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Group Term Paper: Land Administration Practices, Challenges and
Gaps in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Department of Land Administration Surveying
MSc in Geomatics
Course: Fundamentals of Land Administration (GMLa 5011)
March 2021
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
By:
1. Mamaru Wondifraw
2. Minyichil Teshome
3. Tadegew Sega
Submitted to: Dr. Achamyelh G. (Ass. Prof.)
Out
line
 Introduction
 Objective
 Specific objective
 Methodology
 Results and Discussion
 land tenure system in d/t times
 Before 1975
 During Derg Regim (1966 to 1983 E.C)
 Current land tenure system
 Challenges and gaps of land administration
 Organizational structure
 Conclusion and Recommendation
Introduction
• Land tenure system (or LAS) in different countries
can describes the social, and cultural background
national community and it governs the economical
development of state.
• In particular; the Ethiopian including Amhara
regional land tenure system have been undergone
numerous reforms over the century to reflect the
policies of different regimes.
Objective
General objective:
 The main objective of this term paper is to examine the
LA practices, challenges and gaps in Amhara Region,
Ethiopia .
Specific objectives:
 To assess the land tenure system
 To examine the gaps and challenges in the existing LAS
 To show the organizational structure of current LAS
Methods and Data Sources
 Methodology:
 Qualitative research approach is used.
 Data sources:
 Secondary sources (from online):
• Articles,
• Theses,
• Related Books,
• FDRE Constitutions,
• Rural Land Proclamation
Results and Discussion
 Land Tenure System
 Land tenure in Ethiopia has a long legacy of state intervention.
 It has plays a multi-dimensional relations in to:
 Social,
 Technical,
 Economic,
 Institutional,
 Legal and Political Aspects
Land Tenure System in Amhara Region
 Land tenure system in Amhara region has undergone
numerous reforms over different regimes.
 the Imperial period before1975,
 the Derg or Socialist Period (1966 – 1983E.C) and
 Current LTS (EPDRF Period Since 1983 E.C)
Under imperial Regime (up to 1974)
 Complex land tenure system due to d/t factors:
 Geographical,
 Ethnic Diversity,
 Cultural Diversity, and
 Historical Background
 Most commonly recognized tenure types are:
 Private (Rist Or “Gult” --- kinship),
 Church land tenure,
 State Holding Systems (‘maderiya’ and ‘mengist’).
Private: (The rist system)
 The dominant tenure system in Amhara region.
Access to land (use rights & transfer rights without land
alienation) for offspring's from a common ancestor.
 Reduced landlessness and tenancy
Whereas,
 diminution of holdings, land fragmentation and
persistent litigation over land access were among its
serious problems.
Gult /grant system/
 Gult is not a right on the land, rather a right to tax the
benefits from land.
 Gult is not transferable whereas rist is transferable.
• Referred to as ‘gebbar tenures’.
 Recognized as the most dominant system during the
final days of the Imperial regime.
Church tenure/ Samon land tenure
Land owned by the church obtained through grants
from the crown.
 The extent of church holdings was not clearly
known due to:
• Complexity form of church ownership,
• Decentralization nature of ownership and
• Secrecy of the church’s central treasury.
State/ government land tenure
 land is owned by the government
 Mengist land tenure:
 land registered as government property.
 Maderia land tenure:
• land granted mainly to:
 Government officials,
 War veterans, and
 Other patriots in lieu of a pension or salary
….
 The major problems of land tenure under this regime
include:
• Exploitative Tenancy,
• Land Concentration And Underutilization,
• Tenure Insecurity,
• Diminution And Fragmentation Of holdings.
During the Derg Regime (1974 - 1991)
 Based on proclamation on (No 31/1975) “Public Ownership of
Rural Land” nationalized all rural land redistribute it to its tillers
and to organize farmers in cooperatives, thereby abolishing
exploitative landlord-tenant relations so pertinent under the
imperial regime.
• All Land was under state ownership (nationalization).
– The government nationalized rural land without compensation,
• Equity and giving access to land to all
…..
