic design principles that make everyday design understandable (Norman, 1988). Visibility: The user can immediately tell the state of the device and the alternatives for action. Conceptual model: Consistency in the presentation of operations and a coherent system image. Mappings: The relationship between system state and what is visible, between controls and their effects, and between actions and actual results must be clear and easy to determine. Feedback: Full and continuous feedback about every action.
  • 16. Ubicomp – Design Set 2 Dey states three features of a context-aware application (Dey, 2001) : Presentation of information and services automatic execution of a service tagging of context to information to support later retrieval www3.sympatico.ca/spacesbyrohan/context.html
  • 17. Ubicomp – Design Set 3 Marc Langheinrich stated four principles for use in Ubicompp environments (Langheinrich, 2002): Notice: A Ubicompp environment needs mechanisms to declare collection practices, but also efficient ways to communicate these to the user. Choice and consent: In order to give users a true choice, we need to provide a selection mechanism so that users can indicate which services they prefer. Proximity and locality: The system should support mechanisms to encode and use locality information for collected data that can enforce access restrictions. Access and recourse: The system needs to provide a way for users to access their personal information in a simple way through standardized interfaces. Users should be informed about the usage of their data once it is stored […].
  • 18. Combined to Ubicomp Design – Criteria Sets
  • 19. Structure Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies Why Everyday Tasks? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation Conclusions
  • 20. Paper Case Study -> „easymeeting“? Easymeeting is a NFC prototype and case study that was conducted in 2006/2007 Simple NFC meeting room management Emphasis on unobtrusive use of technology since meetings have a personal and social character Purpose of the case study was to show the feasibility of developing everyday task Ubicomp applications and… to research if certain design criteria can be incorporated and evaluate the system
  • 21. Prototype and location in meeting room (Organization 1)
  • 23. Example: Refill coffee Touch & receive Coffee
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. IT architecture overview Nokia 6131 NFC Discover tag Perform action according stored ID SMS2EMail Gateway Convert incoming SMS to email and forward to predefined adress Microsoft Exchange Server Receive e-Mail on Server and process rule E-Mail Client Webbrowser Receive e-Mail or SMS on local client and webbrowser (ticketing) Initiate real world process User interaction Technical process User interaction Mobile phone
  • 27. Evaluation *(Venkatesh 2004) n=37 with n1=22 (O1) and n2=15 (O2) Sample number Random Sample type Two organizations with 25 employees (O1) up to 300 employees (O2) Universe Quantitative: Interval 5-item-scale (Mostly UTAUT* Items) Qualitative: Questionnaire survey Measuring method December 19 th 2006 to February 6 th 2007 Period Personal interview with questionnaire Method of data collection Quantitative/qualitative survey Research framework
  • 28. Evaluation – Highlights (Quantitative) Only 2.7% considered themselves to be very knowledgeable about RFID/NFC , while the majority of 24.3% knew nothing about RFID/NFC and 21.6% only very little. On performance expectancy, 32.4% found easymeeting very useful for their work (strongly agree). Attitude toward the technology was also positive, with 35.1% strongly agreed to the statement “I like more applications such as easymeeting ” Facilitating conditions: Although most of the participants rated their knowledge of RFID/NFC on a scale from 1 = none at all to 3 = neutral, 78% felt capable of using the application (see next slide). This shows that knowledge on RFID/NFC is unnecessary for the usage of an Ubicomp application but also implies that the used design criteria enforced simplicity.
  • 30. Evaluation – Highlights (Quantitative) Ten participants had problems with the OK button on the mobile phone and others struggled with the internal Nokia screensaver . The prototype was attached to the wall in O1. Some said it would be better to place the tags on the table instead of the wall, because it is less obtrusive. Placing it on the table avoids unnecessary walking around during meetings. The built-in haptic feedback of the phone was considered helpful in determining visibility and feedback . Interestingly in O2 the main argument against future usage, were the previously introduced Blackberry handsets without NFC The main problem for most users was the location of the reader and antenna within the phone.
  • 31. Structure Current Ubiquitous Computing Studies Why Everyday Tasks? Design Principles of Everyday Tasks Case Study Easymeeting and Evaluation Conclusions
  • 32. Conclusions It is very easy to set up a cheap, simple, grassroots Ubicomp information system with currently available standard components. We believe that such simple applications show a clear benefit to the user and lead to further adoption of Ubicomp. The system has had no implications for the privacy concerns of end-users (Business Setting -> good opportunity) The design criteria obviously supported the development of the application. But: Future research needs to evaluate more specific and structured design principles in order to improve convenience of Ubicomp applications and the correlation of one design criteria to another. In particular, the simplicity of everyday tasks affords an opportunity to start a grassroots initiative in ”tagging” the world around us.
  • 33. Every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination . John Dewey Contact Florian Resatsch [email_address]