The proclamation prohibits on transfer-of-use rights
by:
• Sale,
• Exchange,
• Succession,
• Mortgage or lease, except upon death and only then to a
wife, husband or children of the deceased; and
 In the case of communal lands, possession rights over the land
are given for those working the land at the time of the reform.
Most Commonly Land Tenure Problems
Continuous land redistribution practice; thereby:
 Diminution and fragmentation of holdings,
 Tenure insecurity and all its consequences,
 Land degradation,
 Inefficient allocation of land by way of
restrictions on land transfer and
 Lack of appropriate land use and administration.
Current Land Tenure System
(After 1991)
The land issue was settled in favor of public ownership
of land based on EFDR con. art 40(3).
• Ownership of all rural and urban land,
• All natural resources,
is exclusively vested in the state and in the people of
Ethiopia.
….
 In current land tenure system the right:
• To rent or lease,
• To bequeath, and,
• Where the right of use expires - to remove his
property,
• Transfer his title, or claim compensation for it
are supported.
….
Title registration:
• In current land tenure system rural land title
registration is on progress in pilot woredas
across the region.
• Which secures land tenure and realize
sustainable land development.
Challenges and Gaps of Land
In practical there are no fundamental d/ces b/n the Derg
and the present government on rural land issues like:
• Land despite resolving system,
• Land use planning implementation,
• Land development planning,
• Inconsistency in registration B/N woredas,
• Sustainable planning and implementation….
Organizational Structure of LAS in
Amhara Regional State
Conclusion
Land tenure is an important part of social, political, and
economic structure.
land tenure system in Amhara region is highly influenced
by the cultural, ethnical, and social background of the
community.
 land tenure system were the main backbone for political
and religious as well as community elders throughout
different regimes.
Recommendation:
• Land tenure (LAS) is a very critical pillar for socio
politics stability so the region shall adopt a well defined
LAS to maintain land disputes and conflict interest so
as to achieve sustainable development.
• Best land use and development planning is necessary
to improve transparent land transactions for nonfarm
economy transition.
Evaluation of land administration challenges and gaps.pptx

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Evaluation of land administration challenges and gaps.pptx

  • 1. Group Term Paper: Land Administration Practices, Challenges and Gaps in Amhara Region, Ethiopia Department of Land Administration Surveying MSc in Geomatics Course: Fundamentals of Land Administration (GMLa 5011) March 2021 Bahir Dar, Ethiopia By: 1. Mamaru Wondifraw 2. Minyichil Teshome 3. Tadegew Sega Submitted to: Dr. Achamyelh G. (Ass. Prof.)
  • 2. Out line  Introduction  Objective  Specific objective  Methodology  Results and Discussion  land tenure system in d/t times  Before 1975  During Derg Regim (1966 to 1983 E.C)  Current land tenure system  Challenges and gaps of land administration  Organizational structure  Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 3. Introduction • Land tenure system (or LAS) in different countries can describes the social, and cultural background national community and it governs the economical development of state. • In particular; the Ethiopian including Amhara regional land tenure system have been undergone numerous reforms over the century to reflect the policies of different regimes.
  • 4. Objective General objective:  The main objective of this term paper is to examine the LA practices, challenges and gaps in Amhara Region, Ethiopia . Specific objectives:  To assess the land tenure system  To examine the gaps and challenges in the existing LAS  To show the organizational structure of current LAS
  • 5. Methods and Data Sources  Methodology:  Qualitative research approach is used.  Data sources:  Secondary sources (from online): • Articles, • Theses, • Related Books, • FDRE Constitutions, • Rural Land Proclamation
  • 6. Results and Discussion  Land Tenure System  Land tenure in Ethiopia has a long legacy of state intervention.  It has plays a multi-dimensional relations in to:  Social,  Technical,  Economic,  Institutional,  Legal and Political Aspects
  • 7. Land Tenure System in Amhara Region  Land tenure system in Amhara region has undergone numerous reforms over different regimes.  the Imperial period before1975,  the Derg or Socialist Period (1966 – 1983E.C) and  Current LTS (EPDRF Period Since 1983 E.C)
  • 8. Under imperial Regime (up to 1974)  Complex land tenure system due to d/t factors:  Geographical,  Ethnic Diversity,  Cultural Diversity, and  Historical Background  Most commonly recognized tenure types are:  Private (Rist Or “Gult” --- kinship),  Church land tenure,  State Holding Systems (‘maderiya’ and ‘mengist’).
  • 9. Private: (The rist system)  The dominant tenure system in Amhara region. Access to land (use rights & transfer rights without land alienation) for offspring's from a common ancestor.  Reduced landlessness and tenancy Whereas,  diminution of holdings, land fragmentation and persistent litigation over land access were among its serious problems.
  • 10. Gult /grant system/  Gult is not a right on the land, rather a right to tax the benefits from land.  Gult is not transferable whereas rist is transferable. • Referred to as ‘gebbar tenures’.  Recognized as the most dominant system during the final days of the Imperial regime.
  • 11. Church tenure/ Samon land tenure Land owned by the church obtained through grants from the crown.  The extent of church holdings was not clearly known due to: • Complexity form of church ownership, • Decentralization nature of ownership and • Secrecy of the church’s central treasury.
  • 12. State/ government land tenure  land is owned by the government  Mengist land tenure:  land registered as government property.  Maderia land tenure: • land granted mainly to:  Government officials,  War veterans, and  Other patriots in lieu of a pension or salary
  • 13. ….  The major problems of land tenure under this regime include: • Exploitative Tenancy, • Land Concentration And Underutilization, • Tenure Insecurity, • Diminution And Fragmentation Of holdings.
  • 14. During the Derg Regime (1974 - 1991)  Based on proclamation on (No 31/1975) “Public Ownership of Rural Land” nationalized all rural land redistribute it to its tillers and to organize farmers in cooperatives, thereby abolishing exploitative landlord-tenant relations so pertinent under the imperial regime. • All Land was under state ownership (nationalization). – The government nationalized rural land without compensation, • Equity and giving access to land to all
  • 15. ….. The proclamation prohibits on transfer-of-use rights by: • Sale, • Exchange, • Succession, • Mortgage or lease, except upon death and only then to a wife, husband or children of the deceased; and  In the case of communal lands, possession rights over the land are given for those working the land at the time of the reform.
  • 16. Most Commonly Land Tenure Problems Continuous land redistribution practice; thereby:  Diminution and fragmentation of holdings,  Tenure insecurity and all its consequences,  Land degradation,  Inefficient allocation of land by way of restrictions on land transfer and  Lack of appropriate land use and administration.
  • 17. Current Land Tenure System (After 1991) The land issue was settled in favor of public ownership of land based on EFDR con. art 40(3). • Ownership of all rural and urban land, • All natural resources, is exclusively vested in the state and in the people of Ethiopia.
  • 18. ….  In current land tenure system the right: • To rent or lease, • To bequeath, and, • Where the right of use expires - to remove his property, • Transfer his title, or claim compensation for it are supported.
  • 19. …. Title registration: • In current land tenure system rural land title registration is on progress in pilot woredas across the region. • Which secures land tenure and realize sustainable land development.
  • 20. Challenges and Gaps of Land In practical there are no fundamental d/ces b/n the Derg and the present government on rural land issues like: • Land despite resolving system, • Land use planning implementation, • Land development planning, • Inconsistency in registration B/N woredas, • Sustainable planning and implementation….
  • 21. Organizational Structure of LAS in Amhara Regional State
  • 22.
  • 23. Conclusion Land tenure is an important part of social, political, and economic structure. land tenure system in Amhara region is highly influenced by the cultural, ethnical, and social background of the community.  land tenure system were the main backbone for political and religious as well as community elders throughout different regimes.
  • 24. Recommendation: • Land tenure (LAS) is a very critical pillar for socio politics stability so the region shall adopt a well defined LAS to maintain land disputes and conflict interest so as to achieve sustainable development. • Best land use and development planning is necessary to improve transparent land transactions for nonfarm economy transition.